Why, according to Rashi, does the Pasuk mention the pain of rearing children before that of childbirth?
Sifsei Chachamim: Because at this point, they already had children (See Gemara, Sanhedrin, Daf 38b), in which case the next stage was bringing them up. 1
Seforno: "Itzvonech" refers to Dam Nidus (See also Targum Yonasan), and "be'Etzev Teildi Banim", to bringing up children, in which case the order is correct.
He also comments that in this point, the curse includes the fact that human parents have a more difficult job rearing children than any other living creature. Likewise, he explains, the curse of childbirth entailed an extended period, unlike before the sin, where the baby was born immediately after the intimacy - and so it will be once again in the days of Mashi'ach, as the Gemara states in Shabbos (30b).
In what way will Adam govern Chavah, when she has a desire for him?
Rashi: Despite a woman's strong desire for her husband, she will not have the guts to request intimacy; that will be in his domain. 1
Ramban: The Torah is referring to the fact that a woman's powerful desire for intimacy overrides the pain of pregnancy and causes her to be subservient to him like a slave to his master - and it is unnatural for a slave to willingly acquire a master over himself. 2
Targum Yonasan: He will govern her to merit and to sin (as he wishes). 3
Ramban questions Rashi, for it is considered a praiseworthy Midah that a woman does not demand intimacy.
This punishment is Midah k'Neged Midah - because Chavah got Adam to eat from the fruit, from now on, he will get her to do whatever he wants.
Midah k'Neged Midah, because she enticed him to sin. Some commentaries explain 'to merit and to sin' to mean whether it is good for her or bad for her, she will have to do as he says.
Hashem does not punish unless he warns first. Where was Chavah warned?
Moshav Zekenim (on Bereishis 2:16): "Va'Ytzav... Al ha'Adam Leimor" teaches that he was commanded to tell her.
Moshav Zekenim (ibid.): Hashem commanded all of Adam's limbs, so she was included.
Riva: She is included in "Adam", for it says "va'Yikra Es Shemam Adam."
Riva: "Va'Ytzav... Al ha'Adam", and not 'Es ha'Adam' includes everything that comes from Adam.
Why are her curses in this order?
Hadar Zekenim , Da'as Zekenim : She will have pain of work. Lest she say "I have slaves", she will have pregnancy. Lest she say "I will have easy births", she will give birth in pain. Lest she say "I will guard myself [from pregnancy]", she will desire her husband. Lest she say "I will control my desire", her husband will rule over her.
רש"י: זה צער גידול בנים: למה רש"י (והגמ' בעירובין) מפרשים כך, ולא כמו המדרש שמדובר על צער הווסתות?
גור אריה: הגמ' סברה שאין הקב"ה מביא דבר שהוא רע לגמרי [וצער הוסת אין בו תועלת], אלא טוב בדרך צער, ולכן פירשו שזה צער גידול בנים.
רש"י: אין לך מצח לתובעו: מנין לרש"י להוסיף זאת?
גור אריה: קשה היה לרש"י מה הקללה בתשוקת האשה? ועוד- מה הקללה ב"והוא ימשול בך" והרי גם קודם החטא נאמר שיהיה האיש כובש את האשה? אלא הכל ממנו ולה לא יהיה לה מצח לתבוע.