hebrew
1)

Why did Hashem say "Lo Ashchis" regarding 45, and "Lo E'eseh" regarding 40 and 30, and Lo Ashchis regarding 20 and 10?

1.

Da'as Zekenim, Hadar Zekenim, Rosh (verse 32): If there are 10 Tzadikim in every city, I will not punish at all. If there are nine and I must join Myself, I will not destroy, but I will afflict. If there are 10 in each of three or four cities (the majority), I will not punish at all [even the cities without Tzadikim]. If there are 10 Tzadikim in each of one or two cities (the minority), I will not destroy, but I will afflict.

2.

Moshav Zekenim (verse 23): First Hashem said that He will not destroy [even] the Resha'im (if there are at least 45 Tzadikim). Later, He said that He will not do [only] to the Tzadikim (but He will destroy the Resha'im). 1 '

3.

Seforno: 'Even if I must combine with each city, I will not destroy the worst city of the five. If three or four cities (the majority) are worthy, I will not punish them at all, only the other cities. If only one or two cities are worthy, I will not destroy them, but I will bring upon them suffering. 2


1

He did not explain why Hashem reverted to say Lo Ashchis regarding 20 and 10.

2

This is like it Berachos (58a) 'When Bavel was cursed, so were its neighbors'.

2)

Why did Avraham ask for 40, 30, 20 and 10?

1.

Rashi: If there are ten Tzadikim in each of four cities, those cities should be spared, and similarly for three, two and one.

2.

Moshav Zekenim: All his requests were to save all five cities.

3.

Targum Yonasan: Refer to 18:28:1:3.

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