What is the word "v'Gam" coming to teach us?
Rashi and Ramban #1: It is coming to teach us that the four nations who would later subjugate Yisrael (and who were hinted earlier 1 ), will also be punished for their abuse of Yisrael.
Ramban #2: In spite of the fact that the Egyptians will act upon My decree, Hashem is saying, they will be punished for going further than it; Because I decreed subservience, not drowning the babies and embittering Yisrael's lives. 2 That is why they will be punished by drowning - 'Midah ke'Neged Midah'. 3
Seforno: 'Just as I will punish Yisrael for their sins, so too, will I take the Egyptians 4 to task for subjugating Yisrael'.
Seeing as the Egyptians were merely carrying out Hashem's decree, on what grounds would Hashem punish them?
Ramban #1 citing Rambam: Because Hashem did not designate any particular nation to carry His decree, Pharaoh did so of his own choice (presumably out of hatred) and not in order to fulfill the Will of Hashem.
Ramban #2: Refer to 15:14:1:2.
To which punishment is the Pasuk referring?
Rashi: It is referring to the Ten Plagues, with which Hashem smote the Egyptians. 1
Ramban and Targum Yonasan 2 : It refers to the drowning of the Egyptians in the Reed Sea.
This is difficult to understand, since numerous Pesukim in Shmos, Va'eira and Bo indicate that the Ten Plagues case as a punishment for the Egyptians' refusal to send Yisrael away (See for example, the opening Pesukm in Bo).
He actually refers to two hundred and fifty Makos that the Egyptians suffered - a clear reference to the five-fold Makos at the Yam-Suf, according to the opinion of Rebbi Akiva in the Hagadah.
What are "the great possessions" to which the Pasuk is referring?
Rashi: It is referring to the silver and gold vessels and the clothes that Yisrael took out of Egypt when they left (emptying Egypt in the process).
According to the Ramban and Targum Yonasan 1 , unless this phrase is referring to the previous Pasuk (and not to the previous phrase in this Pasuk), it must allude to the booty of the Yam-Suf, which, as Chazal explain, exceeded what they took out of Egypt. 2
רש"י: בעשר מכות: אולי הכוונה כאן להעמדה בדין ולא לעונש?
גור אריה: לא מצאנו שהעמידם הקב"ה בדין אלא מדובר על העונש.
רש"י: בעשר מכות: למה כתב רש"י "בעשר מכות" ולא 'מכות' בסתם?
גור אריה: "דן" רומז לי' מכות כי "דן" ר"ת דם נגע (-המכה הראשונה והאחרונה).
רש"י: ברכוש גדול - בממון גדול: מה חידש רש"י כשפירש "בממון גדול"?
גור אריה: בדרך כלל 'רכוש' פרושו מה שהרויחו על ידי משא ומתן ולכן פירש שכאן הכוונה ל"ממון גדול".