What is the word, "v'Gam" coming to teach us?
Rashi and Ramban #1: It is coming to teach us that the four nations who would later subjugate Yisrael (and who were hinted to earlier 1 ), will also be punished for their abuse of Yisrael.
Ramban #2: HaSh-m is saying, "In spite of the fact that the Egyptians will act upon My decree, they will be punished for going further than I. I decreed subservience, not drowning the babies and embittering Yisrael's lives." 2 That is why they will be punished by drowning - "Midah k'Neged Midah." 3
Seforno: "Just as I will punish Yisrael for their sins, so too, will I take the Egyptians 4 to task for subjugating Yisrael."
Seeing as the Egyptians were merely carrying out HaSh-m's decree, on what grounds would HaSh-m punish them?
Ramban #1 (citing Rambam): Because HaSh-m did not designate any particular nation to carry His decree, Pharaoh did so of his own choice (presumably out of hatred) and not in order to fulfill the Will of HaSh-m.
Ramban #2: Refer to 15:14:1:2.
To which punishment is the Pasuk referring?
Ramban and Targum Yonasan: It refers to the drowning of the Egyptians in the Reed Sea (Yam Suf). 3
This is difficult to understand, since numerous Pesukim in Parshiyos Shemos, Va'eira and Bo indicate that the Ten Plagues came as a punishment for the Egyptians' refusal to send Yisrael away (See for example, Shemos 10:1-3).
Targum Yonasan refers to the two hundred and fifty Makos that the Egyptians suffered - a clear reference to the five-fold Makos at the Yam-Suf, according to the opinion of Rebbi Akiva in the Hagadah.
What are "the great possessions" to which the Pasuk is referring?
Rashi: It is referring to the silver and gold vessels and the clothes that Yisrael took out of Egypt when they left (emptying Egypt in the process).
Ramban and Targum Yonasan: "Afterwards they shall leave with great possessions." Based on their interpretation of the beginning of this Pasuk, 1 it must allude to the booty of the Yam-Suf, which, as Chazal explain, exceeded what they took out of Egypt. 2
QUESTIONS ON RASHI
Rashi writes: "'I shall judge (Dan Anochi)' - with Ten Plagues." What does Rashi clarify?
Gur Aryeh: The word "Dan" does not mean "bring to judgment," for we do not find that Egypt was made to stand judgment in the classic sense. Rather, "Dan" means "to exact punishment."
Rashi writes: "With Ten Plagues." Why does Rashi specify the number ten?
Gur Aryeh: The word "Dan" alludes to the Ten Plagues. Dalet stands for "Dam" (blood), and Nun for "Nega Echad" (Shemos 11:1), the first and last plague respectively.
Rashi writes: "With great wealth (Rechush) - with great money (Mamon)." What is Rashi clarifying?
Gur Aryeh: Usually in the Torah, the word "Rechush" means assets acquired though business. Here, this was not the case.