What, exactly, was the "Ein Mishpat (the Spring of Justice)"?
Targum Onkelus: It is a location where the judges of that country would convene to dispense justice. 1
Rashi and Targum Yonasan: It is the very location at which Moshe and Aharon were destined to be punished, many years later (which then became known as "Mei Merivah"). 2
What is Chatz'tzon Tamar better known as?
Rashi (in Divrei Hayamim 2, 20:2) and Targum Yonasan: Its more common name is Ein Gedi.
QUESTIONS ON RASHI
Rashi writes: "Ein Mishpat, which is Kadesh - so called because Moshe and Aharon would later be judged there; this is Mei Merivah." Ramban asks
Gur Aryeh: Midbar Kadesh is the general name for as vast area of desert, which included both Midbar Paran and Midbar Tzin, as well as a specific place called Kadesh-Barnea. 1
Gur Aryeh: The thirty-eight years wandering in the desert were spent half within Midbar Kadesh, and half wandering in its vicinity and then returning to Kadesh (Rashi to Devarim 1:46, based on Seder Olam). Therefore, they were still there in the 40th year. See also Tosfos to Shabbos 89a DH Midbar.
Rashi writes: "But Onkelus interprets 'Ein Mishpat' literally
Gur Aryeh #1: "Pilug Dina" means "the splitting of judgment" between the exonerated and guilty parties. We interpret "Ein Mishpat" as, "l'Ayein b'Mishpat," "to look [thoroughly] into judgment."
Gur Aryeh #2 (citing Ramban): "Pilug Dina" means "the depth of judgment," as in, "getting to the depths of the matter." "Ein Mishpat" is an analogy to a spring that emerges from the deep.
Rashi writes: "The fields of the Amalekim - Amalek had not yet been born; the Torah calls the location by its future name." Ramban asks