If, as is implied here, Kedorla'omer was the leader of the four kings, why does the Torah mention him third in 14:1?
Ramban: The four kings represent the four kingdoms that would subjugate Yisrael in the course of history. 1 Eilam (over which Kedorla'omer reigned) represents Yavan, the third of the four kingdoms (which began its rule over Eilam before spreading out over the world 2 ).
Why is Kedorla'omer singled out? Rashi writes: "Kedorla'omer came - Because he was the interested party, he exerted himself more." But perhaps he was the most important of the four?
Gur Aryeh: In verse 14:1, Amrafel is mentioned first, so Amrafel must have been the most important. 1
Who were the Refa'im and the Eimim?
Rashi (in Devarim): Bother are the awesome tribes described in Devarim - the former are so-called because whoever saw them turned weak from fear ('Yadav Misrapos'), 1 the latter, because everyone one terrified of them.
What is "Ahteros Karnayim"?
Rashi, Targum Onkelos and Targum Yonasan: It was the name of a town or towns 1 (so-called because of its tough terrain or because it was a mountainous region
See note in 'The Living Torah' for more details.
Why do we need to know that the four kings defeated all those mentioned in verses 14: 5-7, before fighting and defeating the five kings?
Seforno: Because they were all subservient to the five kings and were fighting on their behalf. It teaches us the power of the five kings, the might of the four kings, who overcame them, and the incredible (bravery), strength and strategic genius of Avraham Avinu, as well as the extent of his Midas ha'Chesed, how he went out of his way to save his wayward nephew and all his property. 1
QUESTIONS ON RASHI
Rashi writes: "'[Kedorla'omer] and the kings that were with him' - [i.e.] the three [aforementioned] kings." Perhaps there were more that joined as well?
Gur Aryeh: If so, they should have been introduced in verse 14:1. 1
Rashi writes: "The Zuzim - they are the 'Zamzumim' (mentioned in Devarim 2:20)." How does Rashi know this?
Gur Aryeh: The reason for the Torah's lengthy account of this war is to show the might of the four kings, who defeated such strong nations, and yet Avraham defeated even them. We are familiar with the strength of the Refa'im, Eimim, etc. (who are mentioned in our Perek), from Devarim Ch. 2-3. There would be no need to mention the Zuzim, unless they are the same Zamzumim described in Devarim as, "great, numerous and lofty as giants" (Devarim 2:21).