hebrew
1)

Why did Hashem switch the order from "I will bless those who bless you" to "Those who curse you I will curse?

1.

Kli Yakar: Hashem rewards already for a person's intention to perform a Mitzvah, but punishes only when he actually transgresses. Consequently, He is informing Avraham that He will bless those who intend to bless him even before they have done so, but He will only curse those who have actually cursed him.

2.

Kol Eliyahu, Divrei Eliyahu: An Ashir's Brachah is greater than an Oni's Brachah, and his curse is less than an Oni's. Those who bless you, I will bless them beforehand, so they will be Ashirim when they bless. Those who curse you, I will curse them afterwards, so they will be Ashirim when they curse.

2)

Why does the Torah repeat that all the families of the earth will be blessed through Avraham?

1.

Rashi: It means that people will say to their children 'Be like Avraham!'

2.

Ramban: Not only the people of Kena'an, but also the people all over world will be blessed due to Avraham.

3.

Targum Onkelus and Targum Yonasan: All the people in the land will be blessed due to Avraham Avinu.

4.

Rashbam, Da'as Zekenim: The Torah means that all the families of the world will (want to) join his family (from the word Mavrich - to graft).

3)

To whom does "Avarchah Mevarchecha" apply?

1.

Da'as Zekenim, from Chulin 49a: Kohanim will bless Yisrael, and Hashem will bless the Kohanim.

4)

Yitzchak first cursed those who will curse [Yakov], and then blessed those who bless him, for Tzadikim initially have afflictions, and serenity at the end (Rashi, Bereishis 27:29). Why did Hashem do oppositely?

1.

Moshav Zekenim (1): Hashem's Brachah is unlike a person's Brachah.

2.

Moshav Zekenim (2): Here in any case the end is serenity - "v'Nivrechu Vecha."

3.

Moshav Zekenim (3): Hashem wanted to put "Avarchah Mevarchecha" next to "ve'Heye Brachah."

5)

What is the benefit of cursing one who curses Avraham? It would be better to nullify the curse!

1.

Moshav Zekenim: Some people have a Mazel that their curses take effect even on a Tzadik. Now, all will fear to curse Avraham.

2.

Refer to 12:3:1:2.

6)

מה הטעם שמברכיו יתברכו ומקלליו יתקללו?

1.

מהר"ל (נצח ישראל פנ"ט, עמ' ריח' ד"ה ותדע): אברהם הוא שורש המציאות שהרי אלפיים שנות תורה התחילו באברהם, ומי שמקלל את המציאות מביא העדר מציאות לעצמו, ומי שמברך את המציאות ראוי לברכה בעצמו.

7)

בגמ' פרשו "ונברכו בך" על רות המואביה ונעמה העמונית שיתברכו בישראל (-לשון הרכבה וחיבור), "כל משפחות האדמה" אפילו משפחות הדרות באדמה מתברכות בשביל ישראל, וצריך ביאור למה בכך נתברכו ישראל?

1.

מהר"ל (חידושי אגדות ח"א עמ' קלו ד"ה אפילו משפחות, יבמות דף סג.): כל העולם ניזון בשביל ישראל כמו שכל הגוף ניזון מהלב, ואפי' אלו שדרים בתוך האדמה. וכן "שתי בריכות טובות יש לי להבריך בכם" כי ישראל הם האילן שממנו מתברכים כל הענפים.

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