12th Cycle dedication

CHULIN 60 (25 Av) - Dedicated by Mrs. G. Kornfeld for the eleventh Yahrzeit of her mother, Mrs. Gisela Turkel (Golda bas Chaim Yitzchak Ozer), an exceptional woman with an iron will who loved and respected the study of Torah.

[60a - 44 lines; 60b - 44 lines]

1)[line 1]אוקמיה להדי יומאUKMEI LA'HADEI YOMA- he made him stand opposite the sun

2)[line 3]דחד משמשיD'CHAD MESHAMSHEI- [the sun, which is] one of the servants [which stand and minister before HaSh-m]

3)[line 6]דאיצביתD'ITZBIS- [I want to] set up (prepare a meal)

4)[line 7]נפישי חילוותיהNEFISHEI CHEILVASEI- his troops are too numerous

5)[line 9]לגידא דרביתאL'GIDA D'REVISA- by the bank of the Revisa River

6)[line 9]דרויחא עלמאD'REVICHA ALMA- that there is a lot of room there

7)[line 9]שיתא ירחי קייטאSHITA YARCHEI KAITA- the six months of summer

8)[line 10]כנשיה לימאKANSHEI L'YAMA- it gathered it into the sea

9)[line 11]שיתא ירחי דסיתואSHITA YARCHEI D'SITVA- six months of winter

10)[line 12]כנושאיKENUSHA'EI- sweepers, cleaners

11)[line 13]זלוחאיZELUCHA'EI- sprinklers (earthen floors need to be sprinkled so that their dust does not rise into the air)

12)[line 15]נגראNAGRA- a carpenter

13)[line 16]מסתוריתאMISTORISA- (O.F. desvoltoirs) reel, winder

14)[line 17]לחייLECHAYEI- Very well!

15)[line 17]ואינגעהV'INGA'AH- and she became a leper

16)[line 20]וסתרV'SASAR- (O.F. desvuidier) and he would unwind

17)[line 20]דולליDOLELEI- (O.F. escagnes) skeins, loosely wound lengths of thread

18)[line 21]הוה קא חליף התםHAVAH KA CHALIF HASAM- he was passing by there

19)[line 23]שפירתאSHAPIRTA- it is good

20)[line 26]מיהב יהיבMEIHAV YAHIV- he surely gives

21)[line 27]כרסתןKARSASAN- large-bellied

22)[line 27]ופרסתןU'FARSASAN- and large-hooved

23)[line 27]ורב גנובתיהV'RAV GENUVSEI- and its tail is large

24)[line 28]למקח וממכרL'MEKACH U'MEMKAR- for commercial transactions; i.e. if one commits to sell to someone an ox without specifying any details, he must deliver an ox that has the abovementioned features, and if he commits to sell an unspecified donkey, he must deliver one that has the opposite features (RABEINU GERSHOM, ME'IRI)

25)[line 29]שור שהקריב אדם הראשוןSHOR SHE'HIKRIV ADAM HA'RISHON- the ox that Adam ha'Rishon offered (see Rashi to Tehilim 69:32). Rashi explains that the one-day-old ox that Adam offered had the characteristics of a Par (a two- or three-year-old bull, which may be offered as a Korban. An animal is not fit for a Korban until it is at least eight days old).

26)[line 34]קרניו קודמות לפרסותיוKARNAV KODMOS L'FARSOSAV- its horns preceded its hoofs. HaSh-m created the bull from the earth, along with the other land creatures, on the sixth day. Since it emerged head-first, standing, and in its adult form (see RASHI to Bereishis 1:25), its horns were created before its hoofs.

27)[line 37]בקומתן נבראוB'KOMASAN NIVRE'U- they were created (a) in their fully-grown and developed stages (RASHI, RITVA); (b) at the height that was fitting for them (RITVA)

28)[line 38]בצביונם נבראוB'TZIVYONAM NIVRE'U- they were created (a) with their distinct appearance and flavor (RASHI); (b) with their consent (RITVA); (c) with their fully developed beauty (ARUCH cited by the RITVA, TOSFOS)

29)[line 40]שר העולםSAR HA'OLAM- the name of a specific Mal'ach (angel)

30)[line 41]דשאיםDESHA'IM- different types of grass

31)[line 44]הרכיב שני דשאים זה על גב זהHIRKIV SHNEI DESHA'IM ZEH AL GAV ZEH- if someone grafted two types of herbage into each other (see Vayikra 19:19). The verse in Vayikra explains that the prohibition against cross-grafting reflects existing natural statutes that HaSh-m established at the time of Creation, when He commanded that the animals and trees come forth "each according to its kind" (Bereshis 1:11, 1:24). According to Rebbi Chanina bar Papa's assertion that although HaSh-m did not command herbage to come forth "each according to its kind" but it did so of its own accord, the Gemara examines whether it is subject to the cross-grafting prohibition.


32)[line 2]דהסכים אידיהוD'HISKIM A'YADAIHU- he agreed with them

33)[line 12]דשרגא בטיהרא מאי אהני?D'SHERAGA B'TIHARA MAI MEHANI?- what benefit does a candle give at noontime?

34)[line 13]יומאYOMA- the sun

35)[line 13]תקופותאTEKUFOSA- the calculations for the orbits of the sun and the moon (such as the calculation of the Molad, the new moon). Since the Torah requires that festivals fall in certain seasons, it authorizes the court to adjust the cycle of lunar months so that it will parallel the seasons of the solar year. The necessary adjustment is accomplished by adding an extra month in certain years.

36)[line 14]ליקרו צדיקי בשמיךLIKRU TZADIKEI B'SHMEICH- the righteous will be called by your name; i.e. just as you are called the lesser luminary, so, too, the righteous will be honored by having the title "the Small" added to their names

37)[line 15]"[ו]דוד [הוא] הקטן [ושלשה הגדלים הלכו אחרי שאול.]""[V']DAVID [HU] HA'KATAN [U'SHELOSHAH HA'GEDOLIM HALCHU ACHAREI SHAUL]" - "[And] David [was] the youngest (son of Yishai); [and the three oldest ones went after Shaul]." (Shmuel I 17:14) (David is not Conscripted)

(a)Although David was currently serving as Shaul's minstrel, playing before him when he was needed and returning home to his father Yishai when he was not, he was not conscripted since he was the youngest of Yishai's eight sons. (Evidently, it was customary to conscript only the oldest sons from each family.) David had been sent by his father to take provisions to his brothers serving in Shaul's army, which was encamped opposite the Pelishti camp, and to inquire after their wellbeing.

(b)David arrived just in time to hear the Pelishti champion, Golyas (Goliath), challenging - as he had been doing for the past month - any man from the Jewish camp to single combat, stipulating that the side of the loser of the dual would be subservient to the side of the winner.

(c)David was perturbed at the insults hurled by Golyas at the ranks of the army of the people of HaSh-m. He made inquiries as to what reward the Jewish champion could expect should he win.

(d)In reply to Shaul's attempt to dissuade him from fighting the Pelishti, David said that it was not in vain that he had recently attacked and killed both a lion and a bear that had taken a lamb from his flock. He now saw as a clear sign from Heaven that he would win here, too.

38)[line 19]במעלי שבתאB'MA'ALEI SHABATA- on Erev Shabbos

39)[line 22]ביזרניBIZRANEI- seeds

40)[line 23]השסועהHA'SHESU'AH- an animal with two backs and two spines. The Malbim (Vayikra 11:4) and ha'Kesav veha'Kabalah identify this as the Tayasau, or Peccary; a pig-like animal from South America. It has a compartmented stomach and split hooves (but does not chew its cud). On the middle of its back is a slit the depth of a finger-width, making it appear as if the back and spine are separated into two parts. (See, however, TOSFOS to Nidah 24a DH Rebbi Chanina, who asserts that it is simply a malformed animal and not a new species of animal.)

41)[line 24]קניגיKENIGI- a hunter

42)[line 24]בליסטריBELISTERI- (O.F. bersedor) archer

43)[line 28]ארונקיARUNKEI- distinguished ones

44)[line 30]שעיותוSHE'IVSU- that they corrupted

45)[line 30]שאיווSHE'IVU- that they desired

46)[line 31]אוחזתו עויתOCHAZTO AVIS- is seized with Avis (a sickness) [(O.F. cranpe) cramp]

47)[line 32]דרי שיניDAREI SHINEI- rows of teeth

48)[line 35]כפתוריםKAFTORIM- Kaftorians, the people of a nation called Kaftor.

49)[line 44]דלא ליקרו לאחיו גלוותאD'LO LIKRU L'ECHAV GALVASA- so that they (the Egyptians) should not call Yosef's brothers refugees (people who were exiled)