THE SHI'UR OF SELA'IM
(R. Yochanan): If one takes a rubbed out gold Dinar of Adriyanus (Hadrian) or Turainus (Trajan) Caesar (Rashi; Tosfos - a big and round gold Dinar) that sells for 25 Zuz, and deducts a sixth, the rest is the Shi'ur for Pidyon ha'Ben.
Question: One is left with 20 Zuz and five sixths. Pidyon ha'Ben is only 20 Zuz!
Correction: Rather, if one deducts a sixth and another Zuz, the rest is the Shi'ur.
Question: One is left with 19 and five sixths. Pidyon ha'Ben is 20!
Correction: Rather, if one deducts a Zuz and then a sixth (of the remaining 24), the rest is the 20 (standard) Dinarim of Pidyon ha'Ben.
Twenty standard Dinarim are (almost) 28 and 7/12 Aravi Dinarim.
(Rava): The Sela of the Torah is three and a third (of today's) Dinarim (of Bavel):
The Targum of "Esrim Gera" is "Esrim Ma'in";
(Beraisa): A Dinar is six Ma'ah of silver.
Question (Beraisa) Question: (One who redeems a Sedei Achuzah (that is a Beis Kor) at the start of Yovel pays 49 Sela'im and 49 Pundyonim.) A Sela is 48 Pundyonim. Why does one pay a Pundyon more than the 50 Sela'im stated in the Torah?
Answer: The extra Pundyon is for Protrot (Rashi - so the money will outweigh the weight on the other pan of the balance scale; Rambam - the moneychanger's fee). (This is difficult for Rava, for a Dinar is six Ma'ah, 12 Pundyonim. It follows that a Sela is four Dinarim!)
Answer: After the measures were increased, a Torah Sela is 3 1/3 Dinarim.
(Beraisa): A Shekel is 20 Gera;
Question: What is the source that Chachamim can increase the Shekel?
Answer: "Yihyeh" (teaches that it may be more).
Suggestion: Perhaps Chachamim may decrease the Shekel!
Rejection: "Hu" (teaches that it must be at least 20 Gera).
Rav Ashi sent 17 Zuz to Rav Acha brei d'Ravina (a Kohen) for Pidyon ha'Ben, and asked him to return the extra third of a Zuz. (This is like Rava, who says that a Torah Sela is three and a third Zuzim.)
Rav Acha: You must send to me three more Zuz, for they increased the measures (and the Shi'ur of Pidyon ha'Ben also increased)! (Tosfos (Kesuvos 10a DH Nosen) - Rav Ashi agreed and sent the money, Ritva (Kidushin 11b) - Rav Ashi did not agree. He holds that it suffices to give five Torah Shekalim.)
(R. Chanina): Whenever the Torah mentions money Stam (without specifying), it is Sela'im. Stam money of Nevi'im is Litrin. (One Litra is 25 Sela'im.) Stam money of Kesuvim is Kinterin. (One Kintera is 100 Sela'im.)
The only exception is the money that Avraham paid for Sedei Efron. It was Kinterin, for it says "... Shekel Kesef Over la'Socher";
There are places where Shekalim are called Kinterin. (Avraham fered that Efron would later claim that he meant the Shekalim of such a place).
(R. Oshaya): Chachamim wanted to forbid all gold and silver in the world due to the gold and silver taken from Yerushalayim (at the time of the Churban, for most of it was Hekdesh), until they found a verse that permits - "u'Va'u Vah Paritzim v'Chileluha." (The Nochrim profaned the Hekdesh and made it Chulin.)
Objection: Surely, the majority of gold and silver in the world is not from Yerushalayim!
Correction (Abaye): Rather, they wanted to forbid all Hadri'ana and Toraina Dinarim (Rashi - Roman emperors who ruled over Yerushalayim; Tosfos - large, round coins) whose forms were blunted. (Perhaps the coins were from Yerushalayim (Tosfos - from the days of David and Shlomo), most of which are Hekdesh);
They expounded that they are permitted - "v'Chileluha."
THE CURRENCY OF THE TORAH
(Rav Asi): All money mentioned in the Torah is Tzuri. (Rashi here - if Shekalim are not specified, it is Dinarim. Rashi in Kidushin - if Shekalim are not specified, it is Ma'in, the smallest coin in Tzur.)
All money of Rabbinic decree is standard money.
Question #1: The claim needed for Modeh b'Miktzas (the oath of partial admission) is an exception. It says "(if one will deposit) Kesef Oh Kelim";
(Mishnah): Modeh b'Miktzas applies only if the claim is at least two silver Ma'in.
Answer: Modeh b'Miktzas is different, for the Torah equates Kesef to Kelim. (Text of Rashi here - just like Kelim need not be worth a Dinar, also Kesef, as long as it is significant.)
Just like "Kelim" connotes two, also "Kesef" refers to two (coins);
Just like Kesef is important, also Kelim must be important.
Question #2: Regarding Ma'aser Sheni it says "v'Tzarta ha'Kesef b'Yadecha";
(Mishnah): If one wants to transfer Kedushah (of Perutos) of Ma'aser Sheni to a Sela... (This shows that one was able to redeem onto Perutos!)
Answer: It says "Kesef" twice, to include smaller money.
Question #3: Regarding Hekdesh it says "v'Nasan ha'Kesef v'Kam Lo" (these words are taken from different verses);
(Shmuel): If one redeemed Hekdesh worth a Maneh on something worth (Shaveh) a Perutah, it is valid.
Answer: We learn Hekdesh from a Gezeirah Shavah "Kodesh-Kodesh" from Ma'aser Sheni.
Question #4: We learn that money can be Mekadesh a woman from "v'Yatz'ah Chinam Ein Kasef";
(Mishnah - Beis Shamai): A Dinar or Shavah Dinar makes Kidushin;
Beis Hillel say, a Perutah or Shavah Perutah makes Kidushin.
Is R. Asi's teaching like Beis Shamai?!
(Correction - Rav Asi): Whenever the Torah fixed a quantity of money, it is Tzuri;
All money of Rabbinic decree is standard.
Question: We already learn this from our Mishnah!
(Mishnah): (The following are in Maneh Tzuri -) five Sela'im of Pidyon ha'Ben...
Answer: Rav Asi's Chidush is the Seifa, that all money of Rabbinic decree is standard.
(Mishnah): If Reuven was Toke'a Shimon (hit his ear; alternatively, blew in his ear), he pays one Sela.
One might have thought that this is a Sela Tzuri, four Zuz. R. Asi teaches that it is a standard Sela, a half-Zuz, which people call "Sela."
Chanan Bisha was Toke'a (hit; alternatively blew in the ear of) Ploni. Rav Huna obligated him to pay a half Dinar. Chanan had a rubbed out Dinar, and people did not accept it. He was Toke'a Ploni again, and gave him the Dinar.