ZEVACHIM 33 (2 Sivan) - This Daf has been dedicated in memory of Harry Bernard Zuckerman, Baruch Hersh ben Yitzchak (and Miryam Toba), by his children and sons-in-law.

1) PERFORMING "SEMICHAH" FROM OUTSIDE OF THE AZARAH

QUESTION: The Gemara attempts to prove from a Beraisa that Bi'ah b'Miktzas is considered Bi'ah -- a partial entry is considered an entry into the Azarah. The Beraisa teaches that it is impossible to fulfill the requirement of "Tekef l'Semichah Shechitah" (Shechitah must be performed immediately after Semichah) in the case of a Metzora's Korban Asham. A Metzora, who is Tamei, must stand outside the Azarah, while the Shechitah of his Korban must be performed while the animal is inside the Azarah. Accordingly, the Beraisa says, it is impossible to do the Shechitah immediately after the Semichah, because the animal must first be moved from Sha'ar Nikanor -- where the Metzora does the Semichah -- to the Azarah, where the Korban will be slaughtered. The Gemara asks that if Bi'ah b'Miktzas is not considered an entry into the Azarah, then why does the Metzora not stand at Sha'ar Nikanor and extend his hands into the Azarah in order to perform Semichah on the animal while it is in the Azarah?

The Gemara suggests two answers in the name of Rav Yosef. The first answer is that the Beraisa follows the opinion of Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah, who maintains that the Shechitah must be performed not only in the Azarah, but directly north of the Mizbe'ach (and not between the Mizbe'ach and Sha'ar Nikanor). Accordingly, it is impossible for the Metzora to extend his hands to the area where the Shechitah must be performed (because that area is at least 22 Amos away). In his second answer, Rav Yosef says that even if Bi'ah b'Miktzas is not considered Bi'ah, it will not suffice for the Metzora to extend his hands into the Azarah and perform Semichah, because Semichah involves leaning most of one's weight on the animal. In order to lean most of his weight on the animal, the Metzora would need to bring his center of gravity to directly above the head of the animal, and by doing so he would be bringing most of his body into the Azarah, which certainly is considered Bi'ah.

Rav Yosef's second answer seems to contradict the second Beraisa cited earlier (32a). The Beraisa states that from the Torah it is not evident that one who is Tamei may not perform Semichah, since the Torah does not say "Lifnei Hash-m" with regard to Semichah, requiring that it be done in the Azarah. It says "Lifnei Hash-m" only with regard to Shechitah (Vayikra 1:5). The Gemara explains that although the Semichah must be performed immediately before Shechitah, this does not necessitate that the Metzora performing the Semichah must enter the Azarah, because he could extend his hands into the Azarah, since Bi'ah b'Miktzas is not considered Bi'ah. Accordingly, it is clear from the Beraisa that if Bi'ah b'Miktzas is not considered Bi'ah, then it is not necessary to enter the Azarah in order to put most of one's weight on the animal. Why, then, does Rav Yosef assert that it is impossible to perform Semichah without entering the Azarah? (SEFAS EMES)

ANSWER: The Gemara earlier (32a) records a dissenting Beraisa which states that it indeed is impossible for a Tamei to perform Semichah from outside of the Azarah because of the rule that Semichah must be performed immediately before Shechitah. What is the basis of the argument between the two Beraisos?

The Gemara there explains that the first Beraisa, which says that a Tamei may not perform Semichah while standing outside the Azarah, maintains that Bi'ah b'Miktzas is considered Bi'ah, and that a Tamei person cannot even extend his hands into the Azarah. The second Beraisa, on the other hand, permits a Tamei to extend his hands into the Azarah. In the Gemara here, however, Rav Yosef is supporting the opinion that Bi'ah b'Miktzas is not considered Bi'ah. He learns that even the first Beraisa permits a Tamei to extend his hands into the Azarah, since Bi'ah b'Miktzas is not considered Bi'ah. Why, then, does the first Beraisa state that a Tamei cannot perform Semichah from outside the Azarah? It must be because Semichah requires that one put most of his weight on the animal, and therefore the one who does Semichah must be standing inside the Azarah together with the animal. Hence, while it is true that Rav Yosef is contradicting the second Beraisa, he maintains that the first Beraisa argues with the second Beraisa about this point, and he is siding with the first Beraisa.

2) RECITING THE BLESSING OF "HA'MOTZI" IMMEDIATELY AFTER "NETILAS YADAYIM"

QUESTION: The Gemara attempts to prove from a Beraisa that Bi'ah b'Miktzas is considered Bi'ah -- a partial entry is considered an entry into the Azarah. The Beraisa teaches that it is impossible to fulfill the requirement of "Tekef l'Semichah Shechitah" (Shechitah must be performed immediately after Semichah) in the case of a Metzora's Korban Asham. A Metzora, who is Tamei, must stand outside the Azarah, while the Shechitah of his Korban must be performed while the animal is inside the Azarah. Accordingly, the Beraisa says, it is impossible to do the Shechitah immediately after the Semichah, because the animal must first be moved from Sha'ar Nikanor -- where the Metzora does the Semichah -- to the Azarah, where the Korban will be slaughtered. The Gemara asks that if Bi'ah b'Miktzas is not considered an entry into the Azarah, then why does the Metzora not stand at Sha'ar Nikanor and extend his hands into the Azarah in order to perform Semichah on the animal while it is in the Azarah?

The Gemara suggests two answers in the name of Rav Yosef. The first answer is that the Beraisa follows the opinion of Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah, who maintains that the Shechitah must be performed not only in the Azarah, but directly north of the Mizbe'ach (and not between the Mizbe'ach and Sha'ar Nikanor). Accordingly, it is impossible for the Metzora to extend his hands to the area where the Shechitah must be performed (because that area is at least 22 Amos away). In his second answer, Rav Yosef says that even if Bi'ah b'Miktzas is not considered Bi'ah, it will not suffice for the Metzora to extend his hands into the Azarah and perform Semichah, because Semichah involves leaning most of one's weight on the animal. In order to lean most of his weight on the animal, the Metzora would need to bring his center of gravity to directly above the head of the animal, and by doing so he would be bringing most of his body into the Azarah, which certainly is considered Bi'ah.

TOSFOS in Sotah (39a, DH Kol) infers from the Gemara here an important Halachah pertaining to the laws of Netilas Yadayim, washing one's hands before eating bread.

The Gemara in Berachos (42a) states that Netilas Yadayim of Mayim Acharonim (washing the hands after the meal) must be followed immediately by the recitation of Birkas ha'Mazon -- "Tekef l'Netilah, Berachah." The Yerushalmi adds that the same requirement applies to the Netilas Yadayim before a meal -- it must be followed immediately ("Tekef") by the blessing of ha'Motzi (see Gilyon ha'Shas there).

How "immediate" is "Tekef"?

Tosfos attempts to answer this question from the Gemara here in Zevachim. The Gemara in Berachos mentions that another action which requires "Tekef" is the Semichah done with a Korban, which must be followed immediately by Shechitah. In the Gemara here in Zevachim, Rav Yosef explains (in his first answer) that Shechitah cannot be performed immediately following the Semichah of the Korban Asham of a Metzora, even though the Metzora may extend his hands into the Azarah, because the Shechitah must be performed in the area that is due north of the Mizbe'ach. Tosfos points out that a distance of 22 Amos separates Sha'ar Nikanor -- where the Metzora stands -- from the Mizbe'ach (11 Amos of "Derisas Raglei Yisrael," and 11 Amos of "Derisas Raglei Kohanim"). From the Gemara's statement that Semichah cannot be performed "Tekef" to Shechitah because of this distance of 22 Amos, it is evident that the amount of time that it takes to walk the animal from the Sha'ar to the north side of the Mizbe'ach is too long to be considered "Tekef." Tosfos proves from here that an amount of time that is more than the time it takes to walk 22 Amos is certainly not considered "Tekef."

Tosfos' proof is very problematic. The Gemara initially proved that a Metzora cannot extend his hands into the Azarah from the fact that the Beraisa says that it is not possible for the Metzora to do Semichah immediately before Shechitah, even by extending his hands into the Azarah. At that stage, the Gemara assumed that the Shechitah of the Asham Metzora may be performed just inside Sha'ar Nikanor (and not directly north of the Mizbe'ach), but the Metzora, who needs to do the Semichah, must remain standing on the other side of the Sha'ar. Why do they not simply walk the animal out of the Azarah, to where the Metzora is standing, let the Metzora perform Semichah on the animal there, and then bring the animal back into the Azarah and perform the Shechitah inside of the Sha'ar? It is evident from the Gemara that moving the animal even one step -- from outside the Sha'ar to inside the Sha'ar -- is not considered "Tekef"! If Semichah is performed outside of the Sha'ar and the animal is moved into the Azarah for Shechitah, the Shechitah is not considered "Tekef." Obviously, this amount of time is much less than the amount of time that Tosfos asserts is considered "Tekef."

This is also evident from Rav Yosef's second answer. Rav Yosef says that since the Metzora must place most of his weight on the animal when he does Semichah, the animal must be outside of the Azarah at the time of Semichah, and bringing the animal inside in order to do Shechitah will not be "Tekef."

Why, then, does Tosfos assert that this Gemara proves that only the time that it takes to walk 22 Amos is not "Tekef"? Even the time it takes to walk a single step is not "Tekef"! (CHACHAM TZVI #125, CHAVOS YA'IR, MAGEN AVRAHAM OC 166:2; see TZON KODASHIM and CHESHEK SHLOMO.)

ANSWERS:

(a) The VILNA GA'ON in BI'UR HA'GRA (OC 166) suggests the following answer. There are two levels of "Tekef l'Semichah Shechitah" -- l'Chatchilah and b'Di'eved. When the Gemara assumes that moving even one step constitutes a lack of "Tekef l'Semichah Shechitah," it refers to fulfilling the requirement in the best possible manner. Moving even a single step after the Semichah before doing the Shechitah is no longer the l'Chatchilah manner of "Tekef." However, moving that amount is still considered "Tekef," b'Di'eved. Tosfos is proving that moving 22 Amos is not considered Tekef at all, even b'Di'eved.

How does Tosfos prove this from the Gemara? The Vilna Ga'on suggests that the proof is from the next question that the Gemara asks. After the Gemara cites Rav Yosef's explanation for the Beraisa that says that the Shechitah of the Asham Metzora does not fulfill "Tekef l'Semichah Shechitah," the Gemara asks that if the Semichah of the Asham Metzora is mid'Oraisa and "Tekef l'Semichah Shechitah" is mid'Oraisa, then the Metzora should be permitted to enter the Azarah to perform Semichah despite his Tum'ah.

Why does the Gemara ask this question now, after Rav Yosef's explanation of the Beraisa? The Gemara should ask this question immediately on the Beraisa itself! The answer is that the question could not have been asked on the Beraisa before Rav Yosef's explanation, since one may have read the Beraisa as saying that the Asham Metzora is not slaughtered with the best form of "Tekef l'Semichah Shechitah," which is what is normally required l'Chatchilah. The Beraisa is saying that some measure of "Tekef" is fulfilled, because the animal must be brought only one step into the Azarah. Accordingly, there is no license to permit a Metzora to enter the Azarah merely in order to fulfill "Tekef l'Semichah Shechitah" in a manner that is more l'Chatchilah.

However, now that Rav Yosef explains that the animal must be walked a distance of 22 Amos after the Semichah before it is slaughtered, the Gemara points out that that this does not fulfill the requirement of "Tekef" to any degree. The Gemara therefore asks that if "Tekef l'Semichah Shechitah" is mid'Oraisa, then the Metzora should be permitted to enter the Azarah despite his Tum'ah, because of the requirement of "Tekef l'Semichah Shechitah."

(b) The CHASAM SOFER (OC 166) suggests another answer. Tosfos in Sotah is trying to prove not what amount of walking between Netilas Yadayim and the blessing of ha'Motzi is not considered "Tekef," but rather what amount of waiting after Netilas Yadayim is not considered Tekef. He says that it is evident from the Gemara here that the amount of time that it takes to walk 22 Amos is not considered "Tekef."

Perhaps the reason why Tosfos cannot prove from the Gemara's question that even waiting the amount of time that it takes to walk a single step is not considered "Tekef" is that the single step is a step from the Ezras Nashim into the Azarah. It is not the time delay per se that interrupts between the Semichah and the Shechitah. Rather, it is the transporting of the animal from one domain to another, from a Reshus of Chol (an unsanctified area, such as outside of the Azarah) to a Reshus of Kodesh. However, when Rav Yosef answers that the interruption involves bringing the animal from Sha'ar Nikanor to the north of the Mizbe'ach, he is defending the opinion that Bi'ah b'Miktzas is not considered Bi'ah, and that the Metzora is permitted to extend his hands into the Azarah and perform Semichah. Consequently, the only interruption before the Shechitah is taking the animal from where it is standing inside the Azarah (near the Sha'ar) to the north side of the Mizbe'ach. Since the animal is not being transferred to a different Reshus, it is evident that the time delay is causing the interruption, and not the move from one Reshus to another. Therefore, Tosfos is correct when he concludes, based on the Gemara here, that a time-delay of walking 22 Amos is considered an interruption between Netilas Yadayim and the blessing of ha'Motzi. (See SHULCHAN ARUCH and REMA OC 166, and MISHNAH BERURAH there.)

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