ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler of Kollel Iyun Hadaf
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
(a) 'Shalosh Artzos la'Shevi'is' - means that Eretz Yisrael is divided into three parts with regard to eating the Sh'mitah fruits and working the land.
(b) The criterion for Sh'mitah to apply nowadays is - whether a. the Olei Bavel and b. the Olei Mitzrayim took possession of it or not.
(c) The town hat lies at the northern most tip of Eretz Yisrael regarding Sh'mitah is - K'ziv (see Tiferes Yisrael 5), which stretches to the north of the regular northern border.
(a) The two prohibitions that apply there are - that of eating and that of working the land.
(b) 'It may not be eaten' might refer to the produce of fields that have been worked. A more correct explanation is - that it may not be eaten after the time of 'Bi'ur' arrives (see also Tiferes Yisrael).
(a) Areas that Olei Mitzrayim captured but not Olei Bavel, says the Tana - are subject to the Isur of working, but not to that of eating.
(b) The principle that governs this ruling is - 'Kedushah Rishonah Kidshah le'Sha'atah ve'Lo Kidshah le'Asid Lavo'.
(c) The Isur of working applies - only mi'de'Rabbanan.
(a) This incorporates from K'ziv until the River (see Tiferes Yisrael 9) and Amanah (or Amnun [see Tiferes Yisrael 6 & Tos. Yom-Tov]). The River and Amanah, respectively, are situated - to the north and south of K'ziv respectively. The River refers to Shichor in the south-west of Eretz Yisrael.
(b) Another name for Amanah (or the Mountain of Amnun) is - Hor ha'Har (not the Mountain on which Aharon died [see also Tos. Yom-Tov]).
(c) The Tana rules that 'from the River and from Amanah and within - may be worked and eaten.
(d)'And within' - means a small strip running down the west coast from Amanah to the River.
(a) The Mishnah permits working with Talush (detached) produce in Syria - which (as we already learned, David conquered before having conquered the whole of Eretz Yisrael (which is therefore not officially part of Eretz Yisrael).
(b) They nevertheless forbade working with Mechubar (attached) there - because in some respects they gave it the Din of Eretz Yisrael.
(c) Chazal permitted - working with Talush together with someone who is Chashud there, but not in Eretz Yisrael (as we learned in the previous Perek).
(d) On the one hand, the Chachamim ...
1. ... were strict in Syria with regard to Mechubar - to discourage people from leaving Eretz Yisrael in the Sh'mitah to go and live in Syria.
2. ... lenient with regard to Talush, on the other.
(a) With regard to Mechubar, the Chachamim forbade - harvesting and picking olives or grapes ...
(b) ... from what was guarded, but not from Hefker.
(c) With regard to Talush, the Mishnah refers to 'Dashin, Zorin, Dorchin & Me'amrin' - theshing, winnowing, treading (pressing) and making sheaves (see Tos. Yom-Tov).
(d) The Tana - permits all of these.
(a) The principle that R. Akiva presents that encompasses the entire Mishnah is - whatever the Torah permits in Eretz Yisrael, is permitted (even mi'de'Rabbanan) in Syria ... .
(b) Besides performing the work without a Shinuy [in an unusual manner] this also suggests - that one may even perform work on what was guarded.
(c) In Eretz Yisrael - even Meleches Talush requires a Shinuy and is forbidden on fruits that have been guarded.
(a) According to the Tana Kama, if onions grew in the sixth year and rain fell on them in the Sh'mitah and they grew bigger, they become forbidden (see Tos. Yom-Tov) - if, after the rain falls on them, the leaves turn black (see Tiferes Yisrael), but remain permitted, as long as they remain green ...
(b) ... because the leaves turning black is a sign that more leaves grew in the Sh'mitah, which render the main onion Bateil, even though they are in the minority.
(c) According to R. Chanina ben Antignos, the criterion (to become forbidden) is - if one can pull out the onions by their leaves ...
(d) ... because when onions grew to completion, they emerge from the ground and can easily be picked. And if the leaves are sufficiently strong not to become detached when pulling them out of the ground, it is clear that they finished growing in the Sh'mitah.
(a) If the same happened from the Sh'mitah-year to the eighth - the onions are forbidden too ...
(b) ... since it is obvious that the little that grew in the eighth year will not suffice to render what grew in the Sh'mitah Bateil.
(c) And the reason the Mishnah rules that it is permitted is - because it is speaking in a case, where the onions were uprooted in the sixth year, re-planted in the Sh'mitah, and uprooted soon thereafter and re-planted in the eighth year (see Mishnah Rishonah).
(d) The Halachah - is like the Tana Kama.
(a) The Mishnah permits picking vegetables in the eighth year - as soon as the new crop reaches the same proportion as the old one.
(b) This might be because it indicates that what one is picking grew in the eighth year too. It might however, be permitted, even if one knows that it grew in the Sh'mitah - because what has grown in the eighth year exceeds what grew in the Sh'mitah (see Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) The Tana now discusses 'ha'Bakir' - (an area where the fruit ripens before that of other places) and 'ha'Afal' - (an area where the fruit ripens after that of other places).
(b) He rules - that once the fruit in the Bakir has grown, even the ripe fruit in the Afil is permitted ...
(c) ... because we assume that it was brought there from the Bakir.
(a) Rebbi permits picking vegetables in the eighth year - immediately after Rosh Hashanah ...
(b) ... because they tended to import a lot of vegetables from Chutz la'Aretz (which constituted a majority) - or because it only takes a day or to grow.
(a)'Shemen Sereifah' is - Terumah oil that became Tamei (that has to be burned).
(b) The Tana Kama - forbids taking Shemen Sereifah and Sh'mitah-fruit from Eretz Yisrael to Chutz la'Aretz.
(c) The reason for the prohibition regarding ...
1. ... Shemen Sereifah is - because the Chachamim decreed that it must be burned in Eretz Yisrael (like Kodshim that became Pasul).
2. ... Sh'mitah-fruit is - because the Torah writes in Behar "be'Artz'cha Tih'yeh Chol Tevu'asah" (from which Chazal learn that it must be burned in Eretz Yisrael (min ha'Torah).
(d) R. Shimon - permits taking it to Syria (see Tiferes Yisrael).
(e) The Halachah - is like the Tana Kama.
(a) The Tana forbids bringing Terumah from Chutz la'Aretz to Eretz Yisrael - because he is afraid that this will encourage Kohanim (who are obligated to go to the granaries to collect it) to travel to Chutz la'Aretz to fetch it (and become Tamei due to the Tum'ah that the Chachamim decreed on Chutz la'Aretz [see Tiferes Yisrael]).
(b) Similar to his previous concession, R. Shimon - permits bringing Terumah from Syria to Eretz Yisrael.
(c) The Halachah - is like the Tana Kama.
Hadran Alach 'Shalosh Artzos'