ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler of Kollel Iyun Hadaf
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
(a) The Mishnah permits planting in - five different kinds of seeds (see Tos. Yom-Tov) DH 'Chamishah ... ') a patch measuring six by six Tefachim.
(b) The Gemara in Shabbos learns this from the Pasuk in Yeshayah "Ki ka'Aretz Totzi Tzimchah, u'che'Ganah Zeru'ehah Tatzmi'ach" - " ... Totzi 1. Tzimchah 2. u'che'Ganah Zeru'ehah 2. Tatzmi'ach" 1.
(c) The Mishnah that we learned in the previous Perek which requires 'Yerek be'Yerek Shishah Tefachim' - is speaking about a field which comprises many patches, which would give the impression of being mixed if the gaps were smaller.
(a) According to Rashi and the Ra'avad, one needs to distance one seed from the other at least three Tefachim (so that they do not feed from one another. The Bartenura - requires only one and a half Tefachim (which will suffice, seeing as the shape, added to the fact that one only plants a small section of each patch, indicates that they are not mixed [see also Tos. Yom-Tov]).
(b) One is permitted to plant twenty-four of the thirty-six square Tefachim - four on each of the four sides and eight in the middle.
(c) One is not permitted to plant - the two ends of one square Tefach at the end of each outer row.
(d) One plants the eight square Tefachim (see also Tos. Yom-Tov) of middle section at an angle of ninety degrees to the outer patches so that the four points of the square are touching the middle.
(a) The Gemara in Shabbos - forbids planting five different seeds in the same patch that is one of a number in a field ...
(b) ... because if one were then to plant five different species in each patch, it would give the impression that they were mixed-up, which the Chachamim forbid.
(c) The Gemara in Shabbos suggests that it ought to be possible to learn the above concession even in the case of a patch among patches -
(d) The Gemara answers - that we are afraid hat he will plant the corners too.
(a) The truth of the matter is that it is possible to plant as many as nine different species in a patch of six by six - by planting three rows each consisting of three species (both from north to south and from east to west) each measuring one square Tefach, with two empty spaces each measuring one and a half Tefachim.
(b) The Tana does not present it (see also Tos. Yom-Tov DH 'Arba'ah ... ' - because one is better off planting five species in twenty-four square Tefachim than nine species in nine.
(a) The Mishnah discusses the above case, but where there is a mound of earth surrounding the patch - which measures one Tefach in height and one Tefach in width.
(b) The total width of the patch including the mound is - eight Tefachim by eight Tefachim.
(c) One is then permitted to plant thirteen different kinds of seeds in the patch, twelve on the mound (three on each side, but with the corners left un-sown), and one in the middle (see Tos. Yom-Tov).
(d) One may plant eighteen (out of the thirty-six) Tefachim of the middle (in the same shape as in the previous case) ...
(e) ... a total of thirty Tefachim.
(a) The Yerushalmi suggests that one should be permitted to plant many more species than what the Tana permits. It asks why one cannot plant four additional species in the middle (like we learned in the Reisha).
(b) ... seventeen different species all in all.
(c) The Yerushalmi answers - that on account of the added border, it would be necessary to distance the seeds in the middle one and a half Tefachim on all sides, from the seeds on the border, leaving only three by three Tefachim in which to plant.
(a) Finally, we ask why the Tana does not permit planting sixteen different seeds in the patch of eight Tefachim - by planting five different species on each side (one in each corner and three in between at regular intervals).
(b) If that would entail leaving a space of one and a half Tefachim between each two species (six Tefachim in total), each species would then measure one four fifths of a Tefach in width (by one Tefach in length).
(c) We answer - that the sheer number of species in such a small space creates the impression that they are mixed.
(a) In the current case (see Tiferes Yisrael & Tos. Yom-Tov), one should not plant the head of a turnip in the middle of one of the sides - because it tends to fill the row, in which case one would not then be able to plant three species in that row.
(b) R. Yehudah permits planting six seeds in the middle. The Yerushalmi queries this - from its own statement (see answer 6c) that the border necessitates a larger distance, thereby reducing the number of seeds.
(c) We cannot answer that R. Yehudah's ruling pertains to the Reisha, where the Tana Kama permitted five seeds - since, in a Beraisa cited in the Gemara, R. Yehudah permits as many as eighteen different species (see also Tos. Yom-Tov DH 'Shishah be'Emtza').
(a) We therefore resolve the problem - by pointing out that, according to R. Yehudah, the height of the border is counted in the distance between the border and the seeds in the middle ...
(b) ... otherwise, why does the Mishnah talk about a mound, rather than simply stating that the patch under discussion is now eight by eight Tefachim?
(c) R. Yehudah allows in the Seifa - eighteen different species.
(d) He learns it from the initial Pasuk in Yeshayah "Ki ka'Aretz Totzi Tzimchah, u'che'Ganah Zeru'ehah Tatzmi'ach" - inasmuch as "Zeru'ehah" implies three (Zera, Zar'ah, Zeru'ehah), and "Totzi, Tzimchah Tatzmi'ach", another three (see also Tos. Yom-Tov).
(e) R. Yehudah disagrees with the Chachamim - in that he only requires one Tefach distance between any two species (as he specifically says in Mishnah 2).
(a) One is allowed to plant ...
1. ... vegetables five to a patch, but not ...
2. ... 'seeds' ...
(b) ... which one tends to plant in larger quantities (see Tos. Yom-Tov), and which therefore resemble a mixture more than vegetables.
(c) According to others, these rulings pertain to the Din of thirteen plants to a patch with a raised border.
(a) The Mishnah places mustard-seeds into the category of - 'seeds'.
(b) And so it does 'Shufin'-beans (which give the impression that they have been planed) - whereas Gamlanin-beans it considers vegetable (see Tiferes Yisrael).
(c) 'Shufin' either means smooth (and 'Gamlanin', rough) - or small (and 'Gamlanim, large).
(a) The Tana rules that a patch with a Tefach high border (see Tos. Yom-Tov), in which twelve different species are planted, and which has diminished to less than a Tefach high - is acceptable, seeing as it was initially the correct height.
(b) And he rules that in a ditch or a stream of water which are a Tefach deep - one is permitted to plant three different seeds across its width (see Tos. Yom-Tov).
(c) One must leave between each species - one and a half Tefachim (see Tos. Yom-Tov).
(d) The reason that the Tana mentions the depth is because a Beraisa cited in the Yerushalmi forbids it - because it looks as if it is 'Chavush' (captured [squashed into a small space]), giving the impression that it is mixed.
(a) The Mishnah permits a Rosh Tor - (a corner that enters a field at a ninety-degree angle) of one kind of vegetable to enter into a field in which a different species of vegetables is growing ...
(b) ... because it looks as if it is the end of a field (and does not give the impression of being a mixture).
(c) R. Yishmael permits planting a row of one kind of vegetables in a field in which another kind of vegetables is growing - provided it cuts across the field from one end to the other.
(d) R. Akiva is more lenient - permitting it even if it is only six Tefachim by six Tefachim (see Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) According to R. Yishmael, the row must be - six Tefachim wide ('Kal va'Chomer' from R. Akiva).
(b) This ruling is based on the words 'Rochbo ke'Milu'o' - which the Rambam explains as - the width is equivalent to the depth.
(c) R. Yehudah says 'ki'M'lo Rochav Parsah' - meaning (the width of a foot [i.e. one Tefach]).
(d) The reason that he does not simply say 'ki'M'lo Tefach' is - because he learns it from the Pasuk in Eikev "ve'Hishkisa be'Ragl'cha ke'Gan ha'Yarak".
(a) The Mishnah - permits planting two rows of cucumbers, two rows of pumpkins and two rows of Egyptian beans on the one hand, but forbids one row of cucumbers, one row of pumpkins and one row of Egyptian-beans.
(b) The Tana is lenient in the former case - provided one also leaves a furrow (six Tefachim) space between each species.
(c) The reason for ...
1. ... the leniency is - because two rows resemble a field, and do not give the appearance of being mixed.
2. ... the stringent ruling in the latter case is - because cucumbers, the leaves of pumpkins and Egyptian-beans rend to spread more than other species, and, unless there are at least two rows of each, give the appearance of having been planted in one throw (which is Asur d'Oraysa).
(a) The Chachamim also forbid the latter case even if one adds a second row of cucumbers after the row of Egyptian beans (see Tos. Yom-Tov). R. Eliezer - gives this case the Din of two rows ...
(b) ... because he considers the two rows of cucumbers as being together (thereby forming a field, in which one row of another species is permitted, provided one leaves the appropriate space between them.
(c) The Chachamim however, counter - that since the two rows are not next to each others, they do not resemble a field, in which the furrow space between them does not help to permit it.
(d) The Halachah - is like the Chachamim.
(a) The Mishnah permits planting cucumbers and pumpkins in one hole - provided one turns both the leaves and the branches (see Tiferes Yisrael) in opposite directions.
(b) They did not also require a furrow-space in between them (see also Mishnah Rishonah).
(c) Other species - (whose leaves do not spread to the same extent) are certainly permitted (see also Mishnah Rishonah DH 'Kishos ve'Dala'as).
(d) The reason for this leniency is - because the Chachamim only forbade different Kil'ayim that have not actually been planted together on account of Mar'is ha'Ayin.
(a) If someone wishes to plant a row of pumpkins in his onion-field (see Tos. Yom-Tov), R. Yishmael requires him to uproot two rows of onions and then to plant one (see Tos. Yom-Tov). Each row constitutes four rows.
(b) He then plants the row of pumpkins in the middle of the empty patch, leaving two Amos between the pumpkins and the onions on either side (see Tos. Yom-Tov & Tiferes Yisrael).
(c) If he wishes to plant more rows of pumpkins, he follows the same procedure.
(d) That leaves - twelve Amos between the two rows of pumpkins.
(a) R. Akiva says 'Oker Sh'tei Shuros ve'Note'a Sh'tei Shuros', by which he means - that he may fill the two rows that he uprooted with pumpkins ...
(b) ... though he still has to leave the space of a furrow (six Tefachim).
(c) The Chachamim, who require twelve Amos between one row of pumpkins and the next - concur in principle with R. Yishmael.
(d) They disagree with him however - in that they permit planting the pumpkins immediately next to the onions (notwithstanding the six-Tefachim space that we just mentioned) ...
(e) ... and the Halachah is like them.
(a) The Mishnah requires between a pumpkin and a field of ...
1. ... vegetables - the space of a furrow (six Tefachim).
2. ... Tevu'ah (the five kinds of grain) - a Beis Rova (see Tiferes Yisrael).
(b) When it is a row of pumpkins (and not a solitary pumpkin) that one is planting next to a field of Tevu'ah, the Mishnah requires its Avodah of six Tefachim ...
(c) ... because a row is more conspicuous and therefore looks less like a mixture.
(d) If the new plant grows and enters the empty space - then he is obligated to remove all the offensive branches.
(e) The minimum Shi'ur length required by the Tosefta in all the current cases is - ten and a half Amos.
(a) According to R. Yossi, one needs to give the row of pumpkins 'Avodasah' - (four Amos).
(b) The Chachamim query him from a row of vines (discussed in the next Perek), which, according to Beis Hillel - must be planted at a distance of six Tefachim from Tevu'ah ...
(c) ... because a row of vines has the Din (not of a vineyard, but) of a solitary vine.
(a) Our Mishnah falls under the category of - 'K'lai Zera'im', and that of the fourth Perek - 'K'lai ha'Kerem'.
(b) The Kashya on R. Yossi now is - how can one possibly apply a more stringent ruling to K'lai Zera'im than to K'lai ha'Kerem (see Tos. Yom-Tov).
(c) He refutes it however - by citing a precedent to that; namely, that of a solitary vine, to which we give six Tefachim, whereas a solitary pumpkin requires a Beis Rova.
(a) R. Meir citing R. Yishmael now - forbids bringing any seeds into a Beis Sa'ah in which three pumpkins have been planted ...
(b) ... in which case a single pumpkin will require - a third of a Sa'ah (two Kabin) space ...
(c) ... and not just a quarter of a Kav (a twenty-fourth of a Sa'ah [one Sa'ah = six Kabin), like the Tana Kama.
(a) The most stringent of all is R. Yosef ben ha'Chotef Efrati in the name of R. Yishmael, who requires ...
1. ... a Beis-Kur (thirty Sa'ah) for three pumpkins.
2. ... a third of a Beis Kur (ten Sa'ah) for a single pumpkin (see Tiferes Yisrael, Bo'az).
(b) The Halachah - is like the Chachamim.
(a) If all the current rulings are confined to Greek pumpkins, between an Egyptian pumpkin (or any other pumpkin for that matter and a field of produce) one is obligated to leave - six Tefachim, just like any other vegetable.
Hadran Alach 'Arugah'