Mishnah 1

1)

(a)The Tana requires the two goats to be identical in three ways. What does he mean when he says that they should be identical in looks?

(b)Which other two points should they have in common?

(c)How does he learn these three points from the three Pesukim in Acharei-Mos "u'me'eis Adas B'nei Yisrael Yikach Sh'nei ha'Se'irim "Velakach es Sh'nei ha'Se'irim" and "Venasan Aharon al Sh'nei Se'irim Goralos"?

(e)What if they are not identical in any of the above points or if they purchased the goats on two different days?

1)

(a)The Tana requires the two goats to be identical in three ways. When he says that they should be identical in looks, he means - that they should be the same color (both white or both black).

(b)They should also be identical - in height and in value.

(c)He learn these three points from the three Pesukim in Acharei-Mos "u'me'eis Adas B'nei Yisrael Yikach Sh'nei ha'Se'irim "Velakach es Sh'nei ha'Se'irim" and "Venasan Aharon al Sh'nei Se'irim Goralos" - where, bearing in mind that "Se'irim" already implies two, the word "Sh'nei" is superfluous.

(d)The Mishnah then says - that the two goats should be purchased simultaneously (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

(e)If they are not identical in any of the above points or if they purchased the goats on two different days - they are nevertheless Kasher.

2)

(a)What does the Kohen Gadol do if one of the goats dies ...

1. ... before the Goral?

2. ... after the Goral?

(b)In the latter case, what does he stipulate?

(c)The 'spare' goat is the second one from the second pair. Why is it not the second one from the first pair?

2)

(a)If one of the goats dies ...

1. ... before the Goral - one simply finds a replacement.

2. ... after the Goral - he brings another pair and makes a new Goral.

(b)In the latter case, he stipulates - if the one that died was the one that was for Hash-m, then the one upon which the lot now fell for Hash-m will replace it, whereas if it was the one that was for Azazel, the one upon which the lot now fell for Azazel will replace that.

(c)The 'spare' goat is the second one from the second pair, not the second one from the first pair - since this Tana holds of the principle 'Ein Ba'alei Chayim Nidachim (Live animals are never rejected)'.

3)

(a)What do they do with the 'spare' goat, according to the Tana Kama?

(b)What happens to the proceeds of the sale?

(c)Why does the principle that 'Leftover Chata'os have to die' not apply here to the Chata'os of Yom Kipur?

(d)From where do we know that the Sa'ir la'Hashem is a Chatas Tzibur?

3)

(a)According to the Tana Kama - the 'spare' goat is sent into the meadow to romp around until it obtains a blemish, when it is sold.

(b)The proceeds of the sale - go to Olas Kayitz ha'Mizbe'ach.

(c)The principle that 'Leftover Chata'os have to die' does not apply here to the Chata'os of Yom Kipur - since it is confined to Chata'os Yachid, and not to Chata'os Tzibur ...

(d)... and we know that the Sa'ir la'Hashem is a Chatas Tzibur - because the Torah writes (in Acharei-Mos) "U'me'eis Adas B'nei Yisrael Yikach Sh'nei Se'irei Izim ... ".

4)

(a)This is the opinion of the Tana Kama. What does Rebbi Yehudah say?

(b)How does one implement 'Tamus'?

(c)What does Rebbi Yehudah also say in a case where ...

1. ... the blood of the Sa'ir la'Hashem spilt?

2. ... the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach died?

4)

(a)This is the opinion of the Tana Kama. According to Rebbi Yehudah - the spare goat has to die ('Tamus' [See Tos. Yom-Tov]) ...

(b)... by placing it in a room without food until it dies of starvation (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

(c)Rebbi Yehudah also rules that if ...

1. ... the blood of the Sa'ir la'Hashem spilt - the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach must die.

2. ... the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach died - the blood of the Sa'ir la'Hashem must be poured out.

5)

(a)What is the reason for the former ruling (bearing in mind that it is an Avodah that was performed wearing the Bigdei Lavan)?

(b)Why can this reason not apply to the latter ruling?

(c)What would we have thought that if the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach dies, the Kohen Gadol should nevertheless continue with the Avodah of the Dam ha'Par?

(d)On what grounds does Rebbi Yehudah then rule that it must be poured out (based on the Pasuk there "Yo'amad Chai lifnei Hash-m Lechaper alav"?

5)

(a)The reason for the former ruling is - because the Mitzvah of 'Dam' was not performed, and (bearing in mind that it is an Avodah that was performed wearing the Bigdei Lavan) - the Torah writes "Chukah" in connection with all Avodos that the Kohen Gadol performed wearing the Bigdei Lavan.

(b)This reason cannot apply to the latter ruling - since the Avodah of the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach was performed by someone else ('Ish iti'), who was who was not wearing the Bigdei Lavan.

(c)We would have thought that if the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach dies, the Kohen Gadol should nevertheless continue with the Avodah of the Dam ha'Par - since the sending of the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach is not Me'akev (i.e. is not crucial) anyway.

(d)And Rebbi Yehudah rules that it must be poured out - based on the Pasuk there "Yo'amad Chai lifnei Hash-m Lechaper alav", which teaches us that that the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach must remain standing until the blood of Sa'ir la'Hashem has been sprinkled.

6)

(a)What must the Kohen Gadol therefore do in the latter case?

(b)And on what grounds must the Sa'ir la'Hashem) die? Why not 'Yir'eh ... '?

6)

(a)In the latter case, the Kohen Gadol is therefore obligated - to start all over again with a new pair of goats.

(b)And the Sa'ir la'Hashem) must die (as opposed to 'Yir'eh ... ') - since Rebbi Yehudah holds 'Ba'alei Chayim Nidachim'.

Mishnah 2

7)

(a)The Kohen Gadol then approached the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach. What did he do before reciting Viduy?

(b)On whose behalf did he confess this time?

(c)How did the basic wording therefore differ from the previous two Viduyim?

(d)What other change did the Kohen Gadol make regarding 'Ana Hash-m (See Tos. Yom-Tov)?

7)

(a)The Kohen Gadol then approached the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach - upon which he leaned his two hands before reciting Viduy ...

(b)... on behalf of the people.

(c)Consequently, he changed the basic wording from 'Avisi, Pasha'ati and Chatasi Ani ... ' to 'Avu, Pash'u Chatu Amcha Beis Yisrael' (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

(d)The Kohen Gadol also changed the second 'Ana Hashem' to Ana ba'Hashem' (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

8)

(a)Which Pasuk in Re'ei did he again quote in conclusion?

(b)How did the Kohanim and the people respond (once again), when they heard the proper Name of Hash-m coming from the mouth of the Kohen Gadol (See Tos. Yom-Tov)?

8)

(a)Once again the Kohen Gadol concluded with the Pasuk in Re'ei "Ki ba'Yom ha'Zeh Yechaper aleichem ... ".

(b)And once again, when the Kohanim and the people (See Tos. Yom-Tov) heard the proper Name of Hash-m coming from the mouth of the Kohen Gadol (See Tos. Yom-Tov) - they bowed down, prostrated themselves and after falling on their faces, they recited the Pasuk "Baruch Shem ... ".

Mishnah 3

9)

(a)What did the Kohen Gadol then do with the Sa'ir ha'Mishta'le'ach?

(b)Who was eligible to take it out to 'Azazel'?

(c)Then why was a Yisrael never appointed to do so?

(d)According to Rebbi Yossi, Ars'la once took it out. Who was Ars'la?

9)

(a)The Kohen Gadol then - handed the Sa'ir ha'Mishta'le'ach to the man who was appointed to take it out Azazel.

(b)Strictly speaking, anybody was eligible to take it out to 'Azazel' (See Tos. Yom-Tov) ...

(c)... only the Kohanim (Gedolim - [See Tos. Yom-Tov] adopted the custom of not allowing a Yisrael to do it.

(d)According to Rebbi Yossi, Ars'la - a Yisrael, once took it out.

Mishnah 4

10)

(a)As the Sa'ir la'Azaz'el was being led from the Azarah, what did the Bavli'im (See Tos. Yom-Tov) used to ...

1. ... do?

2. ... say?

(b)What did the Kohanim do to counter that?

(c)How far did the ramp stretch?

10)

(a)As the Sa'ir la'Azaz'el was being led from the Azarah, the Bavli'im (See Tos. Yom-Tov) used to ...

1. ... pull out tufts of hair from its body, and ...

2. ... say 'Take (our sins) and go! Take and go!'

(b)To counter that, the Kohanim - built a ramp ...

(c)... that stretched - from the Azarah to the outskirts of Yerushalayim.

11)

(a)Who used to accompany the goat to the first hut on its final journey?

(b)How many huts were there altogether?

(c)What procedure did they follow as the goat was taken from one hut to the other?

11)

(a)Important members of the Yerushalmi community used to accompany the goat to the first hut on its final journey.

(b)There were - ten huts altogether.

(c)As the goat was being taken from one hut to the other - people waiting in the hut would accompany it.

12)

(a)The distance from the first hut to the iTzuk was ninety Ris. What was the 'Tzuk'?

(b)How many Risin are there in a Mil?

(c)Some commentaries substitute 'Rus' for 'Ris'. What is the significance of 'Rus'?

(d)How many footsteps are there in seven and a half Risin?

(e)How many Mil are there in ninety Risin?

12)

(a)The distance from the first hut to the Tzuk - (a tall mountain) was ninety Ris ...

(b)... of which there are seven and a half per Mil (which is approximately a kilometer).

(c)Some commentaries substitute 'Rus' for 'Ris'. The significance of 'Rus' lies - in its numerical vlaue (two hundred and sixty-six) which in turn, is the equivalent of the number of footsteps that it measures.

(d)Seven and a half Risin is the equivalent of - one thousand, nine hundred and ninety-five footsteps.

(e)There are twelve Milin in ninety Risin.

Mishnah 5

13)

(a)What did they say to the Ish Iti as he arrived at each hut?

(b)Why did they do that?

(c)Why did the people in the last hut not accompany the Ish Iti to the Tzuk?

(d)How was that?

(e)How far did they accompany him?

13)

(a)As the Ish Iti as he arrived at each hut - 'Here is food and here is water!'

(b)They did that - based on the principle 'One cannot compare someone who has bread in his basket (and is therefore not so hungry) to someone who does not, who perpetually feels that he is starving.

(c)The people in the last hut did not accompany the Ish Iti to the Tzuk - because it was outside the T'chum Shabbos ...

(d)... since, bearing in mind the one thousand Amos from the edge of Yerushalayim to the first hut, the distance between the last hut and the Tzuk was two Mil (and the T'chum Shabbos is only one Mil.

(e)Consequently, they accompanied him - as far as one Mil, and watched him from there (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

Mishnah 6

14)

(a)What is the first thing the Ish Iti did when he arrived at the Tzuk?

(b)What did he then do with the two halves?

(c)What purpose did the red thread of wool play?

(d)Why did he not tie the entire thread on to ...

1. ... the rock?

(e)Why were the Chachamim not afraid that ...

1. ... even before tying the second half on to the goat's head, the half tied to the rock would turn white?

2. ... whilst tying the second half between the goat's horns, the thread would turn white, and he would forget to push the goat off the cliff?

14)

(a)the first thing the Ish Iti did when he arrived at the Tzuk was - to divide the red woolen thread that was tied between the two horns of the goat ...

(b)... one piece of which he tied on to a local piece of rock, the other, back between the goat's horns.

(c)The red thread was meant to turn white - a sign that all the sins of the people had been forgiven.

(d)He did not tie the entire thread on to ...

1. ... the rock - in case it turned white immediately, causing the Ish Iti to become so excited that, thinking that he had completed the Mitzvah, he would forget to push the goat off the cliff.

2. ... the goat's head - in case, whilst falling off the cliff, the goat's head might twist underneath its body, and the Ish Iti would fail to see whether or not, the red thread had turned white.

(e)The Chachamim were not afraid that ...

1. ... even before tying the second half on to the goat's head, the half tied to the rock would turn white - because it would not turn white in halves.

2. ... whilst tying the second half between the goat's horns, the thread would turn white, and he would forget to push the goat off the cliff - since he was actually busy with it at the time.

15)

(a)How did the Ish Iti push the goat from the cliff's edge?

(b)What happened to the goat as it fell?

(c)Where did he then go to await nightfall?

(d)How far is somebody whom Beis-Din permit to go outside T'chum Shabbos normally allowed to walk?

(e)Then why did they permit the Ish Iti to walk an extra thousand Amos in this case?

15)

(a)The Ish Iti pushed the goat from the cliff's edge - backwards (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

(b)As the goat fell - it broke up into small pieces, before it was even half-way down.

(c)He then went back - to the last hut to await nightfall.

(d)Somebody whom Beis-Din permitted to go outside T'chum Shabbos is normally allowed to walk - two thousand Amos (within T'chum Shabbos).

(e)They nevertheless permitted the Ish Iti to walk an extra thousand Amos in this case - taking into account the natural fear people have of staying alone in a dark desert (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

16)

(a)What do we learn from the Pasuk in Acharei-Mos "ve'ha'Meshale'ach es ha'Sair la'Azazel Yechabes Begadav"?

(b)According to the Tana Kama, it renders him Tamei the moment they leave the walls of the Azarah. What does Rebbi Shimon say?

(c)Like whom is the Halachah?

16)

(a)We learn from the Pasuk in Acharei-Mos "ve'ha'Meshale'ach es ha'Sair la'Azazel Yechabes Begadav" - that the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach is Metamei the Ish Iti as well as his clothes.

(b)According to the Tana Kama, it renders him Tamei the moment they leave the walls of the Azarah. According to Rebbi Shimon - it is from the moment he pushes it off the cliff (See Tos. Yom-Yov).

(c)The Halachah is - like the Tana Kama.

Mishnah 7

17)

(a)The Mishnah states that, after handing the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach to the Ish Iti, the Kohen Gadol went to the 'Par ve'Sa'ir ha'Nisrafin'. Why were the bull and goat described as 'ha'Nisrafin'?

(b)What did he do with them prior to taking them out to be burned?

(c)Where did he then place the Emurin before burning them on the Mizbe'ach?

(d)Why, when the Tana says 'Vehikltiran', can this not mean immediately?

(e)In that case, what does he mean (when h says 'K'ra'an ... Vehikltiran'?

17)

(a)The Mishnah states that, after handing the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach to the Ish Iti, the Kohen Gadol went to the 'Par ve'Sa'ir ha'Nisrafin' - so-described because they were burned outside the Beis-ha'Mikdash area and on the Mizbe'ach.

(b)Prior to taking them out to be burned - he tore them open and removed the Emurim ...

(c)... which he then placed - inside a dish that was a K'li Shareis, which he subsequently burned on the Mizbe'ach.

(d)When the Tana says 'Vehikltiran', this cannot mean immediately - since he was still wearing his white garments, in which he still needs to read the Parshah of Yom Kipur (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

(e)When he says 'K'ra'an ... Vehikltiran' he must therefore mean - that he tore them open in order to burn them (in the appropriate time).

18)

(a)How did the Kohen Gadol take then take the bull and the goat to be burned?

(b)What does 'Kal'an' mean?

(c)In what state did he transport them?

18)

(a)The Kohen Gadol (See Tos. Yom-Tov DH 'Kal'an be'Mikla'os) then took the bull and the goat to be burned - tied by their legs on to two sticks (See Tos. Yom-Tov)

(b)'Kal'an' means - in a way that (by virtue of their legs that were twisted across the pole) resembled plaiting.

(c)He transported them - whole (except for the Emurim that had been removed)

19)

(a)What do we learn from the Pasuk there "ve'ha'Soref osam Yechabes Begadav"?

(b)According to the Tana Kama, it renders them Tamei the moment they leave the walls of the Azarah. What does Rebbi Shimon say?

(c)Like whom is the Halachah?

19)

(a)We learn from the Pasuk there "ve'ha'Soref osam Yechabes Begadav" - that the bodies of the bull and the goat rendered Tamei whoever was involved in burning them.

(b)According to the Tana Kama, it renders them Tamei the moment they leave the walls of the Azarah. According to Rebbi Shimon - only after the majority of them are actually burning (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

(c)The Halachah is - like the Tana Kama.

Mishnah 8

20)

(a)Why was it necessary to inform the Kohen Gadol that the goat la'Az'azel had reached the desert'?

(b)From which sequence of Pesukim in Acharei-Mos do we learn this?

(c)How did they know that he had?

(d)Where did these guards stand?

20)

(a)It was necessary to inform the Kohen Gadol that the goat la'Az'azel had reached the desert because he was not permitted to begin another Avodah before that point.

(b)We learn this from the sequence of Pesukim in Acharei-Mos where 'v'Shilach Es ha'Sa'ir ba'Midbar' precedes 'v'Es Chelev ha'Chat'as Yaktir'.

(c)They knew that he had reached the desert when guards stationed in between the Midbar and the Beis Ha'Mikdash waved handkerchiefs.

(d)These guards stood on large rocks at intervals between the Midbar and the Beis Ha'Mikdash.

21)

(a)According to Rebbi Yehudah, they were able to work it out themselves, based on the fact that from Yerushalayim to Beis-Chidudo was a distance of three Milin. What does 'Beis Chidudo' mean?

(b)What is its significance?

(c)How were they not able to work out the exact moment that the Ish Iti arrived there?

(d)To whom does 'Holchin Mil ve'Chozrin Mil' refer?

21)

(a)According to Rebbi Yehudah, they were able to work it out themselves, based on the fact that from Yerushalayim to Beis-Chidudo was a distance of three Milin. 'Beis Chidudo' means the beginning of the Midbar.

(b)The word 'Chidud' means sharp.

(c)They were able to calculate the exact moment that the Ish Iti arrived there by escorting the Ish Iti for a Mil, turning back and returning a Mil, and waiting the amount of time it takes to walk a Mil.

(d)'Holchin Mil ve'Chozrin Mil' refers to the Yakirei Yerushalayim who escorted the Ish Iti.

22)

(a)According to Rebbi Yishmael, they had even a more clear sign that the goat had arrived in the desert. What was that?

(b)Upon which Pasuk in Yeshayah is this based?

22)

(a)According to Rebbi Yishmael, they had even a more clear sign that the goat had arrived in the desert- when the Lashon Zehoris that was tied to the door of the Beis Ha'Mikdash turned white.

(b)This is based on the Pasuk in Yeshayah (1:18), 'Im Yihyu Chata'eichem ka'Shanim ka'Sheleg Yalbinu'.