(a)How did Rava react when he saw a large group of people following him reverently? Why did he do that?
(b)Mar Zutra the Chasid reacted in the same way. What were they doing with him that caused him to react like that?
(c)It is not good for the Resha'im when they are favored in this world, and it is good for the Tzadikim when they are not. In what way ...
1. ... was Achav favored?
2. ... was Moshe not favored?
(a)When Rava saw a large group of people following him in reverence - worried that it might go to his head, he quoted a Pasuk in Iyov, which warns a person who becomes conceited that in the end, he will become insignificant.
(b)Mar Zutra the Chasid reacted in the same way - when in his old age, they carried him on their shoulders (in a sedan-chair) through the Beis-Hamedrash, so that the people should not have to get up to make way for him.
(c)It is not good for the Resha'im when they are favored in this world, and it is good for the Tzadikim when they are not.
1. Achav was favored when his entire family was destined to be wiped out following the killing of Navos at his instigation. However, because he humbled himself when he heard the news - the tragedy was postponed; it would occur, not in his days, but in the days of his son.
2. Moshe, on the other hand, was not favored - when Hash-m decreed that, because of what he did by the rock, he would not enter Eretz Yisrael - and no amount of pleading was able to change the decree.
(a)What are the benefits of Tzadikim not living as long as they deserve?
(b)Why did Aharon's two remaining sons (Elazar and Isamar) not die at the same time as their brothers (Nadav and Avihu)?
(c)Many sons of Cana'an might have reached the level of Tavi, Raban Gamliel's famous slave. Why did they not, in fact, make it?
(d)Why is it that someone who causes the community ...
1. ... to do good - will not sin (alternatively, cause others to sin)? How does this come about?
2. ... to sin - will not be given the opportunity to do Teshuvah?
(a)The benefits of Tzadikim not living as long as they deserve - are enjoyed by their children and their descendants.
(b)Aharon's two remaining sons (Elazar and Isamar) did not die at the same time as their brothers - due to the merits of Aharon (see Agados Maharsha).
(c)Many sons of Cana'an might have reached the level of Tavi, Raban Gamliel's famous slave. They not, in fact, make it - due to the wickedness of their grandfather, Cana'an.
(d)Someone who causes the community ...
1. ... to do good will not be tempted to sin (Hash-m will remove the temptation from his path - though this does not mean that he will not sin if he so wishes) - because it is unfair that his disciples should sit in Gan Eden, whilst he sits in Gehinom. (Alternatively, his deeds will not lead others to sin, for the same reason).
2. ... to sin - will not be given the opportunity to do Teshuvah - because it is unfair that he should sit in Gan Eden whilst his disciples sit in Gehinom.
(a)'ha'Omer Echta v'Ashuv, Echta v'Ashuv Ein Maspikin ... '. Why does the Tana repeat the words 'Echta v'Ashuv'?
(b)Our Mishnah says that Yom Kippur will not atone for someone who deliberately sins, whilst relying on Yom Kippur to atone for him. Is it correct to say that the author of the Mishnah cannot be Rebbi, who maintains that Yom Kippur atones without Teshuvah?
(c)If sins between man and man cannot be forgiven unless one makes up with the person whom one has wronged, then how do we initially explain the words of Eli's admonishing of his sons in Shmuel ...
1. ... "Im Yecheta Ish l'Ish u'Filelo Elokim?
2. ... "v'Im la'Hashem Yecheta Ish, Mi Yispalel Ba'ado"? How do we now explain the entire Pasuk?
(d)One Jew who wronged another monetarily, must make up to him by paying him back. How does one make up to someone whom one has wronged with words?
(a)'ha'Omer Echta v'Ashuv, Echta v'Ashuv Ein Maspikin ... '. The Tana repeats the words 'Echta v'Ashuv' - like Rav Huna Amar Rav, who says that it is only after the second time that one has sinned that he considers it to be permitted (and will not therefore do a sincere Teshuvah on it), but not after the first.
(b)Our Mishnah says that Yom Kippur will not atone for someone who deliberately sins, whilst relying on Yom Kippur to atone for it - a fact with which even Rebbi will agree, due to the fact that he is using Yom Kippur as an excuse to sin.
(c)Sins between man and man cannot be forgiven unless one makes up with the person whom one has wronged. The Pasuk ...
1. ... "Im Yecheta Ish l'Ish ... u'Filelo Elokim" means - that he will be forgiven only the judges find him guilty and make him pay his debt at least, that is how we initially explain it).
2. ... "v'Im la'Hashem Yecheta Ish, Mi Yispalel Ba'ado" - cannot mean "Who will judge him?" since Hash-m is not short of Sheluchim to punish the man who has sinned against Him. It must therefore be an expression of appeasement, and this what the Pasuk is therefore saying: "If someone sins against his friend and appeases him, Hash-m will forgive him, whereas if he sins against Hash-m, who will appease Hash-m (other than Teshuvah and good deeds)?"
(d)One Jew who wronged another monetarily, must make up to him by paying him back. If he wronged him with words - he must make up to him by appeasing him.
(a)What must one do if the wronged person does not respond to one's efforts at reconciliation?
(b)He is obligated to make three attempts, as we just learnt. What comment does Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina make with regard to this Halachah?
(c)What does one do if the person whom one wronged with words has died?
(a)If the wronged person does not accept the sinner's request to pardon him - then he is obligated to approach him three times, each time with three friends, to help pacify him for what he did.
(b)Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina comments - that it is even forbidden to make more than three attempts at reconciliation.
(c)If the person whom one wronged with words has died - he takes ten men to his graveside and begs him for forgiveness.
(a)In what connection did Rebbi Yirmeyahu quote the Pasuk in Tehilim "me'Ashpos Yarim Evyon"?
(b)How did the story end?
(c)What did Rebbi Zeira do to someone who had wronged him verbally?
(a)Rebbi Yirmeyahu went to Rebbi Aba to appease him for some wrong that he had done him, and whilst he was waiting for Rebbi Aba to exit, Rebbi Aba's maidservant inadvertently poured some sewage on his head. That is when he quoted the Pasuk in Tehilim "me'Ashpos Yarim Evyon".
(b)When Rebbi Aba heard Rebbi Yirmeyahu quoting the Pasuk, he went out to see him, and readily forgave him for what he had done.
(c)When someone wronged Rebbi Zeira verbally, he would go and stand in front of him, to make it easy for him to ask him for forgiveness (a crucial part of Teshuvah).
(a)Why did Rav Huna tell his Rebbe, Rav, that he was on his way to kill someone?
(b)How did his prediction come true?
(c)How did the butcher die?
(a)Rav Huna told his Rebbe, Rav, that he was on his way to kill someone - because he knew that the butcher who had wronged Rav, would not respond in a positive way, thereby making his situation in Heaven worse (Note: It is the same with us during the ten days between Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur, when Hash-m avils Himself to us to facilitate Teshuvah. If we fail to respond, we make our situation worse on Yom Kippur).
(b)His prediction come true - when the butcher, looking up and seeing Rav standing in front of him, told him to leave, since he had nothing to do with him.
(c)The butcher was chopping meat; a bone flew up and entered his throat, killing him.
(a)Why did Rav need to go and plead with Rebbi Chanina b'Rebbi Chama on thirteen consecutive Erev Yom Kippur for forgiveness?
(b)On what grounds was Rav permitted to do this, in light of what we learned earlier - that it is forbidden to ask for forgiveness more than three times (see Rabeinu Chananel)?
(c)What happens to someone who readily forgives those who have sinned against him?
(d)Then why did Rebbi Chanina not forgive Rav?
(a)Rav was learning a chapter in Tanach in front of Rebbi. He started again from the beginning when Rebbi Chiya arrived, and a third time for Bar Kapara. But when Rebbi Chanina b'Rebbi Chama joined the group he declined to start all over again, so he just continued, much to Rebbi Chanina's disgust. So he went to plead with him for forgiveness on thirteen consecutive Erev Yom Kippur.
(b)In spite of what we learned earlier that it is forbidden to ask for forgiveness more than three times - Rav took a strict line and went beyond the letter of the law. (It is difficult to understand however, how Rav could do this, seeing as Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina specifically forbade it? - According to Rabeinu Chananel, Rav acted in this way, because Rebbi Chanina was his Rebbe, and the restriction of three times does not apply to someone who has wronged one's Rebbe).
(c)Someone who readily forgives those who have sinned against him - will find that Hash-m will give him the same treatment: all his sins will be forgiven.
(d)Rebbi Chanina did not forgive Rav - because he had a dream, in which they suspended Rav on a date-palm (a sign that one will rise to greatness). Since he was due to become Rebbi's successor, he was afraid that if Rav were to remain in Eretz Yisrael, he would become the Rosh Yeshiva, which, due to the principle 'One Malchus cannot encroach on another' would have meant that he would have to die (in order to make room for Rav). Consequently, his refusal to accept appeasement was an attempt to force Rav to leave Eretz Yisrael, to become the Rosh Yeshiva in Bavel (which he subsequently did).
(a)When does the first Viduy on Yom Kippur fall due?
(b)Why did Chazal institute the recital of Viduy before the Se'udah ha'Mafsekes?
(c)Then why does one need to recite it again after the Se'udah?
(d)How many times does one subsequently recite it? When is it recited by ...
1. ... the community?
2. ... the Chazan?
(a)The first recital of Viduy falls due on Yom Kippur - immediately after the Se'udah ha'Mafsekes, as soon as one has brought in the fast (still before nightfall).
(b)Chazal instituted the recital of Viduy before the Se'udah ha'Mafsekes to preempt the Satan (who is more than keen that one should not recite Viduy and do Teshuvah), to prevent him from causing a person to choke during the Se'udah (before one has had a chance to recite Viduy even once).
(c)One nevertheless needs to recite it again after the Se'udah - in case one sinned in some way during the Se'udah.
(d)After the Se'udah, one subsequently recites Viduy ten times, twice during each of the Tefilos. It is recited ...
1. ... by the community - at the end of each Tefilah.
2. ... by the Chazan - in the middle.
(a)The Gemara cites many opinions as to the text of the Viduy on Yom Kippur. We insert most of them into our Tefilah, such as 'Atah Yode'a Razei Olam' and 'Ki ba'Yom ha'Zeh Yechaper Aleichem'. According to Rebbi Chanina, we should say 'Elokai ad she'Lo Notzarti Eini Kedai ... ', which we also insert after the Viduy. When did Rava used to say this?
(b)What did Shmuel used to do when the Shatz arrived at 'Aval Anachnu Chatanu'?
(c)What do we learn from this?
(a)We insert most of the Tefilos cited in the Gemara into our Tefilah, such as 'Atah Yode'a Razei Olam' and 'Ki ba'Yom ha'Zeh Yechaper Aleichem'. According to Rebbi Chanina, we should say 'Elokai ad she'Lo Notzarti Eini Kedai ... ', which we also include in our Viduy. Rava used to say this the whole year round.
(b)When the Shatz arrived at 'Aval Anachnu Chatanu' - Shmuel used to stand erect (from the bowing position in which one recites Viduy).
(c)We learn from this that 'Aval Anachnu Chatanu' (we insert the word ' Anachnu va'Avoseinu') is the main Viduy (and the rest is not of great importance - like Rebbi Akiva, who holds [on Daf 86b] that it is not necessary to list one's sins).
(a)What are the three occasions on which, according to the Mishnah in Ta'anis, the Kohanim would Duchan four times a day?
(b)What were the four times? Was it really four times on each of the three occasions?
(c)Then what does the Mishnah teach us?
(d)According to Rav, Ne'ilah comprises the extra Tefilah that we Daven at the conclusion of the day. What does Ne'ilah comprise according to Shmuel?
(a)The three occasions on which, according to the Mishnah in Ta'anis, the Kohanim would Duchan four times a day are - on a Ta'anis Tzibur (when there is no rain), on the Ma'amados (on the four days each week when the men of the Mishmar who were fasting, would gather in the various towns and read from Bereishis) and on Yom Kippur.
(b)The four times are Shacharis, Musaf, Minchah and Ne'ilah, which they would Daven on the two former occasions. On a Ta'anis, there was no Musaf - and what the Tana means is that at every (day) Tefilah, the Kohanim would Duchan.
(c)The Mishnah is teaching us that, due to the fact that they were fasting, the Kohanim would Duchen then even at Minchah (whereas throughout the year, due to the possibility of drunkenness, there is no Duchening at Minchah.
(d)According to Rav, Ne'ilah comprises the extra Tefilah that we Daven at the conclusion of the day; According to Shmuel, it is 'Mah Anu, Meh Chayeinu ... ' (like we say in Shacharis every morning) - without a Berachah.
(a)How many Berachos does each Tefilah of Yom Kippur comprise?
(b)How do we reconcile this Beraisa (which includes Ne'ilah in the list of Tefilos) with Shmuel?
(c)According to the Tana Kama of the Beraisa, the middle Berachah of Ne'ilah concludes 'ha'Kel ha'Solchan'. What do the Chachamim hold?
(d)'Ne'ilah' could mean the closing of the Gates of Heaven. What else might it mean?
(a)Each Tefilah on Yom Kippur comprises seven Berachos.
(b)In fact, the Beraisa (which includes Ne'ilah in the list of Tefilos) is a disproof to Shmuel; we make no effort to reconcile it with his opinion (according to the Bach's text).
(c)According to the Tana Kama of the Beraisa, the middle Berachah of Ne'ilah concludes 'ha'Kel ha'Solchan'. The Chachamim hold that although that is an optional conclusion, the regular conclusion is 'Mekadesh Yisrael'.
(d)'Ne'ilah' could mean the closing of the Gates of Heaven - it could also mean the closing of the gates of the Azarah.
(a)How did that Chazan (who Rava commended) - began Ne'ila111h, and how did he conclude it?
(b)What did Rav Nasan the father of Rav Huna Brei d'Rav Nasan say about 'Mah Anu ... '?
(a)The Chazan whom Rava commended - began Ne'ilah with 'Ata Bechartanu', and concluded it with 'Mah Anu, Meh Chayeinu ...'.
(b)Rav Nasan the father of Rav Huna Brei d'Rav Nasan said that every individual should say 'Mah Anu ... ' after his Tefilah (See Tosfos Teshanim).
(a)What did Rav say about Tefilas Ne'ilah?
(b)How will Rav reconcile this with his ruling that Tefilas Ma'ariv is voluntary?
(c)And how will Rav explain another Beraisa, where Tana'im discuss both Ne'ilah and Ma'ariv?
(d)According to Rebbi Chanina ben Gamliel, one is obligated to Daven the full Shemoneh-Esrei for Ma'ariv. What does the Tana Kama say, and what is his reason for such a leniency?
(a)Rav said that Ne'ilah covers Ma'ariv, which one is therefore exempt from having to Daven.
(b)Rav himself rules that Ma'ariv is voluntary (and may therefore be omitted anyway) - and his above statement is according to those who hold that Ma'ariv is obligatory.
(c)Rav concedes that the Tana'im in the Beraisa, who discuss both Ne'ilah and Ma'ariv, hold that Ma'ariv is obligatory - which, in his opinion, is a Machlokes Tana'im.
(d)According to Rebbi Chanina ben Gamliel, one is obligated to Daven the full Shemoneh-Esrei for Ma'ariv - the Tana Kama holds that one Davens seven Berachos, the first three, the last three, and 'Havineinu' (an abridged combination of the middle Berachos). The reason for this leniency is due to 'Tircha d'Tzibura' (easing the community's burden - see also Tosfos Yeshanim).