15a) [line 1] AMAH TIKRAH - the thickness of the ceiling, which is an Amah
b) [line 1] AMAH MA'AZIVAH - the thickness of the plaster [which serves as the floor for an upper story], which is an Amah
16) [line 2] SHISHA (alt. SHAISHA) - [smooth] yellow marble or alabaster
17) [line 3] LEHU - the [thickness] of the roof
18) [line 6] AVODAS HA'YOM B'VIGDEI BUTZ (BIGDEI KEHUNAH)
(a) Every Kohen wears four white linen garments while performing the Avodah. The Bigdei Kehunah are the Kutones (long shirt), Michnasayim (breeches), Avnet (belt), and Migba'as (hat).
(b) The Kohen Gadol wears an additional four garments whenever he performs the Avodah. These are the Tzitz (a thin gold band upon which the words "Kodesh la'Sh-m" are inscribed, worn upon the forehead), Efod (apron), Choshen (breastplate), and Me'il (robe).
(c) The head-covering of the Kohen Gadol is referred to as a "Mitznefes" by the Torah; some Rishonim understand that the head-coverings of the Kohen Gadol and Kohen Hedyot differed in appearance (see TOSFOS 25a DH Notel).
(d) If a Kohen performs the Divine Service while not wearing the Bigdei Kehunah, he receives Misah b'Yedei Shamayim. The Gemara (Sanhedrin 83b) derives from a Pasuk (Shemos 29:9) that they are considered Zarim (non-Kohanim; see Background to Sanhedrin 83:1) while in this state.
(e) On Yom ha'Kipurim, the Kohen Gadol wears Bigdei Lavan when performing the special Yom Kipur service (Vayikra 16:4). The Bigdei Lavan of the Kohen Gadol are identical to the four white linen garments worn by a Kohen Hedyot. The Kohen Gadol wears the Bigdei Lavan while performing the Avodas Penim (the parts of the service which include entering the Heichal and the Kodesh ha'Kodashim). He changed his garments from Bigdei Zahav (his regular eight vestments) to Bigdei Lavan and vice versa five times over the course of the day.
19) [line 7] PASHAT - [the Kohen Gadol] stripped off [his personal non-sanctified clothing]
20) [line 9] NISTAPEG - he dried off
21) [line 10] TAMID (KORBAN TAMID)
(a) The Korban Tamid consists of two male sheep which are less than one year old. One sheep is offered in the morning, known as the Tamid Shel Shachar, and the second -- called the Tamid Shel Bein ha'Arbayim -- is offered in the afternoon. One tenth of an Eifah (approx. two quarts) of flour, mixed with one quarter of a Hin (approx. one quart) of hand pressed olive oil, is offered with each sheep as a Minchah (meal offering). One quarter of a Hin of wine is offered with each sheep as a wine libation. (Bamidbar 28:5).
22) [line 10] KERATZO - he cut it [through the majority of the esophagus and windpipe, which is the minimal requirement of a Halachically valid slaughter]
23a) [line 11] U'MEREK ACHER SHECHITA - and a different Kohen finished the slaughter [since the Kohen Gadol, who is the only one empowered to perform the Avodah on Yom Kipur, must catch the blood of the Tamid as well]
b) [line 11] AL YADO - for him; alt. while standing near him
24) [line 11] KIBEL ES HA'DAM - see next entry
25) [line 12] ZARKO (ZERIKAS HA'DAM)
(a) The blood which exits the body of the Korban Tamid following its slaughter is collected in a bowl (Kabalas ha'Dam). It is then applied to the Keranos (cubic Amah posts placed upon the corners of the Mizbe'ach) in a manner known as "Shenayim she'Hen Arba" -- "two that are four." This means that the blood is twice applied, but in four directions. First the Kohen walks to the northeastern corner of the Mizbe'ach and applies the blood along the eastern and northern sides of the Keren, and then he walks west and then south until he reaches the southwestern Keren, at which point he applies the blood along the western and southern sides.
26) [line 12] KETORES
(a) Ketores is the name of the incense mixture burned on the golden Mizbe'ach in the Heichal of the Beis ha'Mikdash. It is burned twice each day; in the morning when the Kohen cleans out the lamps of the Menorah, and in the evening when the Kohen lights the Menorah. It consisted of the following eleven ingredients:
1. 70 Maneh (350 pounds) of TZARI ("Sraf ha'Notef me'Atzei ha'Ketaf") - balsam tree sap
2. 70 Maneh (350 pounds) of TZIPOREN ("Shecheles") - the root of a certain annual plant. Some identify Tziporen as a species of rock-rose -- Cistus ladaniferus -- which has fingernail-like petals. Alternatively, Tziporen may be onycha, a kind of flower.
3. 70 Maneh (350 pounds) of CHELBENAH - a) galbanum; a yellow-brown gum resin obtained from a plant that grows in Persia; b) some maintain that Chelbenah is the gum of the common storax tree
4. 70 Maneh (350 pounds) of LEVONAH - frankincense, otherwise known as oliban; a gum resin produced by certain trees in Arabia and India. The gum is yellowish and semi-transparent, with a bitter, nauseating taste. The gum is hard; when pulverized, it produces a powder. Burning this powder produced a strong aromatic odor.
5. 16 Maneh (80 pounds) of MOR - myrrh
6. 16 Maneh (80 pounds) KETZI'AH - cassia
7. 16 Maneh (80 pounds) SHIBOLES NERD - spikenard
8. 16 Maneh (80 pounds) KARKOM - saffron
9. 12 Maneh (60 pounds) KOSHT - costus
10. 3 Maneh (15 pounds) KILUFAH - cinnamon bark
11. 9 Maneh (45 pounds) KINAMON - cinnamon
(b) In addition, the following ingredients were added as incinerating agents:
1. 1 Kav (9 quarts) of BORIS KARSHINAH - vetch lye
2. 3 Se'ah and 3 Kavim (app. 21 quarts) of YEIN KAFRISIN - a) the fermented juice of the caper-berry; alt., b) wine made from grapes that grow in Cyprus. If Yein Kafrisin is not available, then CHAMAR CHIVARYAN ATIK -- very old strong white wine -- is added instead
3. One quarter Kav (1 cup) of MELACH SEDOMIS - Sodomite salt
4. A small amount of MA'ALEH ASHAN - an ingredient that caused the smoke to rise straight up in the air; probably Leptadenia Pyrotechnica (due to the nitric acid it contains)
(c) Rebbi Nasan ha'Bavli says that a small amount of Kipas ha'Yarden (probably cyclamen) was added as well.
27) [line 12] L'HEITIV ES HA'NEROS (HATAVAS HA'NEROS)
(a) Every evening a Kohen kindles the Menorah in the Beis ha'Mikdash (Hadlakas ha'Neros). The Kohen places enough oil into the lamps of the Menorah for it to burn throughout the entire night.
(b) In the morning, a Kohen cleans out the charred wicks and any oil that remain in the Menorah's lamps, and replaces them with fresh wicks and oil (Hatavas ha'Neros, or Dishun ha'Menorah). The spent wicks are placed in the pile of ashes next to the ramp of the Mizbe'ach formed by the Terumas ha'Deshen (see Background to 12:28).
(c) The Hatavas ha'Neros is accomplished in two stages. First the Kohen cleans out five of the lamps. He then waits for a certain other Avodah to be performed, and only afterwards does he clean out the remaining two lamps of the Menorah. What Avodah was performed in between is the subject of a disagreement between Tana'im. The Rabanan understand that it is the burning of the Ketores, while Aba Sha'ul maintains that it is the application of the blood of the Korban Tamid to the Keranos of the Mizbe'ach. There are Rishonim who are of the opinion that all seven lamps of the Menorah are cleaned at once, according to certain Tana'im.
(d) Some Rishonim assert that some or all of the lamps were lit in the morning as well as the evening. Also, the process described above is altered slightly if some of the lamps are still burning at the time of the Hatavas ha'Neros.
28) [line 13] ES HA'ROSH V'ES HA'EVARIM - the head and the limbs [of the Korban Tamid]
29) [line 14] (VEHA'CHAVITIN) [V'ES HA'CHAVITIN] (CHAVITEI KOHEN GADOL)
(a) The Kohen Gadol offers a daily Minchah (see Background to 24:6:b) consisting of one-tenth of an Eifah of wheat flour. The dough is formed into twelve rolls that are boiled, baked, and then fried in olive oil in a flat pan. Six of these rolls are burned on the Mizbe'ach in the morning, and the remaining half towards evening (Vayikra 6:13).
30) [line 14] HA'YAYIN (NESACHIM)
(a) Nesachim are wine libations offered along with a Korban Shelamim or Olah, whether these Korbanos are offered by the Tzibor (Bamidbar 28:11-15, 20-21) or an individual (Bamidbar 15:3-16). All Nesachim are offered along with a meal offering known as a Minchas Nesachim.
(b) A Korban Tamid requires three Lugin (approximately one liter) of wine for its libation, and one Isaron (approximately two and a half liters) of flour mixed with three Lugin of oil for its Minchas Nesachim.
31) [line 17] ISTENIS - finicky
32) [line 17] MECHAMIN LO CHAMIN - they would heat water for him [on Erev Yom ha'Kipurim]
33) [line 18] TAFIG - weaken
34) [line 19] RABANAN - the Talmidim of Rav Papa
35) [line 19] HA - that [which it says in our Mishnah that Kidush Yadayim v'Raglayim is necessary only after the first of the five times that the Kohen Gadol immerses himself on Yom Kipur]
36) [line 20] TREI KIDUSHEI A'LEVISHAH AVID LEHU - The Chachamim are of the opinion that the Kohen Gadol washes his hands and feet both prior to removing the set of clothing that he is wearing and after dressing himself in the next set. Rebbi Meir maintains that the first Kidush is done following the removal of the first set of garments (Mishnah 34b). The Talmidim of Rav Papa understood that the reasoning of Rebbi Meir is that both of the times that the Kohen Gadol washes his hands and feet are related to that which he is dressing himself in a new set of garments.
37) [line 24] "U'PASHAT", "V'RACHATZ", "V'LAVASH" - The terms "and he shall remove" and "and he shall dress," both referring to the changing of the Kohen Gadol's vestments on Yom ha'Kipurim, surround the term "and he shall wash," referring to that which the Kohen Gadol should wash his hands and feet (Vayikra 16: 23-24). Chazal interpret this to mean that the Kohan Gadol must wash his hands and feet together with both the removal of his current set of clothing as well as with the garbing of the new set.
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