1) [line 2] A'BEIS HA'SHECHITAH - covering the severed area of the neck [which is blood-spattered]
2) [line 4] "CHADASHIM L'KETORES, BO'U V'HAFISU!" - "Those Kohanim who have never offered the Ketores, come and join the Payis!"
3) [line 4] KETORES
(a) Ketores is the name of the incense mixture burned on the golden Mizbe'ach in the Heichal of the Beis ha'Mikdash. It is burned twice each day; in the morning when the Kohen cleans out the lamps of the Menorah, and in the evening when the Kohen lights the Menorah. It consisted of the following eleven ingredients:
1. 70 Maneh (350 pounds) of TZARI ("Sraf ha'Notef me'Atzei ha'Ketaf") - balsam tree sap
2. 70 Maneh (350 pounds) of TZIPOREN ("Shecheles") - the root of a certain annual plant. Some identify Tziporen as a species of rock-rose -- Cistus ladaniferus -- which has fingernail-like petals. Alternatively, Tziporen may be onycha, a kind of flower.
3. 70 Maneh (350 pounds) of CHELBENAH - a) galbanum; a yellow-brown gum resin obtained from a plant that grows in Persia; b) some maintain that Chelbenah is the gum of the common storax tree
4. 70 Maneh (350 pounds) of LEVONAH - frankincense, otherwise known as oliban; a gum resin produced by certain trees in Arabia and India. The gum is yellowish and semi-transparent, with a bitter, nauseating taste. The gum is hard; when pulverized, it produces a powder. Burning this powder produced a strong aromatic odor.
5. 16 Maneh (80 pounds) of MOR - myrrh
6. 16 Maneh (80 pounds) KETZI'AH - cassia
7. 16 Maneh (80 pounds) SHIBOLES NERD - spikenard
8. 16 Maneh (80 pounds) KARKOM - saffron
9. 12 Maneh (60 pounds) KOSHT - costus
10. 3 Maneh (15 pounds) KILUFAH - cinnamon bark
11. 9 Maneh (45 pounds) KINAMON - cinnamon
(b) In addition, the following ingredients were added as incinerating agents:
1. 1 Kav (9 quarts) of BORIS KARSHINAH - vetch lye
2. 3 Se'ah and 3 Kavim (app. 21 quarts) of YEIN KAFRISIN - a) the fermented juice of the caper-berry; alt., b) wine made from grapes that grow in Cyprus. If Yein Kafrisin is not available, then CHAMAR CHIVARYAN ATIK -- very old strong white wine -- is added instead
3. One quarter Kav (1 cup) of MELACH SEDOMIS - Sodomite salt
4. A small amount of MA'ALEH ASHAN - an ingredient that caused the smoke to rise straight up in the air; probably Leptadenia Pyrotechnica (due to the nitric acid it contains)
(c) Rebbi Nasan ha'Bavli says that a small amount of Kipas ha'Yarden (probably cyclamen) was added as well.
4) [line 6] ME'OLAM LO SHANAH ADAM BAH - a Kohen never offered the Ketores twice
5) [line 7] ME'ASHERES - causes he who burns it to become rich
6) [line 8] "[YORU MISHPATECHAH L'YAAKOV, V'SORASCHA L'YISRAEL;] YASIMU KETORAH B'APECHA, [V'CHALIL AL MIZBECHECHA]" - "[They shall teach your judgements to Yaakov, and your Torah to Yisrael;] They shall place incense before You [and Olah sacrifices upon Your altar]" (Devarim 33:10). This verse is part of the blessing given to the Shevet of Levi by Moshe Rabeinu in Parshas v'Zos ha'Berachah.
7) [line 9] "BARECH HASH-M CHEILO, [U'FO'AL YADAV TIRTZEH]" - "May HaSh-m bless his possessions, [and favor the work of his hands]" (Devarim 33:11).
*8a*) [line 11] HA SHECHICHA - the offering of an Olah is a common Avodah. Therefore a) it is not logical that it should enrich, for then all Kohanim would be rich (RASHI); b) there is no reason to regulate which Kohanim may offer it, for any Kohen who wishes to offer a Korban Olah may consecrate his own animal as such and do so (TOSFOS YESHANIM, TOSFOS to Menachos 50a DH d'Lo Shechi'ach)
b) [line 11] HA LO SHECHICHA - [the offering of the Ketores] is not a common Avodah [since it is only available twice a day, unlike the various Korbanos which may be offered by individuals as well]
9) [line 12] D'MORI - who rules on Halachic matters
10) [line 14] "(UV'NEI) [UMI'BNEI] YISACHAR ..." - "And of the children of Yisachar, men who had understanding of the times, to know what Yisrael ought to do; [the heads of them were two hundred, and all their brothers were at their command.]" (Divrei ha'Yamim I 12:33)
11) [line 16] "... YEHUDAH MECHOKEKI" - "... Yehudah establishes my laws."
12) [line 17] ASUKEI SHEMA'ATA ALIBA D'HILCHESA - the ability to divine the correct Halachah through learning the Sugya (as opposed to Shevet Yehudah, who enforce the law)
13) [line 18] TAMID SHEL BEIN HA'ARBYIM (Korban Tamid)
(a) The Korban Tamid consists of two male sheep which are less than one year old. One sheep is offered in the morning, known as the Tamid Shel Shachar, and the second -- called the Tamid Shel Bein ha'Arbayim -- is offered in the afternoon. One tenth of an Eifah (approx. two quarts) of flour, mixed with one quarter of a Hin (approx. one quart) of hand pressed olive oil, is offered with each sheep as a Minchah (meal offering). One quarter of a Hin of wine is offered with each sheep as a wine libation. (Bamidbar 28:5).
(b) The Mishnah (Erchin 13a) teaches that there were never less than six sheep available for the Korban Tamid at any time. Since every public Korban must be purchased with the Terumas ha'Lishkah from the current year, every Rosh Chodesh Nisan there were four extra sheep which had been purchased with the previous year's Shekalim. This Machlokes concerns what should be dome with them if they are unblemished and fit to be offered upon the Mizbe'ach.
*14*) [line 22] K'SHEM SHE'MEFISIN LO SHACHARIS ... - The word "Lo" must be referring to the Korban Tamid, which is in masculine form. "Ketores" is in the feminine form, and therefore must be referred to as "Lah".
15) [line 28] MISHMAROS
(a) Every family of Kohanim belongs to one of 24 shifts (Mishmaros). Each Mishmar serves in the Mikdash for one week at a time, meaning that each one performs the Avodah for at least two weeks out of the year. The Mishmaros change on Shabbos, when the outgoing Mishmar performs the Avodah in the morning and the incoming Mishmar performs the Avodah in the afternoon.
(b) Every Mishmar is further divided into six Batei Avos. Each Beis Av serves on a different day of the week. On Shabbos, the Kohanim of all of the Batei Avos perform the Avodah together (RASHI Menachos 107b). Some contend that the Mishmaros are divided into seven groups, and only one group serves on Shabbos (RASHI Ta'anis 26a; see Insights).
(c) On the Shalosh Regalim (the holidays of Pesach, Shavu'os and Sukos) all the Mishmaros Kehunah come to Yerushalayim to fulfill the Mitzvah of Aliyah l'Regel. At those times, Kohanim from any Mishmar are permitted to perform the Avodah of the Regel.
16) [line 29] NEFISHI LEHU PEYASOS - there are [too] many Peyasos
17) [line 29] TZAFRA - the morning
*18*) [line 32] MASNISIN D'LO K'REBBI ELIEZER BEN YAKOV ... - The Tana of our Mishnah, who maintains that those Kohanim who brought the limbs of the Tamid to the Kevesh were not those who brought them up to the Mizbe'ach, maintains that a) one additional Kohen is selected to bring all of the Evarim up to the Mizbe'ach (RASHI); b) nine additional Kohanim are selected to bring the Evarim up the ramp to the Mizbe'ach (TOSFOS YESHANIM 26a DH d'Lo).
19) [line 35] "B'RAV AM HADRAS MELECH ..." - "In a large company lies the glory of the king ..." (Mishlei 14:28)
20) [line 35] LAV ORACH AR'A - it is not seemly [since it appears that the reason why the Kohanim do not bring the Evarim up to the Mizbe'ach at once is since it is burdensome]
*21*) [line 36] D'REBBI YEHUDAH - Rebbi Yehudah maintains that no separate Payis is necessary to select which Kohen brings coals from the outer Mizbe'ach in a Machtah (pan) upon which to burn the Ketores (25b).
22) [last line] BATZRU LEHU - they are lacking (i.e., there are less than four)
*23*) [line 2] TAMID KAREV B'TISH'A - The Korban Tamid is offered by nine Kohanim. This reckoning begins with the Kohanim who bring the limbs of the Tamid to the Kevesh, and includes
1. The Kohen who carries the head (with the cut neck covered by the Peder, the fatty membrane that divides the intestines from the stomachs) in his right hand and the right hind leg in his left hand and places them on the Kevesh
2. The Kohen who carries the right foreleg in his right hand and the left foreleg in his left hand and places them on the Kevesh
3. The Kohen who carries the hindquarters (including the fatty tail, the gall bladder and the kidneys) in his right hand and the left hind leg in his left hand and places them on the Kevesh
4. The Kohen who carries the Chazeh (chest) in his right hand and the Geirah (neck) in his left hand and places them on the Kevesh
5. The Kohen who carries the Dofen Yemin (the right flank with the upper ribs) in his right hand and the Dofen Smol (the left flank with the upper ribs) in his left hand and places them on the Kevesh
6. The Kohen who carries the Keravayim (innards) in a pan, with the Kera'ayim (feet) on top and places them on the Kevesh
7. The Kohen who carries the Minchas Nesachim (see Background to 25:18)
8. The Kohen who carries the Minchas Chavitin (see Background to 25:19)
9. The Kohen who carries the wine libation (see Background to 25:18).
24) [line 4] CHAG - Sukos
25) [line 5] TZELOCHIS SHEL MAYIM (NISUCH HA'MAYIM)
(a) A Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai teaches us that on Sukos in the Beis ha'Mikdash there is a Mitzvah of Nisuch ha'Mayim (lit. pouring of the water). Three Lugim (approx. 1.5 liter) of water are drawn from the Shilo'ach spring, which is located to the south of the Temple Mount. This water is then brought to the Azarah amidst a joyous procession, in fulfillment of the Pasuk, "u'She'avtem Mayim b'Sason ..." ("and you shall draw water with rejoicing ..." - Yeshayah 12:3). The Kohen who is chosen to pour the water ascends the Mizbe'ach and pours the water from a golden flask into one of the Sefalim (silver libation pipes located in the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach). The Nisuch ha'Mayim takes place each day of Sukos at the time of the morning Tamid sacrifice amidst much rejoicing.
26) [line 6] SHNEI GEZIREI ETZIM - two square Amah blocks of wood [each as thick as the block used to level a heaping Se'ah, which are placed upon the wood arrangement atop the Mizbe'ach in order to increase the flames (Zevachim 62b; RAMBAM Temidin u'Musafin 6:1)]
27) [line 8] BAZICHEI LEVONAH (LECHEM HA'PANIM)
(a) The Lechem ha'Panim (Showbread) refers to the 12 loaves arranged in two stacks (Sedarim) -- six loaves to a stack -- on the Golden Table of the Mishkan or Beis ha'Mikdash. The loaves are one Tefach thick and may not be Chametz. Fresh loaves are arranged on the Table every Shabbos and are left there through the following Shabbos. The loaves are eaten by Kohanim after their removal. (Vayikra 24:5-9).
(b) A Kometz (that which can be held between one's middle three fingers and his palm) of Levonah (frankincense) is placed alongside each stack in a Bazach (bowl). The Levonah is offered upon the Mizbe'ach when the loaves are removed. Only after this stage may the Lechem ha'Panim be eaten by the Kohanim.
28) [line 17] SHE'PA'AM ECHAD NISECH AL GABEI RAGLAV (TZEDUKIM)
(a) The Tzedukim were students of Tzadok, and the Beitusim were students of Beitus. Both of these individuals rejected the Oral Torah (Avos d'Rebbi Nasan 5:2).
(b) The Kohen in this story was a Tzeduki who rejected the Nisuch ha'Mayim, since it is learned from a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai.
*29*) [line 18] B'ESROGEIHEM - From that which those assembled were holding Esrogim, it must have been at the time of the morning Tamid.
30a) [line 20] "... V'ARCHU ETZIM ..." - "[And the sons of Aharon ha'Kohen shall place fire on the Mizbe'ach,] and they shall arrange pieces of wood [upon the fire]" (Vayikra 1:7). This verse, which is in the Parshah detailing general laws of sacrifices, implies that more than one Kohen is necessary to place these pieces of wood.
b) [line 22] "... U'VI'ER ALEHA HA'KOHEN ..." - "[And the fire upon the Mizbe'ach shall burn on it, and shall not be extinguished;] and the Kohen shall burn upon it pieces of wood every morning, and he shall arrange the Olah (the Korban Tamid) upon it ..." (Vayikra 6:5). This verse states that only one Kohen arranges the Gezirei Etzim.
31a) [line 30] PE'AMIM SHELOSH ESREI - sometimes [selected] thirteen [Kohanim to perform thirteen Avodos, as detailed in the previous Mishnah]
b) [line 30] PE'AMIM ARBA ESREI - sometimes [selected] fourteen [Kohanim to perform fourteen Avodos, when an additional one was needed to carry the golden flask of water for the Nisuch ha'Mayim on Sukos]
c) [line 30] PE'AMIM CHAMESH ESREI - sometimes [selected] fifteen [Kohanim to perform fifteen Avodos -- both for the afternoon Tamid which required two additional Kohanim to carry two Gezirei Etzim, and on Shabbos when there were two Bazichei Levonah of the Lechem ha'Panim]
d) [line 31] PE'AMIM SHESH ESREI - sometimes [selected] sixteen [Kohanim to perform sixteen Avodos, on Shabbos of Sukos]
32a) [line 31] HA'HI D'LO K'REBBI ELIEZER BEN YAKOV - that [Beraisa, which states that sometimes seventeen Kohanim were necessary to perform all of the Avodos connected to the Korban Tamid,] does not follow the opinion of Rebbi Eliezer ben Yaakov [who maintains that no additional Kohen was selected to carry the Evarim of the Tamid up to the Mizbe'ach with the fourth Payis.]
b) [line 32] ELA K'REBBI YEHUDAH - Rather, [the Tana] is Rebbi Yehudah [who is the one who argues with Rebbi Eliezer ben Yaakov, as the Gemara established at the top of the page. Therefore, there was one newly selected Kohen whose job it was to carry the Evarim up the ramp, and he was the seventeenth.] (See Insights for other ways in which the Rishonim explain this Gemara.)
33) [line 33] HA'BASAR B'CHAMISHAH - see above, entry #23:1-5
34) [line 34] SOLES ... YAYIN (NESACHIM)
(a) Nesachim are wine libations offered along with a Korban Shelamim or Olah, whether these Korbanos are offered by the Tzibor (Bamidbar 28:11-15, 20-21) or an individual (Bamidbar 15:3-16). All Nesachim are offered along with a meal offering known as a Minchas Nesachim.
(b) The amount of wine necessary for the libation, as well as the amount of flour and oil mixed together for the Minchas Nesachim, vary depending upon what kind of animal is being offered:
TYPE OF ANIMAL WINE (NESACHIM) FLOUR (MINCHAH) OIL (MINCHAH) ============== =============== =============== ============= 1. a bull or cow 6 Lugin (1/2 Hin) 3 Esronim 6 Lugin (1/2 Hin) 2. a ram (a male sheep 4 Lugin (1/3 Hin) 2 Esronim 4 Lugin (1/3 Hin) at least thirteen months old) 3. a lamb or goat 3 Lugin (1/4 Hin) 1 Isaron 3 Lugin (1/4 Hin) (within their first year of life)(c) 1 Isaron is approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions. 1 Log is approximately .3, .345 or .6 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.
35) [line 34] B'SHNAYIM SHNAYIM - each of which required two Kohanim
36) [line 39] IM RATZAH L'HAKRIV - if [one Kohen] wishes to perform all of the parts of the Avodah]
37a) [line 40] HEFSHEITAN - their skinning
b) [line 40] NITUCHAN - their dismemberment
38) [line 40] SHAVIN B'ZAR - are equal in that a non-Kohen [may perform these actions]
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