BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Yerushalayim
[a - 45 lines; b - 45 lines]
1) [line 1] V'YA'AVIRENU ARBA AMOS BI'RESHUS HA'RABIM - see Background to 41:24
2a) [line 2] D'SHOFAR - [why the Chachamim decreed] that the Shofar [should not be blown on Rosh Hashanah that falls on Shabbos]
b) [line 2] D'MEGILAH - [why the Chachamim decreed] that the Megilah [should not be read on Purim that falls on Shabbos]
3) [line 6] GEVULIN - outside of the Beis ha'Mikdash
4) [line 7] GAZRU BEHU RABANAN (YESH KO'ACH B'YAD CHACHAMIM LA'AKOR DAVAR MIN HA'TORAH B'SHEV V'AL TA'ASEH)
(a) In certain circumstances the Chachamim may deem it necessary to decree that a Mitzvah commanded in the Torah not be fulfilled, for fear that it lead to the desecration of other Mitzvos. They have the ability to do so as long as the involves idly sitting by instead of actively performing the Mitzvah. For example, Chazal decreed that one should not blow the Shofar nor take the Arba Minim on Shabbos. This is due to the concern that one may come to unthinkingly carry these items through a Reshus ha'Rabim before using them as part of the Mitzvah, which would transgress the prohibition against performing Melachah on Shabbos. To actively require one to perform an action that transgresses a Mitzvah, however, is beyond the limits of their leeway to act for the sake of the Torah.
5) [line 8] ANAN - we [in Bavel]
6) [line 8] KIVU'A D'YARCHA - when the month began [which is determined by when the new moon is witnessed in Yerushalayim]
7) [line 8] INHU - they [in Eretz Yisrael]
8) [line 9] D'YAD'I B KIVU'A D'YARCHA - who know when the month began [since witnesses were accepted by Beis Din even after the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash]
9) [line 22] IZTERICH KRA L'MISHRI TILTUL? - is [an extra word in] a verse necessary to permit [the] carrying [of a branch, which is only prohibited mid'Rabanan due to Muktzah (see Background to 42:56:b)]?
10) [line 23] MACHSHIREI LULAV - preparations necessary for fulfilling the Mitzvah of Arba Minim [such as cutting a Lulav from a tree or tying the Hadasim and Aravos to the Lulav, both of which are generally prohibited on Shabbos]
11) [line 36] V'DIN HU (GEZEIRAH SHAVAH)
(a) In a Beraisa found in the introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash on Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists the thirteen methodologies employed by Chazal when determining Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of these is Gezeirah Shavah, through which two identical words (or two words that share the same root) appearing in two different sections of the Torah teach us that Halachos of one apply to the other and vice versa.
(b) One may apply a Gezeirah Shavah only if he has received a tradition from his teachers that the connection between the two words exists. Once the connection is established, however, then one may apply it to derive Halachos that one did not necessarily receive a tradition for.
(c) A Gezeirah Shavah is unlimited; one may not pick and choose which Halachos he would like to apply to the other connected subject. This facet of a Gezeirah Shavah is termed "Ein Gezeirah Shavah l'Mechetzah". This rule is waived in the case of an explicit teaching that precludes the application of a specific Halachah.
(d) There are three possible configurations for a Gezeirah Shavah:
1. MUFNEH MI'SHNEI TZEDADIM - If both words are seemingly unnecessary and are not used in the derivation of any other teaching, then all of the rules described above apply.
2. MUFNEH MI'TZAD ECHAD - If the word in only one of the sections is available, some maintain that such a Gezeirah Shavah is no more limited than one that is Mufneh mi'Shnei Tzedadim. Others rule that Halachos may be derived from such a Gezeirah Shavah only if there is no argument against them. This status is known as "Lemedin u'Meshivin".
3. EINO MUFNEH KOL IKAR - If neither word is free, then those opinions who maintain that a Gezeirah Shavah that is Mufneh mi'Tzad Echad is unlimited grant such a Gezeirah Shavah the status of Lemedin u'Meshivin. Those who applied Lemedin u'Meshivin to a Gezeirah Shavah that is Mufneh mi'Shnei Tzedadim rule that this one may not be used to determine any Halachos whatsoever.
12) [line 38] O KALECH L'DERECH ZU - lit. or turn this way; or perhaps one can argue as follows
13) [line 39] MILU'IM
(a) The first seven days during which the Avodah was performed in the Mishkan were called the "Shiv'as Yemei ha'Milu'im." The word "Milu'im" means "filling," and refers to the fact that during these days the position of Divine servants was finally "filled" by the Kohanim (RASHI to Vayikra 8:22). These seven days began on the 23rd of Adar and lasted until Rosh Chodesh Nisan, which was the eighth day.
(b) During the Yemei ha'Milu'im, the Kohanim along with all of the components and utensils of the Mishkan were anointed with Shemen ha'Mishchah (see above, entry #4). Many Korbanos, called Korbanos ha'Milu'im, were offered at this time. Moshe Rabeinu officiated as the Kohen Gadol, demonstrating the Avodah to Aharon and his sons. On each day, Moshe assembled and dissembled the Mishkan, until the eighth day, on which he left it standing. On that day, Aharon was officially appointed as the Kohen Gadol and the Shechinah descended to dwell permanently in the Mishkan (RASHI ibid. 9:23).
(c) During these seven days, Klal Yisrael were commanded to sit in the Azarah - the main courtyard of the Mishkan - for all seven days and nights. This instruction was delivered with the instruction that no one was to leave the Azarah for "Shiv'as Yamim" (Vayikra 8:33) -- which did not specifically mention what was to be done at nighttime -- as well as the more explicit "sit day and night for seven days" (Vayikra 8:35).
14a) [line 42] DAVAR SHE'MITZVASO KOL HA'YOM - that Mitzvah which must be fulfilled all day; i.e., sitting in the Azarah during the Yemei ha'Milu'im
b) [line 43] DAVAR SHE'MITZVASO SHA'AH ACHAS - that Mitzvah which must be fulfilled once [per day]; i.e., that of the Arba Minim
*15*) [line 5] KEDEI L'FARSEMAH SHE'HI MIN HA'TORAH - in order to publicize that it is [a Mitzvah] commanded by the Torah. The Mitzvah of Aravah is not spelled out clearly in the Torah, although it has the status of a Mitzvah that is. The exact source of this Mitzvah will be discussed on 44a.
16a) [line 6] LIDCHI -let it supercede [Shabbos in the Beis ha'Mikdash for all seven days of Sukos]
b) [line 6] KEDEI L'FARSEMAH SHE'HI MIN HA'TORAH - in order to publicize that [the Mitzvah to take the Arba Minim all seven days of Sukos in the Beis ha'Mikdash] is commanded by the Torah. Although the verse requires "Simchah in front of Hash-m" for all seven days of Sukos (Vayikra 23:40), one could interpret this as a reference to a Mitzvah other than Arba Minim.
17) [line 8] MAISI LAH - bring it
18) [line 9] LA'KOL MASUR - is given to all to perform, including those who are unlearned]
19) [line 10] L'FAKPUKEI B'LULAV - to demean the importance of the Mitzvah of Arba Minim [since it supercedes Shabbos on only one day of Sukos, whereas the Mitzvah of Aravah does so on all seven days]
20a) [line 11] LO MUCHECHA MILSA - it is not readily apparent
b) [line 11] AMRI LULAV HU D'KA DACHI - [for] they will say that it is [because the Mitzvah of] Lulav supercedes [Shabbos on the first day of Sukos that the Mitzvah of Aravah does so on that day as well]
21) [line 12] CHAD ME'HANACH - one of the other [of the last six days of Sukos]
22) [line 13] OKMAH A'SHEVI'I - it is conferred upon the seventh [day, since it stands out as the last day of Sukos]
23) [line 16] LO IKLA - [Beis Din insures that the seventh day of Sukos] never falls [on Shabbos by not accepting witnesses who saw the new moon at that time]
24) [line 16] KOL NECHUSEI - [the] entire contingent [of scholars who accompanied] him [from Eretz Yisrael to Bavel]
25a) [line 18] B'NETILAH? - was [fulfilled by] taken it in the hand?
b) [line 18] B'ZEKIFAH! - was [fulfilled by] standing it around the perimeter of the Mizbe'ach!
26) [line 21] MIDI IRYA? HA KED'ISA V'HA KED'ISA! - is this a proof? This [case] is unique unto itself, and the other is unique unto itself!
27) [line 22] MAKIFIN - surround
*28*) [line 23] V'OSO HA'YOM SHEVA PE'AMIM - and that day (Hoshana Rabah) [they surrounded it] seven times. This terminology makes sense only if the Aravah branches were carried around the Mizbe'ach. If they were stood up surrounding it, the Mitzvah was by definition complete after only one circuit.
29) [line 30] BAR ORYA - Torah scholar
30) [line 37] MARBIYOS - long willow branches
31) [line 38] BAITUSIN
(a) The Tzedukim were students of Tzadok, and the Beitusim were students of Beitus. Both of these individuals rejected the authority of the oral Torah (Avos d'Rebbi Nasan 5:2).
32) [line 38] KAVSHUM - a) hid them; b) covered them
33) [line 39] AMEI HA'ARETZ - unlearned Jews who were lax in their Torah-observance (see Berachos 47b) [who identified with those Jews who accepted the authority of the oral Torah]
34) [line 40] SHAMTUM - removed them
35) [line 42] CHIBUT - a) waving (RASHI); b) beating [upon the ground] (ROSH)
Index to Background for Maseches Sukah