SUKAH 22 (25 Adar I) - Dedicated by Nathan Fishman in memory of his father, Mordechai ben Aharon Fishman z'l, in honor of his Yahrzeit.

[22a - 38 lines; 22b - 39 lines]

1)[line 1]המדובללתHA'MEDUVLELES- The Gemara below records a disagreement as to the meaning of this term.

2)[line 1]צילתה מרובה מחמתהTZILASAH MERUBAH ME'CHAMASAH- it provides more shade than it allows sunlight through

3)[line 2]המעובה כמין ביתHA'ME'UVAH K'MIN BAYIS- [a Sukah whose Sechach] is as thick as [the roof of] a house

4)[line 4]ענייהANIYAH- that has only a sparse layer of Sechach

5)[line 5]קנה עולה וקנה יורדKANEH OLEH V'KANEH YORED- [whose Sechach is on two levels, with] every other branch on the higher level and every other one on the lower level. Although the total Sechach covers most of the Sukah, sunlight streams through at an angle, resulting in more sunlight than shade inside.

6)[line 5]רב תני חדאRAV TANI CHADA- Rav interprets [the words "Sukah ha'Meduvleles veshe'Tzilasah Merubah me'Chamasah" in our Mishnah to be referring to] one [case]

7a)[line 7]מדולדלתMEDULDELES- thinned

b)[line 9]מבולבלתMEVULBELES- jumbled

8)[line 11]לא שנוLO SHANU- [that which Shmuel maintains that our Mishnah rules a Sukah in which the Sechach lies upon two distinct layers kosher] is true only

9)[line 12]אין בין זה לזה שלשה טפחיםEIN BEIN ZEH LA'ZEH SHELOSHAH TEFACHIM (LAVUD)

(a)The Torah requires Mechitzos (partitions) for various Halachos (e.g. defining a Reshus ha'Yachid for the purposes of carrying on Shabbos and creating a Kosher Sukah). A Mechitzah must be ten Tefachim high.

(b)Certain Halachos l'Moshe mi'Sinai allow one to consider certain incomplete Mechitzos as complete for Halachic purposes (Sukah 5b). One of these applications is Lavud (lit. a branch or connection). This Halachah states that when there is a space less than three full Tefachim between the Mechitzah and the surface (or object) next to, above, or below it, we consider it to be a complete Mechitzah in which the surfaces or objects are connected without any gaps. (The space itself is not ignored, but rather measured along with and as a part of the existing segment of the partition.)

(c)Abaye explains that the opinion of Shmuel requires the application of this Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai. Since the upper layer of Sechach is Halachically considered to be touching the Sechach below, together they function as a valid Sechach covering even though in reality there is more sunlight than shade in the Sukah.

10)[line 15]אין בגגו טפחEIN B'GAGO TEFACH- [the pieces of Sechach in the upper layer] are not one Tefach [wide]

11)[line 16]חבוט רמיCHAVOT RAMI (GUD)

(a)The Torah requires Mechitzos (partitions) for various Halachos (e.g. defining a Reshus ha'Yachid for the purposes of carrying on Shabbos and creating a Kosher Sukah). A Mechitzah must be ten Tefachim high.

(b)Certain Halachos l'Moshe mi'Sinai allow one to consider certain incomplete Mechitzos as complete for Halachic purposes (Sukah 5b). One of these applications is Gud Asik (lit. stretch and pull up). This Halachah states that Mechitzos are considered to extend upward indefinitely, as long as they are ten Tefachim high to begin with.

(c)Another Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai in this vein is Gud Achis (lit. stretch and pull down). This Halachah states that Mechitzos are considered to extend downward indefinitely, as long as they are ten Tefachim high to begin with.

(d)One aspect of the Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai of Gud Achis is "Chavot Rami" (lit. lower and place). When an upper surface has a width of at least one Tefach and one has use for it below, the entire width is Halachically considered to fill in the space underneath.

12)[line 16]מנא אמינא לה ...?MINA AMINA LAH ...?- from where do I know ...?

13a)[line 19]קורות הביתKOROS HA'BAYIS- the crossbeams of [the ceiling of] a house

b)[line 19]והעלייהVEHA'ALIYAH- and [those of] the attic

14)[line 19]אין עליהם מעזיבהEIN ALEIHEM MA'AZIVAH- they do not have plaster [or, for that matter, boards] placed across them

15)[line 20] הן מכוונות HEN MECHUVANOS -the upper crossbeams are located directly above the lower crossbeams

16)[line 20]טומאה תחת אחת מהן תחתיה טמאTUM'AH TACHAS ACHAS ME'HEN TACHTEHA TAMEI (OHEL L'TU'MAH)

(a)When at least a k'Zayis of a dead body or the bones of a Mes are in a covered area which is at least one Tefach in length, width and height (such as in a room of a house), the Ohel (lit. tent) causes all (Jewish) people, vessels, and food which has been Huchshar l'Kabel Tum'ah (see Background to Eruvin 83:1) below it to become Tamei, while at the same time preventing anything above it from becoming Tamei. That is, an Ohel is Mevi Es ha'Tum'ah (spreads the Tum'ah underneath it) and is Chotzetz bi'Fnei ha'Tum'ah (intervenes between the Tum'ah and the space above the Ohel).

(b)In order for bones of a dead body to be Metamei b'Ohel, they must meet at least one of the following three conditions: 1. They constitute a quarter of a Kav (Rova ha'Kav); 2. They are the majority of the human body (this condition is fulfilled whether they are the majority of the build [Rov Binyano] of a body or whether they are the majority of the number [Rov Minyano] of the 248 bones of a body); 3. The bone is either a complete skull or a complete spinal column. This is in contrast to the minimum requirement for a bone to be Metamei through Maga (touching) or Masa (carrying); for these Tum'os it is enough for the bone to be the size of a Se'orah (a grain of barley).

(c)In an Ohel ha'Mes, people, vessels, or food in the Ohel become Tamei even if the Mes only passes through without stopping. One who enters an Ohel ha'Mes becomes Tamei even if only part of his body enters the Ohel, and even if he enters backwards. A Mechitzah (partition) in an Ohel ha'Mes only prevents the spread of Tum'ah if it reaches the ceiling. (RASH to Kelim 1:4)

17)[line 23]היו העליונות כבין התחתונותHAYU HA'ELYONOS K'BEIN HA'TACHTONOS- if the upper crossbeams were located directly above [and are as wide as] the spaces in between the lower crossbeams

18)[line 26]פותח טפחPOSE'ACH TEFACH- the width of a Tefach

19)[line 34]קורהKORAH (LECHI V'KORAH)

(a)A Mavoy is an alleyway that is enclosed on three sides. Many courtyards are accessible through this alleyway, and the residents of these courtyards pass through the Mavoy on their way to the Reshus ha'Rabim (public domain). The term "Mavoy" is taken from the verse which describes the "Mevo ha'Ir" -- "entrance to the city" (Shoftim 1:24).) Although mid'Oraisa a Mavoy is considered a Reshus ha'Yachid (private domain), in which case one may carry within it, the Chachamim prohibited carrying in a Mavoy for a distance of more than four Amos. This decree was enacted due to that which many families make use of a single Mavoy. One may therefore come to confuse a Mavoy with a Reshus ha'Rabim.

(b)Carrying in a Mavoy is permitted if a Lechi is placed vertically against one of the walls at the entrance to the Mavoy. A Lechi may be a pole, a plank, or any other object that is at least ten Tefachim high. It serves either as a Mechitzah (a fourth wall), or as a Heker (reminder) to signal where the Reshus ha'Yachid ends and the Reshus ha'Rabim begins. (Eruvin 5a, 15a).

(c)Another method of permitting carrying in a Mavoy is through a "Korah" (a beam). A Korah must be able to support an Ari'ach (a brick measuring three Tefach long by one and a half Tefachim wide). This implies both that it must be sturdy, as well wide enough, for the brick to lie (lengthwise) along it. Since the Ari'ach may extend for an Etzba (one quarter Tefach) on either side, the Korah must be one Tefach wide. The Korah is placed horizontally across the top of the entrance to the Mavoy, and serves either as a Mechitzah (a fourth wall) or as a Heker (reminder) to signal where the Reshus ha'Yachid ends and the Reshus ha'Rabim begins (see Insights to Eruvin 2a, and Graphic #1).

(d)A Lechi or Korah must be used in conjunction with a Shituf Mevo'os (see Background to 3:7) for one to be permitted to carry from one Chatzer to another through the Mavoy.

22b----------------------------------------22b

20)[line 1]פחות מארבעהPACHOS ME'ARBA'AH- Rebbi Shimon is of the opinion that the Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai of Lavud (see above, entry #9) considers two objects connected up until a width of four Tefachim.

21)[line 3]המתאימותHA'MAS'IMOS- that are lying side by side

22)[line 4]אריחARI'ACH- a brick that measures three Tefachim long by one and a half Tefachim wide

23a)[line 4]אם מקבלות אריח לרחבו טפחIM MEKABLOS ARI'ACH L'RACHVO TEFACH- If they are together one Tefach wide, which is wide enough to support an Ari'ach placed along them (see above, entry #19:c)

b)[line 7]מקבלות אריח לארכו שלשה טפחיםIM MEKABLOS ARI'ACH L'ARCHO SHELOSHAH TEFACHIM- if they are strong enough to support a three-Tefach-long Ari'ach when they are separated and it is placed across them lengthwise

24)[line 10]היוHAYU- if [the two beams] were

25a)[line 13]למעלה מעשרים אמהL'MAILAH ME'ESRIM AMAH- higher than twenty Amos [from the ground]

b)[line 14]למטה מעשרהL'MATAH ME'ASARAH- lower than ten [Tefachim from the ground]

26)[line 24]כי הדדיKI HADADEI- if there is exactly as much sunlight allowed as shade provided

27a)[line 26]כאן מלמעלהKAN MIL'MAILAH- [that which the Sechach is invalid when it has equal parts sunlight and shade refers to a situation in which they are equal] on the level of the Sechach

b)[line 27]כאן מלמטהKAN MIL'MATAH- a) [that which the Sechach is valid when it has equal parts sunlight and shade refers to a situation in which they are equal] on the ground (RASHI); b) [that which the Sechach is valid when it has equal parts sunlight and shade refers to a situation in which they appear to be equal to one standing] upon the ground [in which case there is really more open space than Sechach up above] (RABEINU TAM, TOSFOS DH k'Zuza)

28)[line 28]כזוזא מלעיל כאיסתרא מלתחK'ZUZA MIL'EIL K'ISTERA MILE'TACHAS- a) [sunlight that streams through open space] the size of a Zuz up above [brightens an area on the ground] below [that is] the size of a Sela (as an Istera refers to a Sela, which is a larger coin than a Zuz; RASHI, RIF, ROSH, RAN); b) [open space] the size of a Zuz up above [appears to be] half that size [when viewed from] below (as an Istera can refer to a coin which is has value of half of a Zuz [Kidushin 11b]; RABEINU TAM, TOSFOS DH k'Zuza)

29)[line 31]כוכבי חמהKOCHVEI CHAMAH- a) rays of sunlight (RASHI); b) large heavenly bodies that are visible even during the day (RAMBAM, VILNA GA'ON)

30)[line 33]בראש העגלהB'ROSH HA'AGALAH- atop a wagon

31)[line 35]אין עולין לה בי"טEIN OLIN LAH B'YOM TOV- one may not enter it on Yom Tov. This is because it is prohibited mid'Rabanan to touch a tree on Shabbos or Yom Tov for fear that one may break part of it off.

32)[line 36]שתים באילןSHETAYIM B'ILAN- a) if two of the sides of the floor of the Sukah are supported by the tree (RASHI); b) if two of the walls of the Sukah are formed by trees (TOSFOS DH Shtayim)

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