1) [line 2] SHE'MANI'ACH PESEL BEINEIHEM U'CHESHEIRAH - that if he places kosher Sechach ("Pesel" refers to the "Pesoles" -- that which is left over from the grapes and grain after they have been processed) between them then the Sukah is valid.
2) [line 7] SHEMONEH [AMOS] METZUMTZAMOS - exactly eight Amos wide (see Insights)
3) [line 8] NESER U'PESEL - a [four-Tefach-wide] board and [a four-Tefach-wide length of] kosher Sechach [lying next to it]
4) [line 1] ME'HAI GISA - [counting from] this side [of the Sukah]
5) [line 11] HECHSHER SUKAH - the minimum requirements of a Sukah (in this case, that it must be at least seven by seven Tefachim)
6) [line 13] B'SUKAH KETANAH - in a Sukah that is the minimum size of seven-by-seven Tefachim
*7*) [line 14] B'SHEFUDIN LO HAVEI MI'UT - Although there is not enough of either open space or invalid Sechach to invalidate the Sukah, whenever there is a stretch of three Tefachim of anything other than kosher Sechach it is significant and must be taken into account. Therefore, in a Sukah of only seven by seven Tefachim, not enough Sechach remains (see Gemara on the top of 17b).
*8*) [line 17] EIN LAVUD BA'EMTZA - This opinion maintains that the Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai of Lavud (see Background to Sukah 16:15) does not apply when an unbroken stretch of open space divides the Sechach of a Sukah down the middle (TOSFOS).
9) [line 18] KORAH (LECHI V'KORAH)
(a) A Mavoy is an alleyway that is enclosed on three sides. Many courtyards are accessible through this alleyway, and the residents of these courtyards pass through the Mavoy on their way to the Reshus ha'Rabim (public domain). The term "Mavoy" is taken from the verse which describes the "Mevo ha'Ir" -- "entrance to the city" (Shoftim 1:24).) Although mid'Oraisa a Mavoy is considered a Reshus ha'Yachid (private domain), in which case one may carry within it, the Chachamim prohibited carrying in a Mavoy for a distance of more than four Amos. This decree was enacted due to that which many families make use of a single Mavoy. One may therefore come to confuse a Mavoy with a Reshus ha'Rabim.
(b) Carrying in a Mavoy is permitted if a Lechi is placed vertically against one of the walls at the entrance to the Mavoy. A Lechi may be a pole, a plank, or any other object that is at least ten Tefachim high. It serves either as a Mechitzah (a fourth wall), or as a Heker (reminder) to signal where the Reshus ha'Yachid ends and the Reshus ha'Rabim begins. (Eruvin 5a, 15a).
(c) Another method of permitting carrying in a Mavoy is through a Korah (a one-Tefach-wide beam). The Korah is placed horizontally across the top of the entrance to the Mavoy, and serves either as a Mechitzah (a fourth wall) or as a Heker (reminder) to signal where the Reshus ha'Yachid ends and the Reshus ha'Rabim begins (see Insights to Eruvin 2a, and Graphic #1).
(d) A Lechi or Korah must be used in conjunction with a Shituf Mevo'os (see Background to 3:7) for one to be permitted to carry from one Chatzer to another through the Mavoy.
10) [line 25] ARUBAH - a skylight; an open window in the ceiling
11) [line 26] POSE'ACH TEFACH - with an opening of one square Tefach
12) [line 26] TUM'AH B'BAYIS KULO TAMEI (TUM'AS OHEL)
(a) When at least a k'Zayis of a dead body or the bones of a Mes are in a covered area which is at least one Tefach in length, width and height (such as in a room of a house), the Ohel (lit. tent) causes all (Jewish) people, vessels, and food which has been Huchshar l'Kabel Tum'ah (see Background to Eruvin 83:1) below it to become Tamei, while at the same time preventing anything above it from becoming Tamei. That is, an Ohel is Mevi Es ha'Tum'ah (spreads the Tum'ah underneath it) and is Chotzetz bi'Fnei ha'Tum'ah (intervenes between the Tum'ah and the space above the Ohel).
(b) In order for bones of a dead body to be Metamei b'Ohel, they must meet at least one of the following three conditions: 1. They constitute a quarter of a Kav (Rova ha'Kav); 2. They are the majority of the human body (this condition is fulfilled whether they are the majority of the build [Rov Binyano] of a body or whether they are the majority of the number [Rov Minyano] of the 248 bones of a body); 3. The bone is either a complete skull or a complete spinal column. This is in contrast to the minimum requirement for a bone to be Metamei through Maga (touching) or Masa (carrying); for these Tum'os it is enough for the bone to be the size of a Se'orah (a grain of barley).
(c) In an Ohel ha'Mes, people, vessels, or food in the Ohel become Tamei even if the Mes only passes through without stopping. One who enters an Ohel ha'Mes becomes Tamei even if only part of his body enters the Ohel, and even if he enters backwards. A Mechitzah (partition) in an Ohel ha'Mes only prevents the spread of Tum'ah if it reaches the ceiling. (RASH to Kelim 1:4)
13) [line 27] MAH SHE'KENEGED HA'ARUBAH TAHOR - that which lies under the skylight is Tahor [since it is not Halachically considered to be in the Ohel)
*14*) [line 28] EIN B'ARUBAH POSE'ACH TEFACH ... - Although the Halachic parameters defined here are identical to those defined for a skylight with an opening of at least one square Tefach, the Mishnah (Ohalos 10:1) goes on to list differences between the two cases.
15) [line 31] HACHI GEMIRI LEHU - this is the way in which the Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai was taught
16) [line 34] PARISH! - please explain (that is, qualify your statement)!
17a) [line 36] AVRUMA - a certain small fish that has fins and scales
b) [line 36] SHARYA - is permitted [to eat, and one need not worry that it contains non-kosher parasites nearly too small to see]
18a) [line 40] TZACHANTA - a type of small fish preserved in brine
b) [line 40] D'BAV NAHARA - found in the River Bav, a tributary or a canal branching off of the Euphrates
19) [line 41] D'REDIFEI MAYA - that the water flows swiftly
20) [line 41] DAG TAMEI - non-kosher fish; in this context, parasites
21) [line 42] CHUT HA'SHEDRAH - a spine
22) [line 42] LO MATZI KA'IM - are unable to survive [in the current]
23) [line 43] D'MILCHI MAYA - that the water is salty
24) [line 44] KILFEI - scales
25) [line 46] D'LO MARBEH TINAIHU - that their silt (mud at the bottom of the river) does not produce
26) [line 47] SHAFCHI - empty (flow)
*27*) [line 48] ACHSADRAH SHE'YESH LAH PETZIMIN, KESHEIRAH - This refers to an Achsadrah in a courtyard as described in our Mishnah (see Background to 17:3), with the addition of pillars set within three Tefachim of each other along its outer edge. The Sukah is kosher due to the application of Lavud to the posts (RASHI; see Insights for other explanations of this Gemara).
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