Mishnah 1
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1)

(a)What does the Mishnah learn from the words "Va'anu ve'Amru" (in Parshas Shoftim, in the Parshah of Eglah Arufah)?

(b)The Tana actually learns it from a Gezeirah-Shavah from the Pasuk in Ki Savo Ve'anu ha'Levi'im ve'Amru". In which connection is this Pasuk written?

(c)Which two groups of people does this ruling affect?

1)

(a)The Mishnah learns from the words "Va'anu ve'Amru" (in Parshas Shoftim) that - when the Parshah of Eglah Arufah is read, it must be read in Lashon ha'Kodesh.

(b)The Tana actually learns it from a Gezeirah-Shavah from the Pasuk in Ki Savo Ve'anu ha'Levi'im ve'Amru" - written in connection with the B'rachos and the K'lalos (at Har Gerizim and Har Eival).

(c)This ruling affects - the elders ("Yadeinu Lo Shafchu es ha'Dam ha'Zeh ... ") and the Kohanim ("Kaper le'Amcha Yisrael ... ").

2)

(a)"Veyatz'u Zekeinecha ve'Shoftecha" teaches us that the elders must go to the scene of the murder. Which elders is the Pasuk referring to?

(b)How does the Tana Kama learn from "Zekeinecha" (See Tos. Yom-Tov) that three elders are required?

(c)What does Rebbi Yehudah say, based on the Pasuk "Veyatz'u Zekeinecha ve'Shoftecha"?

(d)What do the elders do, once they arrive.

2)

(a)"Veyatz'u Zekeinecha ve'Shoftecha" teaches us that elders must go to the scene of the murder. The Pasuk is referring to the elders - from the Beis-Din ha'Gadol in Yerushalayim.

(b)The Tana Kama learns that three Dayanaim are required - from "Zekeinecha", implying two. And since Beis-Din can never comprise an even number ('Ein Beis-Din Shakul ... '), they are obligated to add Dayan.

(c)Based on the Pasuk "Veyatz'u Zekeinecha ve'Shoftecha", Rebbi Yehudah maintains that - there five elders are required ("Zekeinecha" - two, "Shoftecha" - two, and "Ein Beis-Din Shakul ... ' [See Tos.Yom-Tov]).

(d)When the elders arrive - they measure the distance between the corpse and the surrounding towns, in order to ascertain which is the nearest.

Mishnah 2
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3)

(a)What does the Tana say about a case where the victim is covered by a pile of stones, hanging on a tree or floating on water?

(b)What does he learn in this regard, from the word there ...

1. ... "ba'Adamah?

2. ... "Nofeil"?

3. ... "ba'Sadeh"?

(c)And what does the Tana say in the event the victim is found near the border, next to a town with a majority of Nochrim or a town which has no Beis-Din?

(d)How does he learn the first two Dinim from the words "Ki Yimatzei Chalal"?

3)

(a)The Mishnah rules that if the victim is covered by a pile of stones, hanging on a tree or floating on water - they do not break the neck of the calf.

(b)He learns from the word there ...

1. ... "ba'Adamah - 've'Lo Tamun ba'Gal (hidden under a pile of stones).

2. ... "Nofeil" - 've'Lo Taluy ba'Ilan' (hanging on a tree).

3. ... "ba'Sadeh" - 've'Lo Tzaf (floating) al-P'nei ha'Mayim'.

(c)The Tana issues the same ruling in the event that where the victim is found near the border, next to a town with a majority of Nochrim or a town which has no Beis-Din (See Tos.Yom-Tov).

(d)He learns the first two Dinim from the words "Ki Yimatzei Chalal" - by Darshening 'P'rat le'Mamtzi es Atzmo' (meaning that the Din of Eglah Arufah only applies if the victim is found slain, but not if he caused his own death by entering dangerous territory.

4)

(a)What does the Mishnah now say about a case where the nearest town has no Beis-Din?

(b)Having mentioned this case in the previous ruling, why does the Tana see fit to repeat it?

(c)How does he learn from "Velakchu Ziknei ha'Ir", that the Beis-Din is crucial?

4)

(a)The Mishnah now states that if the nearest town has no Beis-Din - they measure from the nearest town that has one.

(b)Despite having mentioned this case in the previous ruling, the Tana sees fit to repeat it - to obviate the misunderstanding that they do not bring an Eglah Arufah at all.

(c)He learns from "Velakchu Ziknei ha'Ir", that the Beis-Din is crucial - from the word "ha'Ir", which is otherwise superfluous (since the Torah could have written "Veyatz'u Zekeinehah".

5)

(a)What does Rebbi Eliezer say about a case where two cities are equidistant from the corpse?

(b)What is the Halachah?

(c)And what does the Mishnah finally learn from the Pasuk "ba'Adamah asher Hash-m Elokecha Nosein l'cha *Nachalah Lerishtah*"?

5)

(a)Rebbi Eliezer rules that where two cities are equidistant from the corpse - both need to bring an Eglah Arufah (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

(b)The Halachah is - that they bring one Eglah between them.

(c)The Mishnah finally learns from the Pasuk "ba'Adamah asher Hash-m Elokecha Nosein l'cha *Nachalah Lerishtah*" that - Yerushalayim (which was not distributed to any particular tribe) is not subject to the Din of Eglah Arufah.

Mishnah 3
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6)

(a)According to Rebbi Eliezer, if one finds the head and the body in two different locations, one moves the head to the body. How do we know that this ruling is not connected to the Din of measuring the Eglah Arufah?

(b)Then to which area of Halachah does it belong?

(c)What is Rebbi Eliezer's reason?

(d)On what grounds does Rebbi Akiva disagree with him?

6)

(a)According to Rebbi Eliezer, if one finds the head and the body in two different locations, one moves the head to the body. We know that this ruling is not connected to the Din of measuring the Eglah Arufah - since, immediately afterwards, the Mishnah asks from where they measure, implying that the previous Mishnah is not speaking about that.

(b)In fact, it belongs - to the Halachos of Meis Mitzvah, whose corpse must be buried there where it is found (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

(c)Rebbi Eliezer's reason is - because we assume that the body fell to the ground and it is the head that rolled away.

(d)Rebbi Akiva disagrees with him however. According to him - it is the head that drops to the ground and the body, that carries on running even after the head has been severed.

Mishnah 4
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7)

(a)Regarding the Din of Eglah Arufah, Rebbi Eliezer maintains that one measures from the navel. Why is that?

(b)According to Rebbi Akiva, one measures from the nostrils. From which Pasuk in No'ach does he learn it?

(c)Based on the Pasuk in Yechezkel "al Tzavrei Chalal Resha'im", why does Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov hold that one measures from the neck?

(d)Like whom is the Halachah?

7)

(a)Regarding the Din of Eglah Arufah, Rebbi Eliezer maintains that when one measures from the navel - because he holds that this is where the source of life is situated (See Tos.Yom-Tov).

(b)According to Rebbi Akiva, one measures from the nostrils, based on the Pasuk in No'ach - "Kol asher Nishmas Ru'ach Chayim be'Apav", indicating that that is where one's life leaves the body.

(c)The Torah opens the Parshah of Eglah Arufah with the words "ki Yimatzei Chalal" And, based on the Pasuk in Yechezkel "al Tzavrei Chalal Resha'im", Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov learns that a person becomes a Chalal from the neck. Consequently that is where one measures from.

(d)The Halachah is - like Rebbi Akiva (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

Mishnah 5
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8)

(a)At this stage the elders of Yerushalayim leave. Why is that?

(b)Who then brings the Eglah Arufah?

(c)One of the two requirements of the calf is that it should not have been worked with. What is the other?

(d)What if they discover that it possesses a blemish?

8)

(a)At this stage, the elders of Yerushalayim leave - because they only came to do the measuring, as the Torah specifically writes ...

(b)... and it is the elders of the nearest town who bring the Eglah Arufah.

(c)One of the two requirements of the calf is that it should not have been worked with; the other - that it did not carry a yoke.

(d)A blemish - does not disqualify an Eglah Arufah (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

9)

(a)They then take it down to a Nachal Eisan. What is a 'Nachal Eisan'?

(b)What if they brought it to a valley that is not 'Eisan'?

(c)What does one finally do with the calf?

9)

(a)They then take it down to a 'Nachal Eisan' - comprising virgin soil that has never ben worked (See also Tos. Yom-Tov DH 'Eisan ...' & 've'Af-al-Pi').

(b)If they brought it to a valley that is not 'Eisan' - it is Kasher.

(c)Finally - one cuts the calf's head from the back of the neck (See Tos. Yom-Tov), using a meat-chopper.

10)

(a)Which two things does the Torah subsequently forbid doing on the location of the Nachal Eisan?

(b)How long does the prohibition last (See Tiferes Yisrael)?

(c)Besides combing flax in the location of the Nachal Eisan, what else does the Mishnah permit?

(d)What else is in fact permitted?

10)

(a)The Torah subsequently forbids - planting seeds or working the land on the location of the Nachal Eisan ...

(b)... forever.

(c)Besides combing flax in the location of the Nachal Eisan, the Mishnah permits - cutting stones ...

(d)... anything in fact - which is not connected with the land itself (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

Mishnah 6
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11)

(a)What do the elders of the nearest town finally do before announcing "Our hands did not spill this blood and our eyes did not see (it happen"?

(b)Why do they need to say that? Who would ever suspect Dayanim of such things?

(c)Who then reads the Pasuk "Atone for Your people Yisrael whom You redeemed and do not place innocent blood among Your people Yisrael!"?

11)

(a)Before announcing "Our hands did not spill this blood and our eyes did not see (it happen", the elders of the nearest town - wash their hands in the exact location where they cut its neck ...

(b)... not because they are suspected of any involvement in the crime, but - as a declaration that they did not see the victim and send him away without providing him with food and drink or without even accompanying him.

(c)The local Kohanim then read the Pasuk "Atone for Your people Yisrael whom You redeemed and do not place innocent blood among Your people Yisrael!".

12)

(a)What problem does the Tana have with the conclusion of the Pasuk "Venikaper lahem ha'Dam"?

(b)How does he resolve it?

(c)What does the phrase then mean?

12)

(a)The problem the Tana has with the conclusion of the Pasuk "Venikaper lahem ha'Dam" is that - it is seemingly superfluous.

(b)He resolves it - by establishing its author as Ru'ach ha'Kodesh ...

(c)... and what the phrase means is - 'If we follow these instructions, then the (spilt) blood will be atoned!'

Mishnah 7
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13)

(a)What happens to the calf in the event that the murderer is discovered ...

1. ... before its neck has been broken?

2. ... after its neck has been broken?

(b)What is the reason for the latter ruling?

(c)What happens to the murderer if he is discovered after the calf's neck has been broken?

13)

(a)In the event that the murderer is discovered ...

1. ... before its neck has been broken - the calf is sent into the meadow to graze until it obtains a blemish, and is then redeemed (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

2. ... after its neck has been broken - it is buried on the spot ...

(b)... since it came to atone for a Safek, and it achieved its purpose.

(c)Even if the murderer is discovered after the calf's neck has been broken - he is sentenced to death.

Mishnah 8
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14)

(a)What do we extrapolate from the Pasuk "Lo Noda Mi Hikahu"?

(b)What will be the Din if, after one witness testifies that he saw the murderer, a second witness testifies that he did not?

(c)Then why does the Mishnah rule that one proceeds to cut its neck?

(d)What if the two witnesses are women?

14)

(a)We extrapolate from the Pasuk "Lo Noda Mi Hikahu" that - if anybody knows who the murderer is, the calf's neck is not broken.

(b)If after one witness testifies that he saw the murderer, a second witness testifies that he did not (See Tiferes Yisrael) - they do not break the calf's neck ...

(c)... and the Mishnah rules that one proceeds to cut it - where both witnesses came to Beis-Din simultaneously, and the same will apply (See above, Perek 6, Mishnah 4) ...

(d)... if the two witnesses are women (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

15)

(a)What does the Mishnah say about a case where ...

1. ... one witness testifies that he saw the murderer and two witnesses testify that he did not?

2. ... two witnesses testify that they saw the murderer and one testifies that they did not?

(b)What exactly is the case?

(c)What is the reason behind the ruling?

15)

(a)The Mishnah rules that if ...

1. ... one witness testifies that he saw the murderer and two witnesses testify that he did not - they proceed to cut the calf's neck, whereas if ...

2. ... two witnesses testify that they saw the murderer and one testifies that they did not - they do not.

(b)The case is - where the witnesses are Pasul, and ...

(c)... the reason behind the ruling is - that in all cases where Pasul witnesses are believed, we go after the majority.

Mishnah 9
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16)

(a)What caused the Sanhedrin to negate the Din of Eglah Arufah?

(b)Why is that?

(c)What is the connection between Elazar ben Dinai and Techinah ben P'rishah?

(d)What did h eventually became known as?

16)

(a)What caused the Sanhedrin to negate the Din of Eglah Arufah was - the increase of murderers ...

(b)... and the people got to know the identity of the regular murderers.

(c)Elazar ben Dinai (an infamous murderer during the end of the second Beis-Hamikdash period) and Techinah ben P'rishah - are one and the same person (See Tiferes Yisrael).

(d)He eventually became known as - 'ben ha'Ratzchan'.

17)

(a)What caused the Sanhedrin to negate the Mei Sotah?

(b)Who actually negated it?

(c)What do we learn from the Pasuk in Hoshe'a "Lo Efkod al B'noseichen ki Sizbnenah ... " (See Tos. Yom-Tov)?

17)

(a)What caused the Sanhedrin to negate the Mei Sotah was - the increase in adulterers (and wherever the husband is not free of sin, the water does not 'examine' his wife (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

(b)Rabban Yochanan ben Zakai negated it.

(c)We learn from the Pasuk in Hoshe'a "Lo Efkod al B'noseichen ki Sizbnenah ... " - that - the water will not examine a woman even if it is her husband's son or daughter who committed adultery (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

18)

(a)What came to an end with the death of Yossi ben Yo'ezer Ish Tz'reidah and Yossi ben Yochanan Ish Yerushalayim?

(b)What is 'Eshkolos' the acronym of?

(c)What does it mean?

(d)What does the Tana learn from the Pasuk in Michah (quoting Hash-m) "Ein Eshkol Le'echol Ivsah Nafshi!" (See Tos. Yom-Tov)?

18)

(a)With the death of Yossi ben ben Yo'ezer Ish Tz'reidah and Yossi ben Yochanan Ish Yerushalayim - the era of the Eshkolos came to an end.

(b)'Eshkolos' is the acronym of - 'Ish she'ha'Kol bo' ...

(c)... which effectively means - that there Torah was Emes, without a flaw (See also Tos. Yom-Tov).

(d)the Tana learns from the Pasuk in Michah (quoting Hash-m) "Ein Eshkol Le'echol Ivsah Nafshi!" that - 'Eshkol' - describes someone who is precious in the Eyes of Hash-m.

Mishnah 10
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19)

(a)Yochanan Kohen Gadol negated Hodayas Ma'aser (Viduy Ma'aser: "Bi'arti ha'Kodesh min ha'Bayis, ve'Gam Nesativ la'Levi ... "), the Me'orerin and the Nokfin. Which part of Hodayas Ma'aser caused him to negate it?

(b)What was the problem?

(c)'Me'orerin' refers to something the Levi'im used to say each day by the Duchan. What was that?

(d)Why did Rabban Yochanan ben Zakai negate it?

19)

(a)Yochanan Kohen Gadol negated Hodayas Ma'aser (Viduy Ma'aser: "Bi'arti ha'Kodesh min ha'Bayis, ve'Gam Nesativ la'Levi ... "), the Me'orerin and the Nokfin. The problem lay in the words 've'Gam la'Levi" ...

(b)... in that Ezra penalized the Levi'im, most of whom did not return with him from Bavel, and instituted that Ma'asros should be given to the Kohanim exclusively.

(c)'Me'orerin' refers to what the Levi'im used to say each day by the Duchan - 'Wake up! Why do You sleep, Hash-m?'

(d)Rabban Yochanan ben Zakai negated it - because Hash-m does not sleep (as the Pasuk says in Tehilim "Behold He neither slumbers nor sleeps!").

20)

(a)What does 'Nokfin' literally mean?

(b)It refers to the incision that they used to perform between the horns of a calf of a Korban before Shechting it. Why did they do that?

(c)Why did he stop it?

20)

(a)'Nokfin' literally means - 'people who strike/smite' ...

(b)... with reference to the incision that they used to perform between the horns of a calf of a Korban before Shechting it - which they did in order to temporarily blind it (with the oozing blood), making it easier to bind and Shecht it.

(c)He stopped it - because it causes the animal to resemble a Ba'al-Mum.

21)

(a)Yochanan Kohen Gadol also stopped the hammer from banging in Yerushalayim? Which hammer

(b)What exactly is the Tana referring to?

(c)Since this is permitted, why did Yochanan Kohen Gadol stop it

21)

(a)Yochanan Kohen Gadol also stopped the hammer from banging in Yerushalayim - with reference to the copper and metal-smiths ...

(b)... who would make repairs on Chol ha'Mo'ed a Davar ha'Aveid (which will cause a loss if not effected).

(c)Despite the fact that this is permitted, Yochanan Kohen Gadol stopped it - because, due to its being so wide-spread, it created an atmosphere that was not conducive to Yom-Tov.

22)

(a)And he also introduced 'D'mai'. What did the Chaverim (who were particular about T'rumos and Ma'asros) used to do prior to that?

(b)So what did Yochanan Kohen Gadol introduce?

(c)What did he obligate the purchaser to separate?

(d)Why did he exempt them from separating ...

1. ... Ma'aser Rishon and Ma'aser Ani?

2. ... T'rumah Gedolah?

(e)Then why do we not say the same with regard to T'rumas Ma'aser, which is also subject to Misah?

22)

(a)And he also introduced 'D'mai'. Prior to that, the Chaverim (who were particular about T'rumos and Ma'asros) - used to inquire of the sellers as to whether their crops were Ma'asered or not.

(b)Yochanan Kohen Gadol introduced - that whatever an Am ha'Aretz sells is considered not Maasered and that the purchser must therefore Ma'aser it himself (D'mai).

(c)He obligated the purchaser to separate - T'rumas Ma'aser and Ma'aser Sheini.

(d)He exempted them from separating ...

1. ... Ma'aser Rishon and Ma'aser Ani - since there is no prohibition per se in eating it, and as far as the latter is concerned, the purchaser can say to an Ani who claims it 'Prove that it is Tevel and I will give it to you!'

2. ... T'rumah Gedolah - because that they all separated themselves, since it carries with it a Chiyuv Misah.

(e)Granted, T'rumas Ma'aser too is subject to Misah - but the Amei ha'Aretz were unaware of that.

Mishnah 11
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23)

(a)Based on the Pasuk in Yeshayah "ba'Shir Lo Yishtu Yayin", what did they negate when the Sanhedrin ceased functioning?

(b)Why is the Beis-Din called 'Sanhedrin'? What is it the acronym of?

(c)What is the significance of the Pasuk in Eichah "Zekeinim mi'Sha'ar Shavasu, Bachurim mi'Neginasam"?

23)

(a)Based on the Pasuk in Yeshayah "ba'Shir Lo Yishtu Yayin", when the Sanhedrin ceased functioning they negated - music during meals.

(b)The Beis-Din is called 'Sanhedrin' - because it is the acronym of 'Son'in Hadras Panim' (they detest favoritism).

(c)The Pasuk in Eichah "Zekeinim mi'Sha'ar Shavasu, Bachurim mi'Neginasam" - teaches us that when the Sanhedrin became Bateil, they issued a prohibition against young men enjoying music music during meals (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

Mishnah 12
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24)

(a)When did the Urim ve'Tumim cease to function?

(b)Who were 'the first Nevi'im'?

(c)When did Chagai, Zecharyah and Mal'achi live?

24)

(a)The Urim ve'Tumim ceased to function - when the era of the first Nevi'im came to an end.

(b)'The first Nevi'im' were - all the Nevi'im until Chagai, Zecharyah and Mal'achi and their contemporaries ...

(c)... who lived at the beginning of the second Beis-ha'Mikdash).

25)

(a)Besides the Shamir (worm), what other commodity became extinct after the destruction of the first Beis-ha'Mikdash?

(b)Based on the Pasuk in Tehilim "Hoshi'ah Hash-m ki Gamar Chasid, ki Fasu *Emunim* mi'B'nei Adam", what else could no longer be found.

(c)According to Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel quoting Rebbi Yehoshua, what does no day go without, since the Churban Beis-ha'Mikdash?

(d)And what did he say about ...

1. ... the dew?

2. ... the sweet taste of fruit?

(e)What did Rebbi Yossi add to the last statement?

25)

(a)Besides the Shamir (worm) - the drippings of the honey-combs became extinct after the destruction of the first Beis-ha'Mikdash.

(b)Based on the Pasuk in Tehilim "Hoshi'ah Hash-m ki Gamar Chasid, ki Fasu *Emunim* mi'B'nei Adam" - people of integrity too could no longer be found.

(c)According to Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel quoting Rebbi Yehoshua, since the Churban Beis-ha'Mikdash - no day goes by without a curse materializing.

(d)He also said that ...

1. ... the dew- no longer comes down in the form of a blessing and that ...

2. ... the sweet taste of fruit has been removed.

(e)Rebbi Yossi added to the last statement - 'So has its juiciness!'

Mishnah 13
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26)

(a)To what did Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar attribute ...

1. ... the taste and the smell of fruit (that ceased with the Churban Beis-ha'Mikdash)?

2. ... the 'fatness' of the wheat?

(b)What is the reasoning behind the former?

(c)Bearing in mind that Ma'aser is called 'Cheilev', on which Pasuk in Korach is the latter based?

(d)What do the Chachamim say negated everything (good)?

26)

(a)Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar attributed ...

1. ... the taste and the smell of fruit (that ceased with the Churban Beis-ha'Mikdash) - to the state of Taharah (physical purity).

2. ... the 'fatness' of the wheat - to giving Ma'asros.

(b)The reasoning behind the former is that - when Yisrael busy themselves with Taharah, Hash-m purifies the fruit from all bad tastes and smells.

(c)Bearing in mind that Ma'aser is called 'Cheilev', the latter is based on the Pasuk in Korach - "Kol Cheilev Yitzhar" (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

(d)The Chachamim say that - adultery and witchcraft negated everything (good [See Tiferes Yisrael]).

Mishnah 14
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27)

(a)The Chachamim issued a decree forbidding the crowns worn by Chasanim (See Tos. Yom-Tov) with the Pulmus of Vespasian. What does 'Pulmus' mean?

(b)Some explain that this refers to 'crowns' that are made of myrtle-twigs or roses. What do others say?

(c)With what did they cover and adorn it?

(d)They also forbade Eirus that was used at weddings. What is an 'Eirus'?

27)

(a)The Chachamim issued a decree forbidding the crowns worn by Chasanim (See Tos. Yom-Tov) with the Pulmus - the army of Vespasian that came to attack Yerushalayim).

(b)Some explain that this refers to 'crowns' that are made of myrtle-twigs or roses. According to others - it refers to crowns made of a transparent 'salt-stone' ...

(c)... which they covered with sulfur on which they engraved pictures.

(d)They also forbade 'Eirus' - a sieve-shaped drum over which a skin is stretched, and on which they would beat with a thin stick) that was used at weddings.

28)

(a)With the Pulmus of Titus they also issued two decrees. What was the connection between Vespasian and Titus?

(b)Besides the crowns worn by Kallos, what did they forbid at that stage?

(c)What does 'teaching Greek' mean?

(d)This was based on an incident that occurred much earlier. When did it take place?

28)

(a)With the Pulmus of Titus - (Vespasian's son and successor, as the commander-in-chief of the Roman army) they also issued two decrees.

(b)Besides the crowns worn by Kallos, they also forbade at that stage - teaching one's children Greek ...

(c)... with reference to Greek culture.

(d)This was based on an incident that occurred much earlier - during a civil war between two Chashmona'i kings (the brothers Hurk'nus and Aristobulus [See Tos. Yom-Tov]).

29)

(a)How did the defenders of the besieged town, Yerushalayim, obtain lambs for the Korban Tamid during the siege?

(b)What brainwave did an elderly resident of Yerushalayim) have?

(c)How did he convey his thoughts to the besieging army?

(d)What did the latter subsequently do?

(e)Which two decrees did the Chachamim therefofre issue?

29)

(a)During the siege, the defenders of the besieged town, Yerushalayim - would send a box containing Dinrim each day, which the besiegers would replace with lambs for the Korban Tamid (see Tiferes Yisrael.

(b)Until an elderly resident of Yerushalayim (a traitor) had a brainwave - that as long they were bringing the Korban Tamid in Yerushalayim, they would remain invincible.

(c)He conveyed his thoughts to the besieging army - by way of signals based on Greek Chochmah.

(d)The latter subsequently - sent up a Chazir instead of the two lambs.

(e)The Chachamim therefore - issued a curse on anybody who rears Chazeirim and who teaches his son Chochmas Yevanis.

30)

(a)With the last Pulmus, they issued a decree forbidding a Kalah to be transported in an Apiryon. What does the last Pulmus refer to?

(b)What is an 'Apiryon'?

(c)Where was this generally done?

(d)Why did the Rabbis subsequently permit it?

30)

(a)With the last Pulmus - that of Titus [See Tiferes Yisrael]) they issued a decree forbidding a Kalah to be transported in an Apiryon ...

(b)... a covered litter consisting of a variety of golden cloaks ...

(c)... through the streets.

(d)The Rabbis subsequently permitted it however - because it is Tzeni'usdick (modest).

Mishnah 15
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31)

(a)Which era came to an end with the death of ..

1. ... Rebbi Meir?

2. ... ben Azai?

(b)What did ben Azai declare that bears out the above description of him?

(c)When Rebbi Meir made a D'rashah, one third consisted of Halachos and one third of Agados. What did the remaining third consist of?

31)

(a)The era that came to an end with the death of ..

1. ... Rebbi Meir was that of - parable-sayers.

2. ... ben Azai was that of 'Shakdanim' (diligent scholars), who studied Torah day and night

(b)... like he once declared - that he could not get married, because his desire to study Torah was so intense ('Nafshi Chashkah ba'Torah').

(c)When Rebbi Meir made a D'rashah, one third consisted of Halachos, one third, of Agados and - one third of parables.

32)

(a)With the death of ben Zoma, the era of Darshanim came to an end. What example do we have of his power of Darshanus (based on a statement of Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah in B'rachoos)?

(b)What ceased from the world when Rebbi Yehoshua died?

(c)Upon the death of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, Govei and many troubles came upon the world. What is 'Govai?

32)

(a)With the death of ben Zoma, the era of Darshanim came to an end, as Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah said in the Mishnah in B'rachos - 'and I did not merit that Yetzi'as Mitzayim should be recited by night, until ben Zoma Darshened ... '.

(b)When Rebbi Yehoshua died - goodness ceased from the world.

(c)Upon the death of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, Govai - plagues of locusts and many troubles came upon the world.

33)

(a)What came to an end with the death of ...

1. ... the wealthy Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah?

2. ... Rebbi Akiva?

3. ... the righteous Rebbi Chanina ben Dosa?

4. ... the pious Rebbi Yossi?

(b)Why does the Mishnah add 'Katnusa' to his name?

(c)When Rabban Yochanan ben Zakai died the splendor (Ziv) of Torah (See Tos. Yom-Tov) died too, and when Rabban Gamliel ha'Zakein died, Kavod ha'Torah. In what way did this manifest itself?

(d)Which other Midah, besides Taharah, died together with Rabban Gamliel ha'Zakein?

33)

(a)With the death of ...

1. ... the Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah - the wealth of the Chachamim came to an end, with the death of ...

2. ... Rebbi Akiva - Kavod ha'Torah, with the death of ...

3. ... Rebbi Chanina ben Dosa - men of good deeds (who wrought miracles), and with the death of ...

4. ... the Rebbi Yossi - Chasidus (piety).

(b)The Mishnah adds 'Katnusa' to his name - because he was the last of the great men whose level of piety decreased from generation to generation (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

(c)When Rabban Yochanan ben Zakai died the splendor (Ziv) of Torah (See Tos. Yom-Tov) died too, and when Rabban Gamliel ha'Zakein died, Kavod ha'Torah - inasmuch as until his time, the Talmidei-Chachamim would learn Torah standing (and it was after his death that they became too weak to continue doing so) died as well.

(d)Besides Taharah - P'rishus (abstention) died together with Rabban Gamliel ha'Zakein.

34)

(a)The splendor of Kehunah ceased with the death of Rebbi Yishmael ben Fi'abi (See Tos. Yom-Tov). What besides humility, ceased when Rebbi died?

(b)Who completed the 'Mishnayos' after his death (See Tos. Yom-Tov)?

34)

(a)The splendor of Kehunah ceased with the death of Rebbi Yishmael ben Fi'abi (See Tos. Yom-Tov), and besides humility - fear of sin ceased when Rebbi died.

(b)Rebbi's Talmidim completed the 'Mishnayos after his death' (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

35)

(a)Rebbi Pinchas ben Ya'ir describes the situation following the Churban Beis-ha'Mikdash: What did he say about ...

1. ... the Chaveirim (the Talmidei-Chachamim) and the B'nei Chorin (Meyuchasim)?

2. ... men of good deeds?

3. ... bullies and Ba'alei Lashon ha'Ra?

(b)What options does he say we have to cope, seeing as nobody cares about us or takes our part?

(c)Rebbi Eliezer ha'Gadol observes that since the time of the Churban, the Chachamim are on a par with the Sofrim (children's Rebbes), and the Sofrim, like Chazanim (Shamashim). Like whom did the Chazanim turn out to be?

(d)The Amei ha'Aretz too, have deteriorated, and nobody cares about them or takes their part. What options do we therefore have to cope?

35)

(a)Rebbi Pinchas ben Ya'ir describes the situation following the Churban Beis-ha'Mikdash: He said that ...

1. ... the Chaveirim (the Talmidei-Chachamim) and the B'nei Chorin (Meyuchasim) - were embarrassed and ashamed (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

2. ... men of good deeds - lost their authority.

3. ... and bullies and Ba'alei Lashon ha'Ra - obtained the upper hand.

(b)Seeing as nobody cares about us or takes our part, he says - we can rely on no-one but Our Father in Heaven.

(c)Rebbi Eliezer ha'Gadol observes that since the time of the Churban, the Chachamim are on a par with the Sofrim (children's Rebbes), the Sofrim, like Chazanim (Shamashim) - and the Chazanim, like Amei ha'Aretz.

(d)The Amei ha'Aretz too, are deteriorating, and nobody cares about them or takes their part. We must therefore rely on our Father in Heaven.

36)

(a)In the time leading up to the Mashi'ach, which Midah will be dominant?

(b)What is the meaning of 've'Yoker Ya'amir' (or Ye'aveis)?

(c)Why will wine be expensive in spite of the fact that there will be no shortage of grapes?

(d)Why will there be no rebuke at that time?

36)

(a)In the time leading up to the Mashi'ach - the Midah of Chutzpah (insolence) will be dominant.

(b)'ve'Yoker Ya'amir' (or Ye'aveis) - means that people will not honor each other (or that even the most honored among them will be dishonest).

(c)Wine will be expensive in spite of the fact that there will be no shortage of grapes - because everyone will organize parties.

(d)There will be no rebuke at that time - since everyone will be guilty of sinning. Consequently, whenever someone will attempt to rebuke his friend, he will retort that he (the rebuker) is no better.

37)

(a)What will happen to ...

1. ... the ruling power?

2. ... the meeting-places of the Chachamim?

(b)The Galil will be destroyed and the Gavlan (See Tiferes Yisrael), desolate. What will happen to the inhabitants of the border towns who travel from one town to the other in search of a haven?

(c)And what will happen to ...

1. ... the wisdom of the Chachamim?

2. ... the people who fear sin?

3. ... the truth?

(d)The young will shame the old, and children will disrespect their parents and rebel against them. How will ...

1. ... the old treat the young?

2. ... the face of the generation look?

(e)A person's own family will be his enemies. If this is how the generation looks, to whom will we turn for help?

37)

(a)The ...

1. ... ruling power - will become heretical.

2. ... meeting-places of the Chachamim - will become brothels.

(b)The Galil will be destroyed, the Gavlan (See Tiferes Yisrael), desolate, and the inhabitants of the border towns will travel from one town to the other in search of a haven - but will not find one.

(c)The ...

1. ... wisdom of the Chachamim - will become rejected.

2. ... people who fear sin - will be despised and the ...

3. ... truth - will become obsolete.

(d)The young will shame the old, and children will disrespect their parents and rebel against them. The ...

1. ... old - will arise when a young person enters the room.

2. ... face of the generation will resemble - that of a dog (see Tif'eres Yisrael).

(e)A person's own family will be his enemies. If this is how the generation looks - there will be nobody to whom to turn for help other than our Father in Heaven.

38)

(a)Rebbi Pinchas ben Ya'ir in a Beraisa lists the chain of Midos that serves as the basis of the Seifer 'Mesilas Yesharim'. Torah, he says, leads to Zehirus, which in turn, leads to Zerizus. What does 'Torah' mean in this context?

(b)What is the difference between Zehirus and Zerizus?

(c)Zerizus leads to Neki'us ... Perishus ... Taharah. If Neki'us means clean of sin, what is the meaning of ...

1. ... Perishus?

2. ... Taharah'?

(d)Taharah leads to Kedushah. What are the next two Midos?

38)

(a)Rebbi Pinchas ben Ya'ir in a Beraisa learns from here the chain of Midos that serves as the basis of the Seifer 'Mesilas Yesharim'. Torah he says, leads to Zehirus, which in turn, leads to Zerizus. 'Torah' in this context, means - both Torah-study per se, and a deeper understanding of the Mitzvos.

(b)Zehirus is the ability to overcome the urge to sin when the temptation arises - whereas Zerizus refers to the ability to foresee the impending temptation and to circumvent it by avoiding the circumstances that lead up to it.

(c)Zerizus leads to Neki'us ... Perishus ... Taharah. Neki'us means clean of sin ...

1. ... Perishus - going 'Lif'nim mi'Shuras ha'Din' (beyond the letter of the law), and ...

2. ... Taharah' - a more refined level of 'Lif'nim mi'Shuras ha'Din'.

(d)Taharah leads to Kedushah - which leads to Anavah (humility), and Anavah to Yir'as Chet (fear of sin).

39)

(a)What does Yir'as Chet lead to?

(b)If Chasidus leads to Ru'ach ha'Kodesh, what does Ru'ach ha'Kodesh lead to?

(c)Through whom will the ultimate Techi'as ha'Meisim take place?

39)

(a)Yir'as Chet leads to - 'Chasidus (piety).

(b)Chasidus leads to Ru'ach ha'Kodesh, and Ru'ach ha'Kodesh - to Techi'as ha'Meisim (the ability to revive the dead).

(c)The ultimate Techi'as ha'Meisim will take place through - Eliyahu (ha'Navi) Zachur la'Tov. Amen.

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