[15a - 38 lines; 15b - 45 lines]

1)[line 2]משיחתן מקדשתןMESHICHASAN MEKADSHAN- their annointing [with the Shemen ha'Mishchah (see Background to Shekalim 16:4)] sanctifies them. (See next entry.)

2)[line 3]עבודתן מחנכתןAVODASAN MECHANASAN- their usage initiates them into the service of HaSh-m. All service vessels made in the time of Moshe Rabeinu were sanctified through the anointing oil. After the time of Moshe Rabeinu, they are sanctified through usage.

3)[line 4]וימשחם ויקדש אותם"VA'YIMSHACHEM VA'YEKADESH OSAM"- "And he anointed them and he [thereby] consecrated them." (Bamidbar 7:1) The verse teaches that when Moshe Rabeinu finished erecting the Mishkan, he anointed it and sanctified the utensils. Although an earlier verse already mentions the anointment, it is repeated now to indicate that the sanctification of the Mishkan did not take effect until all of its parts were anointed. Accordingly, the entire Mishkan formed a single, integrated unit, in which every part had a sacred meaning and all of them complemented one another. (RAV SHIMSHON REFAEL HIRSCH)

4)[line 8]"אשר ישרתו בם בקדש""ASHER YESHARSU VAM BA'KODESH"- "[And they shall take all of the sanctified utensils] through which they shall serve in the Kodesh..." (Bamidbar 4:12)

5)[line 15]שתי תודותSHTEI TODOS (LACHMEI TODAH)- See Background to Shevuos 14:9.

6)[line 17]"ועמידה שתי תודות גדולות ותמלוכות לימין מעל לחומה""VA'A'AMIDAH SHTEI SODOS GEDOLOS V'SAHALUCHOS LA'YAMIN ME'AL LA'CHOMAH"- "[I then brought the officers of Yehudah alongside near the wall], and I placed two large thanksgiving loaves there; then the march [set out] towards the right alongside the wall." (Nechemyah 12:31)

7)[line 18]מין גדולMIN GADOL- it is the largest species that may be brought

8)[line 19]במינן גדולB'MINAN GADOL- from whatever species they brought, they would bring the largest animals

9)[line 26]עישרון חמש סאין ירושלמיות שש מדבריות שהן שתי איפותCHAMESH SA'IN YERUSHALMIYOS / SHESH MIDBARIYOS / EIFOS / ISARON (DRY MEASURES)

(a)The following is a list of measures of volume used in the Mishnah and Gemara:

1.1 Kor (= 1 Chomer) = 30 Se'in

2.1 Lesech = 15 Se'in

3.1 Eifah = 3 Se'in = 10 Isaron

4.1 Se'ah = 6 Kabin

5.1 Tarkav (= Trei v'Kav, or 3 Kabin) = 12 Lugin

6.1 Kav = 4 Lugin

7.1 Log (= 1 Rova) = 4 Revi'iyos = 6 Beitzim

8.1 Beitzah = 2 or 3 k'Zeisim, according to the varying opinions

(b)In modern-day measures, the k'Zayis is approximately 0.025, 0.0288 or 0.05 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions. Thus, 1 Eifah = 21.6, 24.9 or 43.2 liters, according to the various opinions; 1 Isaron = 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing opinions.

(c)A Se'ah Midbaris is the measure of a Se'ah in Midbar Sinai [when it held five Kav]. A Se'ah Yerushalmis is the measure of a Se'ah in Yerushalayim, where the leaders of the generation added a Kav (1/6 of the ensuing total, or 1/5 of the original amount) to the Se'ah Midbaris.

10)[line 28]עשרה לחמץ ועשרה למצהASARAH L'CHAMETZ V'ASARAH L'MATZAH- ten [Esronim are used] for the [ten] Chametz loaves, and ten [Esronim are used] for [the three types of] Matzah loaves

11)[line 29]חלות רקיקין ורבוכהCHALOS REKIKIN U'REVUCHAH- loaves, flat Matzos, and Matzos made of boiled flour mixed with oil

12)[line 31]בשירי מנחהB'SHEYAREI MINCHAH

(a)When an indiviudal who is not a Kohen offers a Korban Minchah (flour offering), a Kohen must take off a Kometz (handful), which is burned upon the Mizbe'ach.

(b)A Kometz is the amount that can be held by the middle three fingers when they are pressed upon the palm. The Kohen puts his hand in the dough or baked goods and removes one handful. The excess of dough or baked goods that sticks out is then wiped off by the thumb and the smallest finger until the Kometz remains.

(c)The remainder of the Minchah (the Sheyarei ha'Minchah) is eaten by male Kohanim.

(d)A Minchah offering brought by the Tzibur and a Minchah offering brought by a Kohen are burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach.

13)[line 32]דבר הנאכל בהDAVAR HA'NE'ECHAL BAH- [we are Mekadesh Yerushalayim with] something that may be eaten there (i.e. Todos)

14)[line 36]ויוצא ממנה נפסלVA'YOTZEI MIMENAH NIFSAL- and that which goes out from it (Yerushalayim) becomes invalidated

15)[line 38]מנחת חמץ מי איכאMINCHAS CHAMETZ MI IKA - is there such a thing as a Minchah offering of Chametz? (MENACHOS: MATZAH)

(a) The Torah prohibits (with a Lav) offering sourdough, or anything that contains sourdough, on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 2:11).

(b)A person who offers sourdough on the Mizbe'ach receives Malkus. However, the Amora'im disagree about the extent of the prohibition (Pesachim 44a, Menachos 58b). According to Abaye, even offering the most miniscule amount of sourdough incurs Malkus. According to Rava, since "Ein Haktarah b'Pachos mik'Zayis" ("the burning of items on the Mizbe'ach is not considered a [valid] burning if they measure less than a k'Zayis"), the sourdough must be the size of a k'Zayis in order for the transgressor to receive Malkus.

(c)It is also prohibited to cause the dough of Menachos (either the Kometz or the Shirayim, the part that the Kohanim eat) to become leavened, as it states, "Kol ha'Minchah... Lo Se'aseh Chametz" (Vayikra 2:11). An additional verse, "Lo Se'afeh Chametz" (Vayikra 6:10), specifically prohibits baking leavened Menachos.

(d)This second verse teaches that once the dough of a Minchah offering is leavened, each and every subsequent process involved in preparing a baked Minchah offering is also prohibited (Mechametz Achar Mechametz). For example, if one person leavens the dough and another bakes it, they both transgress a Lav (Shabbos 111a; see also Sotah 15a). (See next entry.)

15b----------------------------------------15b

16)[line 2]לא תאפה חמץ חלקם"LO SE'AFEH CHAMETZ, CHELKAM [NASATI OSAH ME'ISHAI...]" - "It shall not be baked with leaven. [I have given it to them for] their portion [of My fire-offerings...]" (Vayikra 6:10) (MECHAMETZ ES HA'MINCHAH)

(a)The Torah prohibits causing the dough of Menachos (either the Kometz or the Shirayim, the part that the Kohanim eat) to become leavened, as it states, "Kol ha'Minchah... Lo Se'aseh Chametz" (Vayikra 2:11). An additional verse, "Lo Se'afeh Chametz" (Vayikra 6:10), specifically prohibits baking leavened Menachos.

(b)This second verse teaches that once the dough of a Minchah offering is leavened, each and every subsequent process involved in preparing a baked Minchah offering is also prohibited (Mechametz Achar Mechametz). For example, if one person leavens the dough and another bakes it, they both transgress a Lav (Shabbos 111a; see also Sotah 15a).

17)[line 4]שתי הלחםSHTEI HA'LECHEM

(a)SHTEI HA'LECHEM - The Shtei ha'Lechem is an offering of two loaves of bread (that are Chametz) that is brought on Shavu'os. It is baked from the newly grown wheat (Vayikra 23:17). One loaf is given to the Kohen Gadol and the other is divided among the rest of the Kohanim in the Mikdash at the time. They are eaten on the day of Shavu'os and the night afterwards, until midnight (RAMBAM Hilchos Temidin u'Musafin 8:11).

(b)In addition, Korbenos Olah (one bullock, two rams and seven male sheep), a female goat as a Chatas and two sheep that are Zivchei Shelamim are to be offered in conjunction with the Shtei ha'Lechem (Vayikra 23:18-19). (These sheep were the only Shelamim brought by the Tzibur, and the only Shelamim that were Kodshei Kodashim.)

17)[line 5]בעצרתB'ATZERES- on Shavu'os

18)[line 6]שתי הלחם בשחיטת כבשים הוא דקדשיSHTEI HA'LECHEM BI'SHECHITAS KEVASIM HU D'KADSHI- the loaves became sanctified (to be disqualified if they leave the Azarah) only with the slaughtering of the accompanying lambs [on Shavu'os].

19)[line 12]בלינהIFSILA LEI B'LINAH - the loaves would become disqualified by being left overnight (PESULEI KORBAN: LINAH)

Linah - literally resting overnight - is the term used to describe part of a Korban left off of the Mizbe'ach beyond the time that the Korban may be consumed (either by people or the Mizbe'ach). Such pieces are disqualified and may no longer be placed on the Mizbe'ach.

20)[line 12]ממעלי יומאMA'ALEI YOMA- the day before. (Here, it means Erev Shavu'os.)

21)[line 13]פורתאPURTA- a little bit

22)[line 13]עד דקדיש יומאAD D'KADISH YOMA- until the day is sanctified. The last bit was finished right after Yom Tov was over.

23)[line 13]לאלתרL'ALTAR- right away

24)[line 18]שיר של תודהSHIR SHEL TODAH- they sing the Shir of the Todah offering (Tehilim 100). According to the Rambam, this refers to any song that they would sing with the Todah.

25a)[line 19]בכנורותB'KINOROS- with harps or lutes

b)[line 19]ובנבליםUV'NEVALIM- and with lyres

c)[line 19]ובצלצליםUV'TZILTZELIM- and with cymbals

26)[line 19]על כל פינה ופינהAL KOL PINAH U'FINAH- on each and every corner

27)[line 20]על כל אבן גדולהAL KOL EVEN GEDOLAH- and on each and every big rock [they would stand and sing]

28)[line 21]פגעיםPEGA'IM- destructive forces

29)[line 30]וגאניV'GANI- and he went to sleep

30)[line 31]אסור להתרפאות בדברי תורהASUR L'HISRAPOS B'DIVREI TORAH- one may not use words of Torah to heal oneself

31)[line 33]מכהMAKAH- a wound

32)[line 34]הלוחש על המכהHA'LOCHESH AL HA'MAKAH- one who whispers (the verse "Kol ha'Machalah... Lo Asim Alecha Ki Ani HaSh-m Rof'echa") over a wound has no share in the World to Come

33)[line 35]ברוקקB'ROKEK- with one who spits

34)[line 42]אמטו להכיA'MATU L'HACHI- because of this

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