ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler of Kollel Iyun Hadaf
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
(a) Rav Ivya was sitting in front of Rav Yosef, when his hand became dislocated. After he used it to demonstrate various scenarios, in the hope that Rav Yosef would permit to move it back into place - it swelled up.
(b) Rav Yosef in fact ruled - that it was forbidden, but that he was permitted to bathe it normally, and if it went back into place, so be it.
(c) Rav Ivya thought that he was permitted to rub it hard with water to set it in place (in spite of the fact that our Mishnah specifically forbids it) - because, just as Rebbi Chanah Bagdesa'ah changed the text from 'Ein Machzirin es ha'Shever' to 'Machzirin es ha'Shever', so too, did he change 'Lo Yitrefem be'Tzonen' to 'Yitrefem be'Tzonen'.
(d) Rav Yosef disillusioned him however - by informing him that one cannot 'weave all the cases into the same garment'; (by which he meant that what Rav Chanah Bagdesa'ah changed, he changed, but what he didn't, he didn't.
Hadran Alach 'Chavis'!
(a) When ...
1. ... asking to borrow a vessel on Shabbos - one must take care not to say 'Halveini', only 'Hash'ileni', and the same applies to when ...
2. ... a woman borrows a loaf of bread from her friend on Shabbos.
(b) One lends something on Shabbos, to someone whom one does not trust (when it is not possible to record the transaction)- by demanding a security (and records it after Shabbos when retrieving it).
(c) The Tana gives the same advice with regard to the Korban Pesach on Erev Pesach that falls on Shabbos - where Reuven forgot to acquire (and pay for his portion of the lamb before Yom-Tov).
(d) The problem is solved - in the same way (by taking a security from him on Yom-Tov, and giving him a portion).
(a) Rava bar Rav Chanan asked Abaye why one must avoid using the word 'Halveini' instead of 'Hash'ileni' on Shabbos, to which he replied that - the former implies a long-term (and we are therefore afraid that the lender will write down the details of the loan in his ledger (whereas the latter implies a short-term loan (and we therefore not afraid that he will do so).
(b) The source for this distinction is - the Sugya in Makos, which rules 'Stam Halva'ah Shloshim Yom' (see Tosfos DH 'Sho'el').
(c) Rava bar Rav Chanan queries Abaye's answer however - from the fact during the week, people tend to say 'Hash'ileni' instead of 'Halveini', in which case, we ought still to be afraid that even if on Shabbos, one does say 'Hash'ileni', one may still come to write down the details.
(d) Abaye replied - that nevertheless, the very fact that he must say 'Hash'ileni' and not 'Halveini' will serve to remind him not to write down the transaction.
(a) Chazal generally require a Shinuy on Yom-Tov.
(b) They did not however, require using a Shinuy - because it is not possible to (as we shall now see).
(c) They did not require ...
1. ... using a small pail instead of a large one - because that would mean increasing the distance that one walked (by having to go more times).
2. ... using a large jar instead of a small one - because that would mean increasing the load that they carried.
3. ... covering it with a cloth - because the cloth will get wet, and one may come to wring it out on Shabbos.
4. ... covering it with a lid - because, since the lid was not made for the pail, one will presumably need to tie it on. Now it may just happen that the string snaps and one is likely to tie it on Shabbos.
(a) When Rava bar Chanan asked Abaye why, in spite of the Mishnah in Beitzah forbidding clapping one's hands and dancing on Yom-Tov, the Rabbanan did not make a point of protesting, when they saw people doing these things - he cited the principle 'Mutav she'Yihyu Shogegin, ve'Lo Yihyu Mezidin' (since bad habits die hard, it is better that people should be allowed to transgress be'Shogeg, than to do so be'Meizid).
(b) Abaye retorted by citing the same problem with people who sat at the entrance of the Mavoy holding something in their hands - which the Rabbanan forbade due to the fact that they cannot see the Lechi (the plank that reminds the people in the Mavoy not to carry in the street). Consequently, we are afraid that, should they drop what they are holding and it rolls out into the street, they will carry it back in.
(c) Once again, Abaye disillusioned Rava bar Chanan, who thought that this principle is confined to Isurim de'Rabbanan. He proved to him that it extends to Isurim d'Oraysa as well - from - women, who tended to eat right up to nightfall on Erev Yom-Kippur, without observing Tosfos Yom Kippur, which is d'Oraysa, yet the Rabbanan said nothing. Note, that the principle does not apply to Isurim d'Oraysa which are written explicitly in the Torah (which Tosfos Yom Kippur is not).
(a) In the Mishnah in Bava Metzi'a, Hillel permits a woman to borrow a loaf of bread - on condition she assesses its value, turning into a monetary loan. Otherwise, the price of bread may go up, in which case the borrower will be giving Ribis (interest on the loan).
(b) Our Mishnah, which forbids a woman to borrow a loaf of bread on Shabbos using the word 'Halveini', seems to clash with Hillel - since it implies that during the week, she is permitted to say 'Halveini', without transforming it into a loan.
(c) We reconcile Hillel with our Mishnah however - by establishing the former where the price is not fixed, and the latter, where it is (in which case if the price goes up, the borrower will automatically pay the original price of the loaf.
(a) Rav Yosef forbids something that is borrowed on Yom-Tov to be re-claimed in Beis-Din after Yom-Tov - because if it was, they would write it down.
(b) According to Rabah - one may (in order not to detract from Simchas Yom-Tov, since people will not agree to lend on Yom-Tov, if they know that they will not be re-paid).
(c) Nevertheless, our Mishnah prescribes leaving a security - because the lender prefers to avoid the trouble that going to Beis-Din involves (such as choosing a Dayan and actually going there).
(a) Rav Idi bar Avin queries Rav Yosef from a Beraisa which discusses someone who Shechts a cow and distributes it to the purchasers on Rosh Hashanah of the eighth year. The loan is Meshamet (cancelled) - if Beis-Din declare Ellul, Me'ubar (a full month), in which case the first day Rosh Hashanah is really a week-day. Consequently, the loan has taken place on the last day of the year, and the second day Rosh Hashanah is Meshamet it.
(b) This poses a Kashya on Rav Yosef - who holds that one cannot claim a loan that takes place on Yom-Tov anyway (so what is the point in saying 'Meshamet').
(c) We answer it - by recalling that the first day is Chol, not Yom-Tov (in which case there would be no reason not to claim the loan if not for the Din of Meshamet).
(d) Rav Yosef will explain the Seifa of the Beraisa 'Im La'av Eino Meshamet' (implying that the loan is repayable after Yom-Tov) - to mean that the lender is permitted to accept the loan, should the borrower volunteer to pay.
(a) And when the Reisha says 'Meshamet', it means (not that he is forbidden to accept the repayment if it is offered, but) - that the lender is obligated to declare that he is Meshamet the loan.
(b) We learn from the Pasuk "ve'Zeh D'var ha'Shemitah" - that, after the Shemitah, one is obligated to declare that he negates the loan even if the debtor offers to pay.
(c) Rav Ivya actually demanded a security against something that he lent the borrower. Rabah bar Ula - found an excuse to obtain an article belonging to the debtor after Yom-Tov (which he then held against the loan).
(a) Rebbi Yochanan permits declaring one's Pesach Hekdesh on Shabbos, and one's Chagigah on Yom-Tov.
(b) There is no proof for Rebbi Yochanan from our Mishnah 've'Chein Erev Pesach bi'Yerushalayim she'Chal Lih'yos be'Shabbos, Mani'ach Talis Etzlo ... ' (which apparently permits being Makdish on Yom-Tov) - since the Tana is speaking about someone who was Makdish the Pesach already before Shabbos, and is only looking for participants to join him, on Shabbos.
(c) We reconcile the Mishnah in Beitzah 'Ein Nimnin al ha'Behemah bi'Techilah be'Shabbos' with ...
1. ... our Mishnah 've'Chein Erev Pesach bi'Yerushalayim she'Chal Lih'yos be'Shabbos, Mani'ach Talis Etzlo ... ' - by establishing the latter by an acquaintance, whom the owner anticipates will join his group for the Korban Pesach, in which case it is as if he had already appointed him before Shabbos.
2. ... the Beraisa cited by Rav Hoshaya 'Holech Adam Etzel Ro'eh ha'Ragil Etzlo ve'Nosein Lo T'le le'Pischo u'Makdisho ve'Yotzei Bo' - by establishing the latter in the same way as we did our Mishnah (since the shepherd anticipates the arrival of the owner, and is Makdish an animal in advance).
(d) According to our interpretation of Rav Oshaya - 'u'Makdisho' refers to the Chiyuv mi'de'Rabbanan to explicitly declare the Korban Hekdesh, even though it is Hekdesh already.
(a) The problem with Rebbi's ruling, in view of the Stam Mishnah in Beitzah 'Ein Makdishin' ... even on Yom-Tov, how much more so on Shabbos' is - that Rebbi Yochanan always rules like a Stam Mishnah (so why does he seemingly ignore that Mishnah here)?
(b) And we answer - by confining Rebbi Yochanan's ruling specifically to Korbanos which override Shabbos (therefore declaring them Hekdesh does, too), whereas the Mishnah in Beitzah speaks about Korbanos that do not override Shabbos.
(a) Our Mishnah - permits counting out lists of food or of people on Shabbos, provided one does not read it from a written list.
(b) The Tana warns us, when distributing portions by drawing lots on Shabbos to the members of one's family - not to deliberately arrange the portions in different sizes.
(c) The Kohanim too - are permitted to distribute their portions of Kodshei Mizbe'ach by drawing lots.