ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler of Kollel Iyun Hadaf
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
SHABBOS 20 (7 Cheshvan) - Dedicated in honor of the Yahrzeit of ha'Gaon Rav Meir Shapiro (n. 5694/1933), founder of the renowned Yeshivas Chachmei Lublin, representative of the Jewish community in the Polish parliament, and creator of the DAFYOMI STUDY CYCLE (see www.dafyomi.co.il/dafyomi.htm for more) - may he entreat before Hash-m's holy throne for the complete redemption of Klal Yisrael, speedily in our days!. Dedicated by Mr. and Mrs. Shmuel Kovacs of Ramat Beit Shemesh, Israel; may the great Gaon be a Melitz Yosher for the Kovacs childrenZZ to grow up with love of Torah and Yir'as Shamayim and succeed in all that they do.
(a) Meat, onions and eggs must be roasted - 'ke'Ma'achal ben Derusai', one third (some say a half) of their cooking time.
(b) ben Derusai was an infamous robber who would eat his meat etc. one third done.
(c) This leniency applies to cooking, too.
(d) It also applies to 'Bishul Akum' - inasmuch as food that has been cooked is not subject to 'Bishul Akum', and that begins from the time the food has reached the stage of 'Ma'achal ben Derusai'.
(a) TShe'eilah regarding 'Paneha ha'Tachton' of Rebbi Eliezer is - when Rebbi Eliezer says in our Mishnah that bread may be left in the oven from the moment that the bottom has crusted, what did he mean by the bottom, the side that sticks to the wall of the oven, or the outside of the bread that faces the air?
(b) The Gemara concludes - that he is referring to the side that sticks to the wall of the oven, a Chumra, since it is the outside of the bread, which faces the flame, that bakes first.
(c) Our Mishnah permits placing the Korban Pesach in the oven shortly before Shabbos enters (on Erev Pesach which falls on Friday) only because the members of the group are alert and will remind each other. That, in spite of the fact that above, we permitted the meat of a kid anyway - because that concession is confined to where the kid-goat has been cut-up, and the air will interfere with the roasting, but not when it is still whole.
(a) The Kohanim are permitted to light the fire in the Beis ha'Mokad just before Shabbos enters, without having to make sure that it is properly alight (like one does by other fires) - because, unlike Yisraelim, Kohanim are not suspect of stoking the coals on Shabbos, due to the principle 'Kohanim Zerizim Hen'.
(b) "Lo Seva'aru Eish be'Chol Moshvoseichem" comes to teach us, that, although the Kohanim are not permitted to light the fire in Meduras Beis ha'Mokad (which is included in 'Moshvoseichem' - belonging to the people) on Shabbos, they are permitted (and therefore obligated) to burn the limbs that have been left over from the Friday Korban (since this is not included in 'Moshvoseichem' - since the Chalavim are the property of Hash-m).
(a) When Rav permits lighting a fire on Erev Shabbos only if the flame has taken 'be'Rov Kol Echad ve'Echad' - he means that the majority of each log has to be alight.
(b) According to Shmuel, it will suffice if one no longer needs to say 'Bring more wood to place underneath the burning logs' - to ensure that the fire does not go out.
(c) By a solitary log of wood, some say that one requires the majority of its thickness to be alight before Shabbos enters, whereas others require the majority of the circumference. We therefore conclude, that wboth are are required.
(d) Some interpret "ve'ha'Ach" to mean a willow tree, or willow wood; others - a pile of burning wood (from the root 'Ach' - brother, because the one piece burns the other.
(a) Canes (bamboo) and date-pits do not require a 'Rov', but may be lit immediately before Shabbos. When, according to Rav Huna, is a 'Rov' require...
1. ... even by canes - when they have been tied together, and the fire has difficulty in igniting them in spite of their flammability.
2. ... even by date-pits - when they are pressed tightly together in a box, because then, due to their compactness, the flames cannot get to them.
(b) Rav Chisda maintains the opposite. Under normal circumstances, he says, the canes and the pits scatter and will therefore not ignite each other, and will therefore require a Rov; and it is when the canes are tied and date-pits placed in a box, that they will ignite easily, and no Rov is required.
(c) Rav Kahana agrees with Rav Huna - making it a majority opinion, and therefore, the Halachah.
(a) A Madurah is a bonfire. A bonfire of pitch, sulfur, cheese or wax - do not require a majority to be lit before Shabbos, because the fire burns them quickly.
(b) Another Beraisa adds straw and stubble to the list.
(c) We know that thin twigs require a 'Rov' to be lit, before Shabbos enters - from a 'Kal va'Chomer': If a wick dipped in oil (which burns well) requires the majority to be lit, then how much more so - twigs!
(d) 'Shucha de'Arza' and 'Zaza' do not require a 'Rov'.
1. ... 'Shucha de'Arza' is the woolly substance found between the bark and the trunk of a willow tree.
2. ... Zaza' is moss.
Hadran Alach, Yetzi'os ha'Shabbos'
Perek Bameh Madlikin
(a) Lechesh is 'Shucha de'Arza' - the woolly substance between the bark and the trunk of a cedar-tree.
(b) We learn from the Pasuk in Yeshayah "ve'Hayah ha'Chosen li'Ne'ores" - that 'Chosen' is not the equivalent of flax-shavings (which is the fine combed threads - Maharam).
(c) 'Kisna de'Dayek ve'Lo Nafitz' is flax that has been beatren but not combed, which is why the oil does not run up the wick (although this is not the reason given by the Gemara later for the Pasul wicks - see 21a, answer 1b).
(a) In the second explanation, Ravin differentiates between Shira'in and Shira Parnada. In that case, in the Beraisa 'ha'Shira'in, ve'ha'Chalach va'ha'Sarikin Chayavin be'Tzitsis', he defines ...
1. ... 'Shira'in - as a silk coat.
2. ... 'Chalach (also known as 'Shira Parnada' or 'Gushkera') - as a coat made of the waste of silk.
(b) According to his first explanation, where he does not differentiate between Shira'in and Shira Parnada - he has no way of explaining the Beraisa, which clearly does differentiate between them.
(a) 'Pesilas ha'Midbar' is the woolly substance found between the bark and the trunk of a willow-tree (also known as 'Shucha de'Arza - see end of previous Amud).
(b) 'Pesilas ha'Midbar' is the name of a certain type of tall grass that grows in the desert.
(c) 'Yerokah she'Al Penei ha'Mayim' is barnacles that one finds growing on the sides of a ship. It cannot be the moss that floats on the surface of the water, because that tends to break up, and is not fit to be used as wicks.
(d) The reason that the above are all Pasul as wicks, is - because they do not suck up the oil, as good wicks tend to do.
(a) Our Tana includes neither wicks made of wool - because the flame jumps, nor those made of hair - because the fire merely singes them, but does not create a flame.
(a) The reason that the Beraisa needed to inform us that, until now, our Tana has been dealing with Pasul wicks, and that, from now on, he will deal with Pasul oils (even though this appears obvious) - is in order to make it clear, that although wax is Pasul as an oil, it is not Pasul as a wick (i.e. to use it in the way that we do - in the form of candles).
1. ... 'Zefes' -- is pitch.
2. ... 'Sha'avah' - is bee's wax (the waste of honey).
3. ... 'Itran' is the waste of pitch (a liquid that oozes from the wood (after the pitch has been extracted), when one applies heat.
(c) We need to know that 'Itran' is another name for 'Pesulta de'Zifta' and 'Sha'avah', for 'Pesulta de'Duvsha' - for buying and selling purposes (that if someone purchases 'Itran' or 'Sha'avah', one may supply him with 'Pesulta de'Duvsha' or 'Pesulta de'Zifta', respectively).