ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler of Kollel Iyun Hadaf
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
(a) The Mishnah, discussing knots that one is forbidden to tie on Shabbos, mentions specifically two kinds of knots. One of them is a camel's knot, the other - a ship's knot.
(b) A 'camel's knot' - entails making a hole in the camel's nose, into which they insert a strap, whose two ends are then tied.
(c) A ship's knot is performed in a similar fashion, only one uses a rope instead of a strap. The Tana specifies these two knots - because they are both examples of permanent knots.
(d) In the Mishkan they tie - together the two ends of a thread of one of the hangings which tore.
(a) In order to be Chayav for tying a knot on Shabbos - must be permanent and professional.
(b) If someone ties a knot that is ...
1. ... permanent but not professional, or ...
2. ... professional but not permanent - he is Patur Aval Asur (mi'de'Rabbanan).
(c) One is permitted to tie a knot on Shabbos - that is neither permanent nor professional.
(a) he Tana rules - that one is Chayav for untying any knot on Shabbos that one is Chayav for tying.
(b) This was performed in the Mishkan - when those who caught the Chilazon fish (to obtain dye for Techeiles) sometimes needed to untie knots in the nets in order to shorten or lengthen their size.
(c) Rebbi Meir rules - that one is not Chayav for tying a knot that one can untie with one hand on Shabbos (see Tif'eres Yisrael).
(a) When the Mishnah says that there are some knots which are not subject to Kareis - it means that they are only Asur mi'de'Rabbanan.
(b) One of the two examples given by the Gemara is a knot with which one attaches a long strap to a ring that is placed through a racing camel's nose. In the other example - one ties a rope to the ring-shaped cord that is tied permanently on to the nose of the ship that the Tana mentioned in the previous Mishnah.
(c) They are not subject to Kareis - because one tends to leave them only for short periods of a week or two.
(a) All the knots that the Tana now presents beginning with knots that a woman ties Miftechei Chalukah, her S'vacha (a hat made of network, with straps that tie at the back of her head) and her P'sikya are permitted Lechatchilah ...
(b) ... since they are neither permanent nor professional.
(c) 'Miftechei Chalukah' are - straps at the top extremities of a woman, which she ties - the right one to the left shoulder, and the left one to the right shoulder (see Tos. Yom-Tov).
(d) A 'P'sikya' is - a wide belt with threads hanging from it with which to tie it (see Tif'eres Yisrael).
(a) The Tana also includes - shoe and sandal laces in this list (see Tos. Yom-Tov).
(b) He also inserts straps of flasks of wine and oil - which are made of leather.
(c) One tends to bend over the top and tie it with two knots to prevent the wine from spilling out.
(d) And he is permitted to do so - even though untying one of the knots will suffice to enable one to pour out the wine (in which case we might have otherwise thought that one is Chayav for tying them, since he will only untie one of them, rendering the other one permanent (see Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) The final item on the list is a pot of meaty soup - which one sometimes covers with a piece of cloth ...
(b) ... and he is Patur even though it is possibly to pour out the soup without untying the knot via the spouts at the side of the pot (Tuif'eres Yisrael).
(c) Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov - permits tying a rope across the doorway of a stable to prevent the animal in the stable from running away (see Tos. Yom-Tov) ...
(d) ... and that is the Halachah.
(a) The reason that ...
1. ... the Tana Kama permits tying a bucket to a well using a small belt - is because the owner clearly intends to replace and retrieve it.
2. ... Rebbi Yehudah permits using a rope for the same purpose - is likewise because he is talking about a weaver's rope, which the owner clearly intends to replace and retrieve.
(b) The Chachamim nevertheless forbid it - since people will confuse one type of rope and another.
(c) The Halachah is like the Chachamim.
(a) The Mishnah permits folding clothes and making the beds on Shabbos - provided one does it with the intention to use on the same Shabbos, and not after Shabbos.
(b) Folding one's is permitted - even into four of five folds.
(c) One of the unspecified for this concessions is that only one person actually does the folding another that the garment is new - because new clothes, which are 'harder', do not retain the folds as well as old one's.
(d) Even new garments one may only fold if they are white, but not if they are colored - since, once again, folding is more effective by olored clothes than by white ones.
(e) Finally, one is only permitted to fold one's clothes - if one has no other Shabbos clothes to wear.
(a) The Tana Kama permits burning the Chalavim of Shabbos on Yom Kipur - (when Yom Kipur falls on Friday), but not vice-versa - (when it falls on Sunday [see Tos. Yom-Tov)).
(b) The reason for ...
1. ... the first ruling is - because Shabbos is more stringent than Yom Kipur (and is therefore more holy).
2. ... the second ruling is - because (by the same token) it is like bringing the Chalavim of a weekday on Shabbos.
(c) According to Rebbi Akiva - the two are equal (see Tos. Yom-Tov), and the Chalavim of Yom Kipur cannot be brought on Shabbos either.
(d) The Halachah is - like Rebbi Akiva.