ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler of Kollel Iyun Hadaf
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
(a) The Mishnah is about to discuss three types of ovens, a Kirah, a Tanur and a Kupach. The definition of ...
1. ... a Kirah is - a rectangular oven that is attached to the ground that has space on top to place two pots.
2. ... a Tanur is - an oven that has a wide base and a narrow top with space for one pot.
3. ... a Kupach is - a cube-shaped oven with space for one pot.
(b) The Tana rules that a Kirah - that one may leave a pot on a Kirah that has been heated with straw or with thin twigs to cook on Shabbos, but not on one that has been heated with the residue of olives or sesame-seeds or with wood ...
(c) ... so that one will not come to stoke them on Shabbos, in order to hasten the cooking process.
(d) It is permitted however on one of two conditions - either if one has cleared the 'coals' from the Kirah or if he has covered them with ashes (to cool them down).
(a) The current prohibition does not apply if one of three conditions is met; two of them, if the food is fully-cooked to the point of 'Mitztamek ve'Ra lo' - (if it continues to cook it will get spoilt) or if it is still raw.
(b) ... since the owner will not then want to stoke the coals (in the former case because he does not want his food to get spoilt, in the latter because he obviously wants it for Shabbos morning, in which case there is no point is stoking it).
(c) For the same reason he permits leaving the pot on the stove - there where he has added a piece of raw meat shortly before Shabbos.
(a) Beis Hillel permit leaving both boiling water and fully-cooked food on a Kirah as long as the aforesaid conditions are met. Beis Shamai - restrict the concession to boiling water ...
(b) ... which does not require the same amount of cooking as food, and they are therefore not concerned that one may come to stoke it.
(c) Beis Shamai also restrict the current concession (of placing a cooked pot on a Kirah which is Garuf ve'Katum) - to leaving it there from before Shabbos; they do not permit returning it once it has been removed however ...
(d) ... because it looks as if one is cooking Lechatchilah on Shabbos,
(a) Beis Hillel disagree with Beis Shamai's latter Chumra, too. They permit even returning a pot onto the Kirah - provided one is still holding it in his hand, but not once one has put it down on any surface ...
(b) ... for the same reason as Beis Shamai (see Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) The Mishnah now - prohibits leaving on a Tanur that has been heated with straw or with thin twigs ...
(b) ... because, due to the intensity of the heat, even if the oven is 'Garuf ve'Katum' we are still afraid that he may come to stoke it (see Tif'eres Yisrael).
(c) 'Eino Masi'ach Da'ato Mimenu' means - that, despite the fact that the stove is lit only with straw ... , due to intense heat, he has not given up hope of obtaining more heat from the little that remains.
(d) The Tana rules that a Kupach that has been heated with ...
1. ... straw or with thin twigs - has the same Din as a Kirah.
2. ... with the residue of olives or with sesame-seeds and wood - has the same Din as a Tanur.
(a) The Mishnah - prohibits placing an egg next to a boiling kettle (see Tos. Yom-Tov).
(b) The Tana also forbids opening it onto a hot cloth - which became heated by the sun.
(c) Rebbi Yossi permits it. The basis of their Machlokes is whether the Chachamim decreed Toldos ha'Chamah on account of Toldos ha'Eish (the Tana Kama) or not (Rebbi Yossi).
(d) The Mishnah then forbids 'wrapping' the egg in hot sand or earth that has been heated by the sun to roast. Rebbi Yossi concedes that this is forbidden for one of two reasons; one of them is for fear that people will say that if one is permitted to 'wrap in hot sand, why not in hot ashes?' The other - in case there is some earth that is hard, and one comes to loosen it to make room for the pot the ...
(e) ... in which case, he will have transgressed the Melachah of Choresh (plowing).
(a) The men of Teverya took the pipe into which cold water flowed - and placed it inside a stream of the Chamai Teverya (the hot springs of Teverya) ...
(b) ... on Erev Shabbos.
(c) The Chachamim ruled that if water was heated on Shabbos in this manner - it had the Din of water that was on Shabbos, whereas if it was heated on Yom-Tov - had the Din of water that was heated on Yom-Tov.
(d) The former were forbidden both to drink and to use for washing, whereas the latter was forbidden to use for washing, but not for dreinking.
(e) The men of Teverya subsequently - broke the offensive pipe.
(a) They permits drinking water from a hot Muli'ar - (a sort of kettle with a small section adjoined to it at the side, containing coals which keep the water hot) on Shabbos, provided the coals have been removed.
(b) They forbade the same thing however, with regard to an Antichi - where the small added section is underneath the main kettle.
(c) The reason for the difference is because, whereas the former does not increase the heat once the coals have been removed, the latter, whose heat is more intense, does.
(a) The Tana - forbids adding a little cold water to a kettle containing boiling water that one removed from the stove on Shabbos.
(b) On the other hand, he permit - adding a lot of cold water to it or with a cup of boiling water (a K'li Sheini) to cool it down.
(c) The ramifications of the latter ruling that allows pouring exclusively a lot of water into a cup of boiling water are - that a K'li Sheini is subject to Bishul.
(d) We can extrapolate from the continuation of the Mishnah, which permits adding spices to a plate of hot food - that a K'li Sheini is not subject to Bishul!
(e) The Halachah is - that 'K'li Sheini Eino Mevashel'.
(a) The Mishnah rules - that it is forbidden to add spices to a pot that one has just removed from the stove (as opposed to a cup of boiling water that we just discussed) as long as it is still boiling ...
(b) ... but that one may add them to hot food once it has been poured into a large dish.
(c) Rebbi Yehudah - permits adding spices to any dish, even it is in s K'li Rishon ...
(d) ... unless it contains vinegar or fish-brine (which are sharp and which will therefore cause even spices to cook).
(e) The Halachah is - like the Tana Kama.
(a) One may add salt to any of the above, even into a K'li Rishon been removed from the fire) ...
(b) ... because salt can only be cooked in a pot that is on the fire.
(a) The Mishnah forbids placing a vessel underneath an oil-lamp on Shabbos - because should oil drip into it, it renders the vessel a Basis le'Davar he'Asur, and it is as if he built it into a location from which it cannot be removed.
(b) This is based on the principle of - 'Mevateil K'li me'Heichano' (negating a vessel from the purpose for which it is meant).
(c) The Tana permits it however - if he placed it there before the advent of Shabbos.
(d) In the latter case, he prohibit taking some of the oil that has dripped into the vessel to re-use on Shabbos - because it is Muktzah (since it was designated for the Mitzvah of Hadlakas Neiros).
(a) The Tana permits moving a new lamp on Shabbos. He forbids moving an old - (earthenware) one however, since it is Muktzah due to its ugliness.
(b) Rebbi Shimon permits both. He does however, forbid moving a lamp on Shabbos - as long as it is still burning (because it is a Basis to the flame [see Tiferes Yisrael]).
(c) Besides Muktzah Machmas Mi'us, he does not hold of - Muktzah Machmas Isur.
(d) He does however, agree with - Muktzah Machmas Chesaron Kis (which the owner tends to set aside on account of its value).
(e) The Halachah is like Rebbi Shimon in most of the above cases - with the exception of a lamp that was lit on Shabbos, but which subsequently went out, which is Muktzah because of the principle 'Migu de'Iskatza'i ... ' (since it was Muktzah when Shabbos came in, it remains Muktzah for the duration of Shabbos).
(a) The Tana - permits placing a vessel underneath a burning lamp to catch the falling sparks ...
(b) ... because, as opposed to the oil that drips from it (and which he forbids, as we learned earlier) - sparks are not real entities ('Davar she'Ein bahen Mamash').
(c) He forbids however - adding water to the vessel even on Erev Shabbos ...
(d) ... because if he does it on Shabbos, he may well transgress the Isur of Mechabeh (see Tos. Yom-Tov).