POINT BY POINT OUTLINE
prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
SHABBOS 20 (7 Cheshvan) - Dedicated in honor of the Yahrzeit of ha'Gaon Rav Meir Shapiro (n. 5694/1933), founder of the renowned Yeshivas Chachmei Lublin, representative of the Jewish community in the Polish parliament, and creator of the DAFYOMI STUDY CYCLE (see www.dafyomi.co.il/dafyomi.htm for more) - may he entreat before Hash-m's holy throne for the complete redemption of Klal Yisrael, speedily in our days!. Dedicated by Mr. and Mrs. Shmuel Kovacs of Ramat Beit Shemesh, Israel; may the great Gaon be a Melitz Yosher for the Kovacs childrenZZ to grow up with love of Torah and Yir'as Shamayim and succeed in all that they do.
1) HOW MUCH MUST FOOD COOK BEFORE SHABBOS?
(a) (Gemara) Question: How much must the food roast before Shabbos?
(b) Answer (R. Elazar): It must be roasted k'Ma'achal Ben Drusai (like a certain thief used to eat, a third or half cooked).
(c) (Rav Asi): The decree against Bishul Akum (food cooked by Nochrim) does not apply to anything cooked [by a Yisrael] k'Ma'achal Ben Drusai. (A Nochri may finish cooking it.)
(d) (Beraisa - Chananya): Anything cooked k'Ma'achal Ben Drusai may be left on a stovetop on Shabbos, even if the stove was not Garuf or Katum (the coals were not swept out, ashes were not put on them. Since it is edible, we are not concerned lest he stoke the coals.)
(e) (Mishnah): One may not put bread... [R. Eliezer requires time for the bottom face to form a crust].
(f) Question: Does 'the bottom face' mean the one stuck to the oven (but Chachamim permit once any face crusts), or the one facing the fire (in the bottom of the oven, but Chachamim require all the faces to crust)?
(g) Answer (Beraisa - R. Eliezer): There must be time for the bottom face stuck to the oven to form a crust.
(h) (Mishnah): We may lower the Korban Pesach...
(i) Question: Why is this permitted?
(j) Answer: The group that will eat it is zealous.
(k) Inference: If they would not be zealous, it would be forbidden.
(l) Question: We learned (18b) that one may leave kid meat even in an unsealed oven (according to everyone (Version #2), or at least according to Rav Ashi in Version #1)!
(m) Answer: We permit there when the kid is cut into pieces. (He will not open the oven for wind is bad for it.) Korban Pesach is roasted whole. (Wind does not harm it.)
2) HOW MUCH MUST FIRE BURN BEFORE SHABBOS?
(a) (Mishnah): It suffices for the bonfire [in Beis ha'Mokad to catch a little].
(b) Question: What is the source of this?
(c) Answer #1 (Rav Huna): "Lo Seva'aru Esh b'Chol Moshvoseichem [b'Yom ha'Shabbos]" - you may not kindle in your dwellings, but you may in Beis ha'Mokad.
(d) Objection (Rav Chisda): If so, it should be permitted even on Shabbos! Rather, the verse permits burning limbs [of Olos] and Chelev on the Mizbe'ach [on Shabbos].
(e) Answer #2 (Rav Chisda): It is permitted because Kohanim are zealous.
(f) (Mishnah): Outside the Mikdash, [most of the wood must catch].
(g) Question: What majority is required?
(h) Answer #1 (Rav): The majority of each stick must catch fire.
(i) Answer #2 (Shmuel): [The majority of the wood must catch fire,] so people will not say 'bring twigs to put under the logs [to help them catch]'.
(j) Support (for Shmuel - Rav Chiya - Beraisa): [When lighting a bonfire before Shabbos (alternatively - the Menorah in the Mikdash),] the flame must go up by itself without anything to help it.
(k) Version #1 (Rav): If one burns a single log, the majority of its thickness must catch before Shabbos;
(l) Version #2 (Rav): The majority of its circumference must catch.
(m) (Rav Papa): Since we are unsure which Rav said, both majorities are required.
(n) Tana'im argue like the two versions of Rav;
1. (Beraisa - R. Chiya): The log must be so burnt that a craftsman cannot use it (most of its thickness);
2. R. Yehudah ben Beseira says, the fire must catch on both sides (most of its circumference).
3. There is a hint to this, but not a proof - "Es Shnei Ketzosav Ochlah ha'Esh v'Socho Nochar ha'Yitzlach li'Mlachah."
(o) Question: What is "v'Es ha'Ach Lefanav Mevo'ares"?
(p) Answer #1 (Rav): It is a willow branch.
(q) Answer #2 (Shmuel): They are logs that caught fire from the willow.
(r) A certain man was saying 'who wants Achvana?' They found that he was selling willow.
3) THINGS THAT DO NOT REQUIRE A MAJORITY
(a) (Rav Huna): In a bonfire of reeds, one need not ignite the majority before Shabbos (for they do not extinguish);
1. If he tied them, the majority is required.
2. In a fire of pits, the majority is not required. If they are in a Kli made from Lulavim, the majority is required (for the flame does not get inside).
(b) Objection (Rav Chisda): Just the contrary! Loose reeds or seeds will come apart (they will not ignite each other, so we need the majority). Tied reeds or seeds in a Kli will not come apart. (We do not need the majority).
(c) Rav Kahana taught like Rav Chisda.
(d) (Rav Yosef - Beraisa): Four kinds of bonfires do not require the majority - of pitch, sulfur, wax, and Revav (anything that melts, e.g. wax or fat).
(e) (Beraisa): Also fires of straw or stubble do not require the majority.
(f) (R. Yochanan): Trees of Bavel do not require the majority.
(g) Question (Rav Yosef): What does R. Yochanan refer to?
(h) Answer #1: He refers to finely cut wood.
(i) Rejection: Ula taught that even a wick (made from worn clothing and dipped in oil, it catches easily) requires the majority, and all the more so finely cut wood!
(j) Answer #2 (Rav Yosef): He refers to cedar branches.
(k) Answer #2 (Rami bar Aba): He refers to moss.
PEREK BA'MEH MADLIKIN
4) FORBIDDEN WICKS AND OILS
(a) (Mishnah) Question: What may be used to light [a lamp that will burn on Shabbos], and what is forbidden [because it does not burn nicely, lest one come to help it burn]?
(b) Answer: We may not use the following - Leches, Chosen, Chalach, Idan wick, wilderness wick or 'yellow on the water';
(c) We may not use pitch, wax, Kik oil, oil that must be burned (e.g. Tamei Terumah), the fat tail (of a sheep), or Chelev;
1. Nachum ha'Midi permits cooked Chelev;
2. Chachamim forbid Chelev, whether or not it is cooked.
(d) (Gemara): Leches is a cedar branch.
(e) Objection: Obviously, this is not fit for a wick!
(f) Answer: The Mishnah forbids a material like wool between the bark and the wood.
(g) (Mishnah): Not with Chosen.
(h) (Rav Yosef): This is Ne'ores (chaff) of flax.
(i) Objection (Abaye): "V'Hayah he'Chason li'Ne'ores" (implies that Chosen is not Ne'ores)!
(j) (Abaye): Rather, it is flax that was beaten but not unraveled.
(k) (Mishnah): Not with Chalach.
(l) (Shmuel): Seafarers told me that it is called Chulcha.
(m) (Rav Yitzchak bar Ze'ira): This is waste silk.
(n) Ravin and Abaye were sitting in front of Ravna Nechemyah, the brother of the Reish Galusa. They saw that he was wearing a silk garment.
1. (Ravin): That is Chalach of the Mishnah!
2. Version #1 - Ri - Abaye: We (in Bavel) call this Pranda silk (but Chalach is inferior silk).
3. Question (against Ravin - Beraisa): Tzitzis must be put on garments of the following materials - silk, Chalach and Serikin (frayed silk). (This shows that Chalach is not silk!)
4. Ravin is refuted.
5. Version #2 - R. Tam - (Abaye): We call it (Chalach) Pranda silk. (Ravna is wearing inferior silk.)
6. Question (against Abaye - Beraisa): Tzitzis must be put on garments of the following materials - silk, Chalach and Serikin.
7. Abaye is refuted. (end of Version #2)
8. Answer: Alternatively, Pranda silk is not regular silk.
5) OTHER FORBIDDEN WICKS
(a) (Mishnah): Not with Idan wick.
(b) This is [a wick made from] a material like wool between the bark and the wood of willow.
(c) Ravin and Abaye were walking in a certain valley and saw willow.
1. Ravin: This is Idan of the Mishnah!
2. Abaye: It is a mere tree (it cannot be used for a wick)!
3. Ravin peeled it and showed him the 'wool' under the bark.
(d) (Mishnah): Wilderness wick.
(e) This is nettles.
(f) (Mishnah): Yellow on the water.
(g) Question: What is this?
1. Suggestion: It is seaweed.
2. Rejection: Seaweed crumbles. One could not make a wick from it!
(h) Answer (Rav Papa): It is moss that grows on boats.
(i) (Beraisa): They forbade also wicks of wool and hair.
(j) Our Tana did not bother to list these, for they do not work at all. Wool shrivels up, and hair gets burned.
6) FORBIDDEN OILS
(a) (Mishnah): We may not use pitch.
(b) Zefes (in the Mishnah) is Zifta (pitch). Sha'avah (in the Mishnah) is Kirusa (wax).
(c) (Beraisa): Before pitch the Mishnah lists Pasul wicks. Afterwards it lists Pasul oils.
(d) Objection: This is obvious!
(e) Version #1 (Rashi) Answer: Wax was not obvious. One might have thought that it is Pasul even if it is [like] a wick (surrounds a wick, like our candles). The Beraisa teaches that it is Pasul only when used like oil.
(f) Version #2 (Chachamim of Narvona, cited in Tosfos) Answer: Wax was not obvious. One might have thought that it is Pasul even for a wick. The Beraisa teaches that it is Pasul only for oil. (end of Version #2)
(g) (Rami bar Avin): Itran (tar or turpentine, mentioned in the next Mishnah) is the waste of pitch. (When pitch is heated, tar exudes.) Wax is the waste of [cakes of] honey.
(h) Question: What difference does it make?
(i) Answer: This is relevant to commerce. (If one sold tar or wax, this is what he must give).