SANHEDRIN 14 (7 Av) - Dedicated in memory of Dr. Simcha Bekelnitzky (Simcha Gedalya ben Shraga Feibush) of Queens, N.Y., Niftar 7 Av 5757, by his wife and daughters. G-d-fearing and knowledgeable, Simcha was well known in the community for his Chesed and Tzedakah. He will long be remembered.

1) GIVING SEMICHAH AND BREAKING THE CALF'S NECK (Yerushalmi Halachah 2 Daf 6a)

סמיכת הזקנים ועריפת העגלה בשלשה דברי רבי שמעון רבי יהודה אומר בחמשה.

(a) The Mishnah taught: (In daf 9 (d)) - R. Shimon says, giving Sages semichah and breaking the calf's neck (if there was a murdered corspe found between two cities etc.) require three. R. Yehuda says, they require five judges.

מה טעמיה דר' שמעון

(b) Question: What is R. Shimon's source?

וסמכו שנים ואין בית דין שקול מוסיפין עליהן אחד הרי שלשה.

(c) Answer: The pasuk states (Vayikra 4:15), "And they (the elders) will lean (their hands)" - this refers to two (as the minimum of 'they' is two). However, since a Beis Din cannot not be even in number, they add a third judge.

מה טעמיה דרבי יהודה

(d) Question: What is R. Yehuda's source?

וסמכו שנים זקני שנים אין בית דין שקול מוסיפין עליהן עוד אחד הרי חמשה

(e) Answer: The pasuk says "and they will lean" - this refers to two, "the elders" - also refers to two, which is four, but a Beis Din cannot be even in number, they add a fifth judge.

ובעגלה ערופה מה טעמיה דר' (שמעון)[יהודה]

(f) Question: And for breaking the calf's neck - what is R. Yehuda's reason to require five judges? (Note: Pnei Moshe changes the text here and in the next question.)

זקיניך שנים ושפטיך שנים אין בית דין שקול מוסיפין עליהן עוד אחד הרי חמשה.

(g) Answer: The pasuk states (Devarim 21:2), "And your elders and judges will go out" - elders refers to two; judges refer to two, but a Beis Din cannot be even in number, so they add a fifth.

מה טעמיה דרבי (יהודה)[שמעון]

(h) Question: What is R. Shimon's reason?

זקיניך ושופטיך שנים אין בית דין שקול מוסיפין עליהן עוד אחד הרי שלשה.

(i) Answer: "Your elders and judges" refers to two, but a Beis Din cannot be even in number, so they add a third.

אמר רבי [אי תימר] נראין דברי רבי יהודה בערופה דלא דריש ויצאו ונראין דברי רבי שמעון בסמיכה דלא דריש וסמכו. אין תימר נראין דברי רבי יהודה בערופה כמו דו דרש וסמכו ידרוש ויצאו אשכח תימר ויצאו שנים זקניך שנים ושפטיך שנים אין בית דין שקול מוסיפין עליהן עוד אחד הרי שבעה.

(j) Rebbi: The view of R. Yehuda about the calf appears correct, as he did not expound the words "and they will go out"; the view of R. Shimon about Semichah appears correct, as he did not expound the words "and they will lean". If you say that the view of R. Yehuda about the calf appears correct, just as he expounded "and they will lean", he should expound "they will go out" - you can say that "they will go out" is two, "your elders" is two; "your judges" is two, but a Beis Din cannot be even in number, so they add a seventh.

מה מקיים רבי שמעון זקיניך ושפטיך זקיניך שהן שופטיך.

(k) Question: How does R. Shimon understand the phrase "your elders and your judges"? Your elders, who are your judges.

תני רבי ליעזר בן יעקב אומר זקיניך זה בית דין הגדול ושפטיך זה מלך וכהן גדול.

(l) Beraisa (R. Eliezer ben Yaakov): "Your elders" - this refers to the Beis Din HaGadol; "you judges" refers to the king and the Kohen Gadol.

2) SEMICHAH, CHALITZAH AND MIYUN (Yerushalmi Halachah 2 Daf 6a)

תני הסמיכות בשלשה לא סמיכה היא סמיכות. תמן קריי למנוייה סמיכותא.

(a) Beraisa: Semichos is done with three. 'Semicha' refers to leaning on the calf; 'Semichos' refers to ordaining the Rabbis. In Bavel, they refer to ordaining the Rabbis as 'semichusa'.

א"ר בא בראשונה היה כל אחד ואחד ממנה את תלמידיו כגון רבי יוחנן בן זכיי מינה את רבי ליעזר ואת רבי יהושע ורבי יהושע את רבי עקיבה ורבי עקיבה את רבי מאיר ואת ר"ש. אמר ישב רבי מאיר תחילה נתכרכמו פני ר' שמעון אמר לו רבי עקיבה דייך שאני ובוראך מכירין כוחך.

(b) (R. Ba): Originally, each person would simply give Semicha to his own students. For example, R. Yochanan ben Zakkai to R. Eliezer and R. Yehoshua; R. Yehoshua to R. Akiva and R. Akiva to R. Meir and R. Shimon. R. Akiva said - when R. Meir first sat before R. Shimon, R. Shimon became distraught. R. Akiva said to him - it is enough that I and your Creator recognize you. R. Shimon was appeased.

חזרו וחלקו כבוד לבית הזה אמרו בית דין שמינה שלא לדעת הנשיא אין מינויו מינוי ונשיא שמינה שלא לדעת בית דין מינויו מינוי.

1. Then, they gave honor to the Nasi's House, by saying, "If a Beis Din appointed without the knowledge of the Nasi, it is invalid; but if a Nasi appointed without the knowledge of the Beis Din, it is valid.

חזרו והתקינו שלא יהו ב"ד ממנין אלא מדעת הנשיא ושלא יהא הנשיא ממנה אלא מדעת ב"ד.

2. They later decreed that Beis Din cannot appoint without the knowledge of the Nasi, and the Nasi cannot appoint without the knowledge of the Beis Din.

תני בראשונה היו כותבין שטרי חליצה במותב פלוני ופלוני חלצה פלנית בת פלוני לפלוני בר פלוני בפנינו דקרבת לקדמנא ושרת סיניה מעילוי ריגליה דימינא ורקת קדמנא רוקא סמיתחזי לנא על ארעא ואמרת ככה יעשה לאיש אשר לא יבנה את בית אחיו.

(c) Beraisa: Originally, they would write Chalitzah documents as follows - "In the presence of Ploni and Ploni, Plonis bas Ploni did Chalitzah with Ploni ben Ploni, that she approached him and removed his shoe from his right foot and spat in front of him on the ground and she said, 'This will be done to a man who will not build his brother's house'." (When a married man dies childless, his widow must either do Yibum, by marrying her husband's brother, or she must do Chalitzah with him to release herself to be able to marry someone else).

תני בראשונה היו כותבין שטרי מיאונין במעמד פלוני ופלוני מיאנה פלנית בת פלוני בפלוני בר פלוני בפנינו לא רעינא ביה לא שוייהנא ליה לא צבינא להיתנסבא ליה.

(d) Beraisa: Originally, they would write Miyun documents as follows - "In the presence of Ploni and Ploni, Plonis bas Ploni refused Ploni ben Ploni in front of us and she said, 'I don't want him; I can't remain with him and I don't want to be married to him'. (If a young orphan girl was married off by her mother and brothers, when she becomes Bas Mitzvah (aged 12), she may refuse the marriage. This is the act called Miyun.)

אמר רבי יוחנן הקדש שפדייו יותר על דמיו תפס את הכל מעשר שני שפדייו יותר על דמיו לא תפס את הכל

(e) (R. Yochanan): If Hekdesh (property consecrated to the Beis HaMikdash) is redeemed for more than its value, the entire sum of money receives the sancity of Hekdesh. If Maaser Sheni is redeemed (the second tithe of produce that must be taken and eaten in Yerushalayim. If the burden is too difficult, the sanctity of Maaser Sheni may redeemed onto coins and the coins taken to Yerushalayim and used to buy food), if it was for more than its value, only the equivalent value of the money receives the sanctity of Maaser Sheni; the rest does not. (Note: The text of the following few entries has been changed according to many Meforshim based on the parallel sugya that appears in Maaser Sheni Chapter 4, Halachah 2.)

מה בין הקדש מה בין מעשר שני

(f) Question: Why the difference between Hekdesh and Maaser Sheni?

א"ר אימי שכן אדם מצוי להיות מרבה בהקדשו

(g) Answer (R. Imi): It is common for a person to increase his pledges to Hekdesh, so the sanctity spreads to the entire sum.

ר' זירא בעא קומי רבי אמי נבדק אותו האיש ואמר לא נתכוונתי.

(h) Question (R. Zeira to R. Imi): If the person was asked and he said that he had no intention to have the sanctity spread to the entire sum, what would be the law?

אמר ליה לכי בדק.

(i) Answer (R. Imi): We follow his answer.

א"ר יוחנן הקדש שפדייו ולא הוסיף חומש הרי זה פדוי ומעשר שני שפדייו ולא הוסיף חומש אינו פדוי.

(j) (R. Yochanan): If Hekdesh was redeemed but the Chomesh (required extra 1/5th) was not added, it is valid. If Maaser Sheni was redeemed but the Chomesh was not added, it is not valid.

מה בין מעשר שני להקדש

(k) Question: Why the difference between Hekdesh and Maaser Sheni?

א"ר לא הקדש יש לו תובעין מעשר שני אין לו תובעין

(l) (R. Ila): Hekdesh has a claimant (the treasurer of the Beis HaMikdash, known as the Gizbar); Maaser Sheni has no claimant.

ר' יונה בעא כמאן דמר אינו כנכסיו ברם כמאן דמר כנכסיו הוא מה בין הקדש מה בין מעשר שני

(m) Question (R. Yona): It is fine according to the view that Maaser Sheni is not considered the property of the owner (but rather elevated property) - since he might wish to try to avoid paying the Chomesh, the Sages decreed that the redemption is not valid unless it was added. But according to the view that Maaser Sheni is his own property, why would he care to give the Chomesh and why would the Sages need to decree that it is not valid unless it was added?

א"ר יוסי ולא כבר נאמר טעמא הקדש יש לו תובעין מעשר שני אין לו תובעין.

(n) Answer (R. Yosi): We have already answered that Hekdesh has a claimant, but Maaser Sheni has no claimant, so there is a concern that he might not give the Chomesh.

3) REDEEMING HEKDESH (Yerushalmi Halachah 2 Daf 6b)

תני ההקדשות בשלשה.

(a) The Mishnah (above daf 9 (g) and (i)) taught that redeeming Hekdesh requires three judges (and that if he is redeeming fields, there must be nine and a Kohen).

הדא דתימר במקדיש גוף השדה אבל אם אמר (הרי עלי מנה להקדש)[דמי שדי עלי להקדש מהו]

(b) Question: The requirement for nine and a Kohen is when he consecrated the actual field (to have its value used for the upkeep of the Beis HaMikdash) and he now wishes to redeem it, but if he said, "The value of my field is upon me (to give to Hekdesh)", what would be the law?

נישמעינה מהדא ערכים המיטלטלין בשלשה.

(c) Answer: Learn from the wording of our Mishnah - Arachin Hamitaltalin (evaluating movable objects to be given as payment for a person pledging a specific amount to the Beis Hamikdash) requires three...

וכי יש ערכים שאין מיטלטלין.

1. Is there such a thing as evaluating non-movable objects? All evaluations are with movables! (And if it is excluding fields, the Mishnah already discusses that explicitly. Rather it should have taught, "Arachin of movables is with three".

רבי יעקב בר אחא ר' שמעון בר ווה בשם רבי חנינה האומר ערכי עלי ובא לסדרו מקרקע שמין לו בעשרה ממטלטלין בשלשה

2. (R. Yaakov bar Acha/ R. Shimon bar Vava citing R. Chaninah): If a person says, "My value is upon me" and he comes to arrange the payment from a field, they evaluate for him with ten people; for movables, it is with three.

האומר ערכי עלי אינו כאומר דמי שדי עלי

3. If he says, "My value is upon me", it is not like saying, "The value of my field is upon me" (which answers the question about a person who says 'the value of the field is upon me', that ten people are required for the evaluation).

אבל אם אמר הרי עלי מנה להקד(י)ש שמין לו בשלשה. לכשיעשיר [אינו] נידון בהשג יד.

4. But if he said, "One hundred zuz is upon me to give to Hekdesh", they evaluate for him with three people. And if he does not have the money to pay, when he becomes more wealthy, he does not need to pay according to his ability (proving that it is not like a case of Arachin).

OTHER D.A.F. RESOURCES ON THIS DAF