1) FIVE JUDGES FOR MONETARY CASES? (Yerushalmi Halachah 1 Daf 1a)

ר' אבהו בעי וכרבי דיני ממונות בחמשה ושיגמר בכ"ג.

(a) Question (R. Abahu): According to Rebbi (above 2 (e) 3.), five judges should be needed (as judges is written plural three times, making six, and one of the words is needed because it is its first mentioning; that makes four judges, but Beis Din must always have an odd number of judges, so there should be five?)

אשכח תני רבי חזקיה הואיל ואמרה תורה הרוג על פי מטים הרוג על פי עדים מה עדים שנים אף מטים שנים אין בית דין שקול מוסיפין עליהן אחד הרי חמשה.

(b) Answer (R. Chizkiyah): The Beraisa says - since the Torah said that we give the death penalty using the majority (as the pasuk says in Shemos 23:2, "follow after the majority") and we give the death penalty if there are witnesses; just as witnesses means two, so using the majority requires four judges (two to prosecute and two to defend); but since a Beis Din cannot be of even number, there must be five.

לא הן גזילות הן חבלות.

(c) Question: If theft and injuries are also monetary claims, why did the Mishna divide them up? (This will be answered in the next entry, on daf 4 of the meshulav calendar.)