SANHEDRIN 101 (5 Cheshvan) - Dedicated in honor of the Yahrzeit of Reb Naftali ben Reb Menachem Mendel (Tuli Bodner) Z"L, who was Niftar 5 Cheshvan 5766. Tuli was an Ish Chesed and Ish Ma'aseh radiating joy whose Ahavas Yisrael knew no bounds. Dedicated by his son, Mordechai Bodner of Givat Mordechai, Yerushalayim.

1)

(a)What does the Beraisa say about someone who reads a Pasuk of Shir Hashirim as a song (in any tune other than the conventional one) or who reads a Pasuk out of turn during festivities in order to jest with it?

(b)When this happens, the Torah puts on sack-cloth. What complaint does it present before Hash-m?

(c)What did the Torah reply when Hash-m asked it what Yisrael should then do whilst they are eating, assuming they are ...

1. ... Ba'alei Mikra?

2. ... Ba'alei Mishnah?

3. ... Ba'alei Gemara?

(d)And what does Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar in the name of Rebbi Yehoshua ben Chananyah say about someone who reads the right Pasuk at the right time?

(e)On which Pasuk in Mishlei does he base it?

1)

(a)The Beraisa states that someone who reads a Pasuk of Shir Hashirim as a song (in any tune other than the conventional one), or who reads a Pasuk during festivities out of turn in order to jest with it - brings evil upon the world.

(b)When this happens, Torah puts on sack-cloth and complains before Hash-m - that His children have turned it into a harp on which jesters play.

(c)When Hash-m then asked the Torah what Yisrael should do whilst they are eating, it answered that assuming they are ...

1. ... Ba'alei Mikra, they should - occupy themselves with Torah, Nevi'im or Kesuvim.

2. ... Ba'alei Mishnah - they should study Mishnah, Halachos and Agados.

3. ... Ba'alei Gemara - they should study Halachos that are relevant to that time, such as Hilchos Pesach on Pesach ... .

(d)Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar in the name of Rebbi Yehoshua ben Chananyah says that someone who reads the right Pasuk at the right time - brings good upon the world ...

(e)...based on the Pasuk in Mishlei - "Davar be'Ito Mah Tov")

2)

(a)Rebbi Akiva in our Mishnah includes 'Lochesh al ha'Makah' among the things for which one loses one's portion in Olam ha'Ba. How does Rebbi Yochanan qualify this? Why is it then forbidden?

(b)What is then the Chidush of 'Afilu ...

1. ... "Nega Tzara'as" ', according to Rav?

2. ... "Vayikra el Mosheh" ', according to Rebbi Chanina?

(c)The Beraisa permits the anointing of oil on one's stomach and rubbing it in on Shabbos. Why is this not considered healing, which is forbidden on Shabbos?

(d)What does the Tana say about reciting an incantation to gather snakes and scorpions to one spot on Shabbos, to prevent them from causing damage? What is the Chidush?

2)

(a)Rebbi Akiva in our Mishnah includes 'Lochesh al ha'Makah' among the things for which one loses one's portion in Olam ha'Ba. Rebbi Yochanan qualifies this - by confining it to a case where one first spits, before citing the Pasuk, and it is forbidden because one is not permitted to mention Hash-m's Name after having spat.

(b)The Chidush of 'Afilu ...

1. ... "Nega Tzara'as" ', according to Rav is that - even to cite a Pasuk such as "Nega Tzara'as ki Sih'yeh ba'Adam ve'Huva el ha'Kohen" (which does not contain the Name of Hash-m) is included in the prohibition.

2. ... "Vayikra el Mosheh" ', according to Rebbi Chanina is that - even such a Pasuk, which does not even hint at a cure (and where one's intention is merely to become cured through the merits of Torah) is included.

(c)The Beraisa permits the anointing of oil on one's stomach, and rubbing it in, on Shabbos. This is not considered healing, which is forbidden on Shabbos - because we are speaking about a healthy person, and anointing is like drinking (which a healthy person is permitted to do).

(d)The Tana - permits reciting an incantation to gather snakes and scorpions to one place on Shabbos, to prevent them from causing damage. The Chidush is that - it is not considered trapping.

3)

(a)The Tana also permits passing a vessel over one's eye on Shabbos (to cool it down or to encircle it with a ring when it hurts). How does Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel qualify this? What sort of vessel is permitted?

(b)He forbids however, consulting the demons to help him find a lost article. Why is that?

(c)Rebbi Yossi, like whom Rav Huna rules, forbids it even on a weekday. Why is that?

(d)To illustrate what Rebbi Yossi means, we cite an incident that took place with Rav Yitzchak bar Yosef. What happened to him when he consulted a demon?

3)

(a)The Tana also permits passing a vessel over the eye on Shabbos (to cool it down or to encircle it with a ring when it hurts). Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel qualifies this - by confining it to a vessel that is not Muktzah, such as a key, a knife or a ring.

(b)He forbids however, consulting the demons to help him find a lost article - because it contravenes the Pasuk in Yeshayah "mi'Metzo Cheftzecha ... " (an Isur de'Rabbanan, similar to 'Uvdin de'Chol' [a weekday-occupation]).

(c)Rebbi Yossi, like whom Rav Huna rules, forbids it even on a weekday - because it constitutes life-danger.

(d)To illustrate what Rebbi Yossi means, we cite an incident that took place with Rav Yitzchak bar Yosef - who consulted a demon, who would have killed him, if a cedar-tree had not opened up and allowed him to enter it.

4)

(a)Under what condition does the Tana permit anointing and rubbing in oil on Shabbos?

(b)Rebbi Chama b'Rebbi Chanina requires that one first anoints and then rubs (the reverse order of how one would do it during the week). What does Rebbi Yochanan say?

(c)Who are the 'Sarei Shemen" and the 'Sarei Beitzim'?

(d)If it is permitted to consult them on Shabbos, why did they stop doing so?

4)

(a)The Tana permits anointing and rubbing in oil on Shabbos - provided one makes a change from the regular routine.

(b)Rebbi Chama b'Rebbi Chanina requires that one first anoints and then rubs it in (the reverse order of how one would do it during the week). According to Rebbi Yochanan - it will suffice to do them both at the same time.

(c)The 'Sarei Shemen" and the 'Sarei Beitzim' are - demons whom one consults by means of oil and egg-shells, respectively.

(d)Even though it is permitted to consult them on Shabbos, they stopped doing so - because those demons tended to lie, proving themselves to be unreliable.

5)

(a)One is permitted to rub in oil from the hand but not from a vessel. Why is that?

(b)What happened to Rav Shmuel bar Yitzchak bar Marsa, when he once took some oil from a jar that they gave him in an inn and anointed his face with it?

(c)What happened in the market-place?

(d)Rebbi Aba asked Rabah why, after stating "Kol ha'Machalah asher Samti be'Mitzrayim Lo Asim alecha", the Pasuk in Beshalach needs to conclude "ki Ani Hash-m Rof'echa". What did Rabah reply, quoting Rebbi Yochanan?

5)

(a)One is permitted to rub in oil from the hand but not from a vessel - because they would use the latter for their incantations, making it dangerous to use on one's body.

(b)When Rav Shmuel bar Yitzchak bar Marsa once took some oil from a jar that they gave him in an inn and anointed his face with it - blisters grew on his nose.

(c)In the market-place - a woman told him that his nose was 'bewitched' (by the spirit of a demon called Cheimes). She recited the antidote to the spell, and the blisters promptly disappeared.

(d)Rebbi Aba asked Rabah why, after stating "Kol ha'Machalah asher Samti be'Mitzrayim Lo Asim alecha", the Pasuk in Beshalach needs to conclude "Ki Ani Hash-m Rof'echa". Quoting Rebbi Yochanan, Rabah explained that what the Pasuk obviously means is that - if K'lal Yisrael obey Hash-m's commands, they will not even become sick; whereas if they don't, they may well become sick; though as the Pasuk concludes, Hash-m will eventually heal them anyway.

6)

(a)When Rebbi Eliezer's Talmidim visited him, Rabah bar bar Chanah informs us, he told them that there was burning anger in the world. What did he mean? With whom was Hash-m angry?

(b)Why did ...

1. ... the other Talmidim begin to weep?

2. ... Rebbi Akiva begin to laugh?

(c)What did Rebbi Akiva reply when Rebbi Eliezer then asked him what sin he had committed, that required Kaparah?

(d)Which two Talmidim, besides Rebbi Tarfon and Rebbi Yehoshua, went to visit Rebbi Eliezer in another incident related by the Beraisa?

6)

(a)When Rebbi Eliezer's Talmidim visited him, Rabah bar bar Chanah informs us, he told them that there was burning anger in the world - meaning that Hash-m was angry with him, because he felt that his illness had taken a turn for the worse.

(b)The reason that ...

1. ... the other Talmidim began to weep was - because 'the Seifer-Torah' was in pain.

2. ... Rebbi Akiva began to laugh was - because until that time he was worried, that as long as Rebbi Eliezer's wine, his flax, his oil and his honey were prospering, and nothing went wrong, he was being paid for all his deeds in this world (and would not go to Olam ha'Ba), but now that he was suffering, he knew that he was destined to go there after all.

(c)When Rebbi Eliezer asked Rebbi Akiva what sin he had committed, that required Kaparah, he replied - with the Pasuk in Koheles that he (Rebbi Eliezer) himself had stressed "Ki Ein Tzadik ba'Aretz asher Ya'aseh Tov ve'Lo Yecheta" (see Agados Maharsha).

(d)In another incident related by the Beraisa, the four Talmidim who went to visit Rebbi Eliezer were Rebbi Tarfon, Rebbi Yehoshua - Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah and Rebbi Akiva.

7)

(a)The first three Talmidim all gave Rebbi Eliezer precedence over the most important things in the world; Rebbi Tarfon over rain, Rebbi Yehoshua over the planet sun, and Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah over a father and mother. What was their common message? What gave Rebbi Eliezer precedence over all these things?

(b)Rebbi Eliezer seemed to have been more intrigued by the two words of Rebbi Akiva. What did Rebbi Akiva say?

(c)In fact, he learned this from King Menasheh, son of Chizkiyahu Hamelech (as we shall see shortly). What do we know about the age that Menasheh, a wicked king (as we learned in our Mishnah) ascended the throne, and how long he ruled?

7)

(a)The first three Talmidim all gave Rebbi Eliezer precedence over the most important things in the world, Rebbi Tarfon over rain, Rebbi Yehoshua over the planet sun, and Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah over a father and mother. Their common message was that - all these things only benefit people in this world, whereas Rebbi Eliezer benefited them in the World to Come, too.

(b)Rebbi Eliezer seemed to have been more intrigued by the two words of Rebbi Akiva, who said simply - 'Chavivin Yisurin' (suffering is precious).

(c)In fact, he learned this from King Menasheh, son of Chizkiyahu Hamelech (as we shall see shortly). Menasheh, a wicked king (as we learned in our Mishnah) - ascended the throne at the age of twelve, and reigned for fifty-two years.

8)

(a)Who wrote 'Mishlei'?

(b)If Chizkiyah went to such lengths to teach everybody else Torah (see Maharsha), how come that his son (Menasheh) was such a Rasha? Does this mean that he excluded him from his efforts to spread Torah?

(c)Menasheh remained cold to both his father's teachings and Hash-m's words of encouragement. What was it that brought him back?

(d)What sort of Yisurin did Menasheh suffer, apart from being captured by means of painful fishhooks?

8)

(a)Chizkiyah Hamelech - wrote 'Mishlei'.

(b)Even though Chizkiyah went to such lengths to teach everybody else Torah (see Maharsha), his son (Menasheh) was nevertheless a Rasha - not because he precluded him from his efforts to spread Torah, but because Menasheh remained unaffected by his father's efforts.

(c)Menasheh remained cold to both his father's teachings and Hash-m's words of encouragement - and it was the terrible Yisurin referred to by Rebbi Akiva earlier that caused him to do Teshuvah.

(d)Apart from being captured by means of painful fishhooks, Menasheh suffered unbearable Yisurin - at the hand of Nevuchadnetzar, King of Bavel, who placed him inside a metal cauldron with holes, and then proceeded to heat up the metal.

101b----------------------------------------101b

9)

(a)The Beraisa states 'Sheloshah Ba'u ba'Alilah'. What does 'Sheloshah Ba'u ba'Alilah' mean?

(b)Who were the other two besides Menasheh?

(c)What did Kayin mean when he said "Gadol Avoni mi'Neso"?

(d)What argument does the Tana ascribe to ...

1. ... Eisav?

2. ... Menasheh"?

9)

(a)The Beraisa states 'Sheloshah Ba'u ba'Alilah' - they did not Daven for their assumed rights (as they should have), but presented Hash-m with an irrefutable claim.

(b)The other two, besides Menasheh, were - Kayin and Eisav.

(c)When Kayin said "Gadol Avoni mi'Neso", he meant that - if Hash-m would be able to forgive six hundred thousand people the sin of the Eigel, He should surely be able to forgive his sin!

(d)The argument the Tana ascribes to ...

1. ... Eisav is that - his father surely was not short of B'rachos, and that, having blessed Ya'akov his brother, he could not find a B'rachah for him, too !

2. ... Menasheh" is - that having turned in vain to all the gods to alleviate his suffering, if the G-d of his fathers to whom he was now turning, would not answer his prayers, then He would prove Himself to be no better than all the other gods.

10)

(a)Aba Shaul in our Mishnah includes someone who pronounces the Name of Hash-m in the list of those who lose their portion in Olam ha'Ba. Which of Hash-m's Names is the Tana referring to?

(b)What does the Beraisa mean when it says 'u'vi'Gevulin'?

(c)And what does the Tana mean when he adds 'u've'Lashon Agah'? What does 'Agah' mean?

(d)What does the Tana say about someone who pronounces the Name of Hash-m ...

1. ... distinctly, outside the Beis-Hamikdash?

2. ... in broken Lashon ha'Kodesh inside the Beis-Hamkdash?

10)

(a)When Aba Shaul in our Mishnah includes someone who pronounces the Name of Hash-m in the list of those who lose their portion in Olam ha'Ba, he is referring to - the forty-two letter Name (that the Kohanim would use when blessing Yisrael in the Beis-Hamikdash [See also Bartenura]).

(b)When the Beraisa says 'u'vi'Gevulin' it means - outside the Beis-Hamikdash.

(c)And when the Tana adds 'u've'Lashon Agah', he means - that one mentions the name in a broken Lashon ha'Kodesh (like those who cannot pronounce the language properly). 'Agah' is either a derivative of 'La'ag (meaning mocking, or in a stammering way), or of 'Ugah' in the sense of gathering, meaning the way groups of people who gather together to speak secular talk.

(d)The Tana rules that one is not Chayav for pronouncing the Name of Hash-m...

1. ... distinctly, outside the Beis-Hamikdash - only be'Lashon Agah.

2. ... in broken Lashon ha'Kodesh inside the Beis-Hamkdash (where the Kohanim at least, pronounce the Name correctly in the appropriate time).

11)

(a)The Beraisa ascribes three possible meanings to 'Yeravam'. What is the meaning of the acronym ...

1. ... 'she'Riva Am'?

2. ... 'she'Asah Merivah ba'Am'?

(b)What is the third acronym contained in 'Yeravam'?

(c)How does the Tana explain 'ben N'vat'?

(d)N'vat was alias Michah and Sheva ben Bichri. If his real name was Sheva ben Bichri, why was he called Michah?

11)

(a)The Beraisa ascribes three possible meanings to 'Yeravam':

1. ... 'she'Riva Am' - who lowered the people (from 'Rivetz', to crouch)'s dignity.

2. ... 'she'Asah Merivah ba'Am' - who caused a dispute among the people (whether to accept his novel propositions) and ...

(b)... she'Asah Merivah bein Yisrael le'Avihem she'ba'Shamayim'.

(c)The Tana explains that ben N'vat means that - he (Yeravam's father) looked (from the Lashon 'Hibit'), though he did not see well.

(d)N'vat was alias Michah and Sheva ben Bichri. His real name was Sheva ben Bichri, and he was called Michah - because he was squashed ('Nisma'ech') among the bricks of the building, from which Moshe extracted him. Alternatively, he became poor from indulging in the building profession (from the Lashon 'Mach', meaning 'poor') in compliance with the principle that whoever deals in the building trade becomes poor.

12)

(a)Both Sheva ben Bichri and Achitofel backed Avshalom in his uprising against his father David. What sign symbolizing Malchus, did ...

1. ... N'vat see that caused him to err?

2. ... Achitofel see that caused him to err?

(b)In retrospect, what was ...

1. ... N'vat's mistake? What did the Si'man really signify?

2. ... Achitofel's mistake?

(c)What did Sheva ben Bichri (and presumably Achitofel) expect to achieve by joining Avshalom?

12)

(a)Both Sheva ben Bichri and Achitofel backed Avshalom in his uprising against his father David. The sign symbolizing Malchus, that ...

1. ... N'vat saw, which caused him to err was - a fire emerging from his Milah.

2. ... Achitofel saw, which caused him to err was - Tzara'as on his Milah.

(b)In retrospect ...

1. ... N'vat's mistake was that - it was his son Yeravam who would rule, and not himself.

2. ... Achitofel's mistake was that - it was his granddaughter bas-Sheva who would rule (as wife of David Hamelech) and not himself. No doubt, had they known this, based on the principle 'Ein Adam Chotei ve'Lo lo' (a person does not sin on behalf of somebody else), they would both not have joined the rebellion.

(c)Sheva ben Bichri (and presumably Achitofel) expected that somehow, in the course of the rebellion, Avshalom would perhaps be killed, and that he would become king.

13)

(a)Based on the Pasuk in Chukas "Heimah Mei Merivah ... ", who, according to Rebbi Chama b'Rebbi Chanina, was the third party to misinterpret what they saw?

(b)What was their mistake?

(c)What do we learn from the words "u'le'Hach'chid u'le'Hashmid" (in the Pasuk in Melachim [written in connection with Yeravam] "Vay'hi be'Davar ha'Zeh le'Chatas beis Yeravam, u'le'Hach'chid u'le'Hashmid me'al-P'nei ha'Adamah")?

13)

(a)Based on the Pasuk in Chukas "Heimah Mei Merivah ... ", the third party to misinterpret what they saw, according to Rebbi Chama b'Rebbi Chanina were - the astrologers of Paroh ...

(b)... who foresaw that Yisrael would be destroyed by the star 'Ra'ah', but which later turned out to pertain to the Mei Merivah, which caused Moshe's death (and which did not affect Yisrael directly).

(c)We learn from the words "u'le'Hach'chid u'le'Hashmid" (in the Pasuk [written in connection with Yeravam] "Vay'hi be'Davar ha'Zeh le'Chatas beis Yeravam, u'le'Hach'chid u'le'Hashmid me'al-P'nei ha'Adamah") that - Yeravam was punished in this world ("u'le'Hach'chid") as well as losing his portion in Olam ha'Ba ("u'le'Hashmid").

14)

(a)Rebbi Yochanan explains the Pasuk in Melachim "ve'Zeh ha'Davar asher Heirim Yad ba'Melech Shlomoh ... '. What did Yeravam do to deserve ...

1. ... to become King of Yisrael?

2. ... punishment?

(b)What did he say to Shlomoh ha'Melech when he rebuked him? Why did Shlomoh do that?

(c)Included in all this was the Milo which he built. What was the Milo?

(d)How does Rav Nachman explain "asher Heirim Yad ba'Melech"? What did Yeravam do in front of the King?

14)

(a)Rebbi Yochanan explains the Pasuk in Melachim "ve'Zeh ha'Davar asher Heirim Yad ba'Melech Shlomoh ... '. To deserve ...

1. ... to become King of Yisrael - Yeravam rebuked Shlomoh ha'Melech.

2. ... punishment - he rebuked him in public.

(b)When he rebuked him, he told him that where his father David, made breaches in the walls of Yerushalayim, to encourage people to visit Yerushalayim on Yom-Tov (similar to Avraham Avinu's tent), he (Shlomoh) closed them, in order to claim taxes for (his wife) the daughter of Par'oh. Note, there are three variations of exactly what Shlomoh did.

(c)Included in all this was the Milo which he built - a tower that he built into one of the breaches that he filled in, in honor of bas par'oh and her servants.

(d)Rav Nachman explains "asher Heirim Yad ba'Melech" to mean that - Yeravam removed his Tefilin in front of Sh'lomoh (

15)

(a)Based on another Pasuk in Melachim, Rav Nachman attributes Yaravam's being driven out of the world to his conceit. To which episode is Rav Nachman referring?

(b)Which Halachah served as the basis for Yeravam's fears?

(c)What else did this prompt him to do?

(d)Where were the two golden calves that he made located?

15)

(a)Based on another Pasuk in Melachim, Rav Nachman attributes Yaravam's being driven out of the world to his conceit. This refers to the episode where, for fear that the people would revert to Shlomoh's son Rechav'am, when they all went to Yerushalayim for the Mitzvah of Hakheil, he closed the borders between his kingdom and Malchus Yehudah, and set up guards preventing anybody from his kingdom from going to Yerushalayim.

(b)The Halachah that served as the basis for Yeravam's fears was - the tradition that only kings of Yehudah were permitted to sit down in the Azarah, causing the people to say that Rechav'am was king but he wasn't.

(c)This prompt him - to set up two golden calves as an alternative form of worship ...

(d)... one in Beis-El and one in Dan.

16)

(a)The Pasuk says "Vayiva'atz ha'Melech". How does Rav Yehudah explain the two sets of consultants that he appointed?

(b)What did they answer when he asked them whether they agreed to sign ...

1. ... on whatever he did?

2. ... he was their king?

3. ... on whatever he instructed them to do?

4. ... to worship Avodah-Zarah?

(c)How did the Resha'im convince their righteous counterparts to sign on the last request too?

(d)Which great Tzadik also allowed himself to be fooled in this way?

16)

(a)Rav Yehudah explains the Pasuk "Vayiva'atz ha'Melech" to mean that he appointed two sets of consultants - one comprising Resha'aim, the other, Tzadikim (whom he consulted in pairs, a Tzadik opposite a Rasha.

(b)When he asked them whether they agreed to sign ...

1. ... on whatever he did - they replied in the affirmative, as they did when he asked them whether they agreed that ...

2. ... he was their king, and that they were willing to sign ...

3. ... on whatever he instructed them to do. But when he asked them whether they would do so even if he asked them to sign that they were willing to ...

4. ... worship Avodah-Zarah - the Tzadikim answered in the negative.

(c)The Resha'im convinced their righteous counterparts to sign on the last request too - by pointing out that Yeravam would never really worship idols, and that it was obvious that he was merely testing their loyalty to him.

(d)The great Tzadik who also allowed himself to be fooled in this way was - the Navi Achiyah ah'Shiloni.

17)

(a)We know that Achyah ha'Shiloni erred from a statement of Rava, in connection with King Yeihu (a king of Yisrael many years later). What great thing did Yeihu do about which the Pasuk in Melachim writes "Ya'an asher Hativosa La'asos ha'Yashar be'Einai ... " What reward did he receive for that?

(b)What does the Navi subsequently say about Yeihu?

(c)According to Abaye, what caused him to go astray was the principle 'B'ris K'rusah li'Sefasayim'. What did he say? Why did he do that?

(d)What caused him to go astray according to Rava?

17)

(a)We know that Achyah ha'Shiloni erred from a statement of Rava, in connection with King Yeihu (a king of Yisrael many years later. The great thing that Yeihu did about which the Pasuk in Melachim writes "Ya'an asher Hativosa La'asos ha'Yashar be'Einai ... " was - to destroy the entire household of the wicked Ach'av.

(b)The Navi subsequently says that - Yeihu did not continue to go in the ways of the Torah; in fact, he adopted the ways of the very Ach'av, whom he had wiped out.

(c)According to Abaye, what caused him to go astray was the principle 'B'ris K'rusah li'Sefasayim', when he said - 'If Ach'av served Ba'al a little, Yeihu will serve him a lot!' (which he said in order to attract the people to join in the sacrifices, so as to divulge the identity of Ba'al's adherents).

(d)According to Rava, he went astray - when he saw the signature of Achiyah ha'Shiloni among those who signed for Yerav'am (as we explained above).

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