SANHEDRIN 87 (Hoshana Raba) - Dedicated by Gedalliah Jawitz in honor of the Yahrzeit of Yehuda ben Simcha Volf Jawitz.

1)

(a)What does the Beraisa learn from "Ki Yipalei" (in the Pasuk in connection with a Zakein Mamrei, "Ki Yipalei mimcha Davar")?

(b)What does the Tana mean when (based on the Pasuk in Nachum "Mimcha Yatza Yo'etz ... "), he explains ...

1. ... "Mimcha", 'Zeh Yo'etz'?

2. ... "Davar", 'Zeh Halachah'?

3. ... "la'Mishpat", 'Zeh ha'Din'?

(c)Which three areas of Halachah does the Torah incorporate, when it writes ...

1. ... "Bein Dam le'Dam"?

2. ... "Bein Din le'Din"?

3. ... "Bein Nega la'Naga"?

4. ... "Divrei"? Which three areas of Kodshim does it incorporate?

(d)According to the Tana, "Rivos" refers to Hashka'as Sotah, Arifas Eglah Arufah and Taharas Metzora. What do these three things have to do with "Rivos"?

(e)Which three things does "bi'She'arecha" incorporate?

1)

(a)The Beraisa learns from "Ki Yipalei" (in the Pasuk "Ki Yipalei mimcha Davar") that - the Din of a Zakein Mamrei is confined to a Mufla she'be'Beis-Din (an expert Dayan), to preclude a Talmid.

(b)When the Tana (based on the Pasuk in Nachum "Mimcha Yatza Yo'etz ... "), explains ...

1. ... "Mimcha", 'Zeh Yo'etz', he means that - the Zaken Mamrei was arguing with the Beis-Din in matters concerning the declaration of a leap-year and fixing Rosh Chodesh.

2. ... "Davar", 'Zeh Halachah' that - he was arguing with them in matters concerning 'Halachah le'Moshe mi'Sinai'.

3. ... "la'Mishpat", 'Zeh ha'Din' that - he was arguing with them in matters that entailed learning a Din from a 'Gezeirah-Shavah'.

(c)The three areas of Halachah incorporated in ...

1. ... "Bein Dam le'Dam" are the blood of Nidus, childbirth and Zivus.

2. ... "Bein Din le'Din" - are Dinei Nefashos, Mamonos and Malkos.

3. ... "Bein Nega la'Naga" - are Nig'ei Adam, Batim and Begadim.

4. ... "Divrei" - are Charamim, Erchin and Hekdeshos.

(d)According to the Tana, "Rivos" refers to Hashka'as Sotah, Arifas Eglah Arufah and Taharas Metzora, which are connected with "Rivos" in three ways: - 1. that a Sotah must have been involved in an argument with her husband; 2. Eglah Arufah is brought for the death of a man who was murdered, probably involving a quarrel between the murderer and the murdered man; 3. Tzara'as too, comes for Lashon ha'Ra, usually tied up with a dispute between two people.

(e)The three things incorporated in "bi'She'arecha" are - Leket, Shikchah and Pe'ah. These are all Matnos Aniyim, by which the Torah writes in Re'ei "ve'Achlu bi'She'arecha ... ".

2)

(a)What does the Tana learn from ...

1. ... "ve'Kamta"?

2. ... "ve'Alisa"?

3. ... "el ha'Makom"?

(b)We prove the second point in the previous question from a Pasuk in Yirmiyah. What does the Navi say about praising Hash-m after Mashi'ach arrives? What will they ...

1. ... no longer say?

2. ... say instead?

(c)And what does the Tana learn from the Pasuk there "Ki-im Chai Hash-m asher *He'elah* ... es Zera Beis Yisrael me'Eretz Tzafonah u'mi'Kol ha'Aratzos asher Hidachtam Sham?

2)

(a)The Tana learns from ...

1. ... "ve'Kamta" (implying that he had been sitting) that - the Zakein Mamrei must leave for Yerushalayim from the location of Beis-Din in his town (where the Dayanim are obligated to sit whenever they judge.

2. ... "ve'Alisa" that - Yerushalayim is the highest point in Eretz Yisrael.

3. ... "el ha'Makom" that - the location of the Sanhedrin (in Lishkas ha'Gazis) is crucial in the Din of a Zakein Mamrei.

(b)We prove the second point in the previous question from a Pasuk in Yirmiyah, where the Navi states that, after Mashi'ach arrives, they will ...

1. ... no longer praise Hash-m for redeeming them from Egypt. Instead, they will ...

2. ... praise him for redeeming them from the land of the north (Bavel), and from the other lands to which they had been exiled.

(c)And the Tana learns from the Lashon there "Ki-im Chai Hash-m asher *He'elah* ... es Zera Beis Yisrael me'Eretz Tzafonah u'mi'Kol ha'Aratzos asher Hidachtam Sham" that - Eretz Yisrael is the highest country in the world.

3)

(a)According to Rebbi Meir, a Zakein Mamrei is only Chayav for something that falls into the category of Zedono Kareis, ve'Shigegaso Chatas. What does Rebbi Yehudah say?

(b)Rebbi Shimon is the most stringent of all. What does he say?

(c)Rebbi Meir learns his opinion from a 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Davar" ("Ki Yipalei mimcha Davar") "Davar" (from "ve'Ne'elam Davar me'Einei ha'Kahal" in Parshas Vayikra). In what connection is the latter Pasuk written?

(d)How does ...

1. ... Rebbi Yehudah learn his opinion from the Pasuk in Shoftim "al-Pi ha'Torah asher Yorucha"?

2. ... Rebbi Shimon learn his opinion from the Pasuk there "Asher Yagidu l'cha min ha'Makom ha'hu"?

3)

(a)According to Rebbi Meir, a Zakein Mamrei is only Chayav for something that falls into the category of Zedono Kareis, ve'Shigegaso Chatas. Rebbi Yehudah says - something that is basically written in the Torah, but its explanation is from the Chachamim.

(b)Rebbi Shimon maintains that the Zakein Mamrei is Chayav - even for disputing one detail in a de'Rabbanan.

(c)Rebbi Meir learns his opinion from a 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Davar" ("Ki Yipalei mimcha Davar") "Davar" (from "ve'Ne'elam Davar me'Einei ha'Kahal" in Parshas Vayikra) - which is written in connection with the Par He'elam Davar (the Korban Chatas brought by the community).

(d)Rebbi ...

1. ... Yehudah learns his opinion from the Pasuk "al-Pi ha'Torah asher Yorucha" - since "ha'Torah" means 'Ikro min ha'Torah', and "Yorucha", 'Pirusho mi'Divrei Sofrim', whereas Rebbi ...

2. ... Shimon derives his opinion from the Pasuk "Asher Yagidu l'cha min ha'Makom ha'hu" - implying whatever the issue is.

4)

(a)What did Rav Huna bar Chin'na ask Rava to explain to him?

(b)How did Rava react to his request?

(c)To explain 'Zeh Yo'etz', Rav Papa cited the Mishnah in Iduyos 'Hein (Rebbi Yehoshua and Rebbi Papayas) He'idu she'Me'abrim es ha'Shanah Kol Adar, she'Hayu Omrim (the Chachamim) ad Purim'. How does this involve something that is 'Zedono Kareis ve'Shigegaso Chatas'?

(d)And to explain "Davar", 'Zeh Halachah', he cited the Machlokes (with regard to the tenth of the eleven days between Nidus and Nidus) between Rebbi Yochanan ('Asiri ki'Teshi'i') and Resh Lakish ('Asiri ke'Achad-Asar'). Which aspect of this is 'Halachah le'Moshe mi'Sinai' (that involves Kareis)?

4)

(a)Rav Huna bar Chin'na asked Rava to explain to him - the Beraisa "Mimcha" 'Zeh Yo'eitz" (that the Gemara cited at he beginning of the Amud), according to Rebbi Meir's opinion.

(b)Rava reacted to his request - by asking Rav Papa to delve into the matter.

(c)To explain 'Zeh Yo'etz', Rav Papa cited the Mishnah in Iduyos 'Hein (Rebbi Yehoshua and Rebbi Papayas) He'idu she'Me'abrim es ha'Shanah Kol Adar, she'Hayu Omrim (the Chachamim) ad Purim'. This involves something that is 'Zedono Kareis ve'Shigegaso Chatas' - inasmuch as if they fix Rosh Chodesh Nisan a month earlier than it should be, then the people will eat Chametz one month later (when it is really Pesach), and if they fix it a month later than it ought to be, then they will eat Chametz the month before.

(d)And to explain "Davar", 'Zeh Halachah', he cited the Machlokes (with regard to the tenth of the eleven days between Nidus and Nidus) between Rebbi Yochanan ('Asiri ki'Teshi'i') and Resh Lakish ('Asiri ke'Achad-Asar'). The aspect of this which is 'Halachah le'Moshe mi'Sinai' is - the eleven days between Nidus and Nidus (which involves Kareis, as we will now explain).

5)

(a)What is the difference between a Nidah and a Zavah (as regards seeing blood)?

(b)What will be the Din if a woman sees blood on ...

1. ... the ninth day (of the eleven days of Zivus)?

2. ... the eleventh day?

(c)A woman who sees blood on the tenth day cannot become a Zavah Gedolah, because the twelfth day no longer belongs to the days of Zivus. What will her status then be, should she see blood again on the eleventh day?

(d)What is now the Machlokes between Rebbi Yochanan and Resh Lakish (regarding the tenth day [according to one Lashon in the Sugya in Nidah'])?

(e)How exactly, does the Din of the Zakein Mamrei now involve Kareis and a Chatas?

5)

(a)The difference between a Nidah and a Zavah (as regards seeing blood) is that - if the former sees blood, she is Tamei for seven days, unconditionally; whereas the latter must 'watch' the next day (when she becomes Tahor should she not see, a Zavah Ketanah in the event that she does, and again on the third day, when she becomes Tamei to bring a Korban (a Zavah Gedolah), in the event that she sees.

(b)If a woman sees blood on ...

1. ... the ninth day (of the eleven days of Zivus) - it is like seeing blood on any of the previous days (regarding watching on the tenth and the eleventh).

2. ... the eleventh day - she is not required to watch, seeing as, in the event that she sees on the following day, she will be a Nidah (and not a Zavah).

(c)A woman who sees blood on the tenth day cannot become a Zavah Gedolah, because the twelfth day no longer belongs to the days of Zivus. Nevertheless, should she see blood, her status changes to one of a Zavah Ketanah (who neither brings a Korban nor needs to Tovel in spring-water [see Rashash]).

(d)The Machlokes between Rebbi Yochanan and Resh Lakish (regarding the tenth day [according to one Lashon in the Sugya in Nidah']) is - whether if a woman sees blood on the tenth day, she needs to watch on the eleventh, to at least become a Zavah Ketanah (even though she will not become a Zavah Gedolah should she then see on the twelfth [Rebbi Yochanan]), or not (Resh Lakish).

(e)The Din of the Zakein Mamrei now involve Kareis and a Chatas - in the event that the woman sees blood on the tenth day during the period of Zivus, and the Zakein Mamrei permits her to be intimate with her husband on the eleventh, like the opinion of Resh Lakish, whereas according to Rebbi Yochanan, she will be Chayav Kareis.

87b----------------------------------------87b

6)

(a)"Mishpat", 'Zeh ha'Din' (regarding a 'Gezeirah-Shavah', as we explained above). What does Rava quoting Rav Yitzchak learn from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Heinah" "Heinah" and "Zimah" "Zimah, with which the Zakein Mamrei disagreed?

(b)And the bone of contention between him and the Beis-Din with regard to "Dam le'Dam" vis-a-vis Dam Nidah, revolves around the Machlokes between Akavya ben Mahalalel and the Rabbanan in the Mishnah in Nidah. What sort of blood are they arguing about?

(c)Whereas with regard to Dam Leidah, it revolves around the Machlokes between Rav and Levi. What does Rav mean when he says 'Ma'ayan Echad hu'?

(d)According to Levi however, the two bloods are from two different sources. What are the ramifications of their Machlokes?

6)

(a)"Mishpat", 'Zeh ha'Din' (regarding a 'Gezeirah-Shavah', as we explained above). Rava quoting Rav Yitzchak, learns from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Heinah" "Heinah" and "Zimah" "Zimah (with which the Zakein Mamrei disagreed) - that Bito me'Anusaso receives Sereifah.

(b)And the bone of contention between him and the Beis-Din with regard to "Dam le'Dam" (vis-a-vis Dam Nidah), revolves around the Machlokes between Akavya ben Mahalalel and the Rabbanan, who argue whether green (or yellow) blood is Tamei (Akavya) or not (the Rabbanan).

(c)Whereas with regard to Dam Leidah, it revolves around the Machlokes between Rav and Levi. When Rav says 'Ma'ayan Echad hu' he means that - the Tamei blood that a woman who gave birth to a girl sees during the first two weeks and the blood that she subsequently sees (during the days of Taharah) emanate from the same source (only the Torah declared it Tamei, in one case, and Tahor, in the other.

(d)According to Levi however, the two bloods are from two different sources. The ramifications of their Machlokes are - where the woman continues to see blood after the termination of the two-week period, which will be Tahor according to Rav, but Tamei according to Levi. And the reverse will be true in a case where she continues seeing blood after the sixty-six days of Taharah. (Consequently, the Zakein Mamrei's ruling will lead to Kareis, either at the beginning or at the end.

7)

(a)The Torah writes in Tazri'a with regard to the three sightings of Zivus "ve'Ishah ki Yazuv Zov Damah Yamim Rabim". What do we learn from the word "Damah"?

(b)In this context, the third Dam revolves around a Machlokes between Rebbi Eliezer and Rebbi Yehoshua in another Mishnah in Nidah. According to Rebbi Eliezer, we do not ascribe the blood to the birth, if there has been a break of twenty-four hours (whenever they occur). What does Rebbi Yehoshua say?

(c)Seeing blood is not the sole criterion for the Din of 'Shafsah' (the break). Which other criterion is required?

7)

(a)The Torah writes in Tazri'a with regard to the three sightings of Zivus "ve'Ishah ki Yazuv Zov Damah Yamim Rabim". We learn from the word "Damah" - that a woman is Tamei only if the blood comes naturally, and not as the result of the baby to whom she has given birth.

(b)In this context, the third Dam revolves around a Machlokes between Rebbi Eliezer and Rebbi Yehoshua in another Mishnah in Nidah. According to Rebbi Eliezer, we do not ascribe the blood to the birth, if there has been a break of twenty-four hours (whenever they occur). Rebbi Yehoshua - requires twenty-four hours that begins at nightfall and end twenty-four hours later (like Shabbos).

(c)Seeing blood is not the sole criterion for the Din of 'Shafsah' (the break). The second criterion is - the pain subsiding.

8)

(a)We established 'Bein Din le'Din' by Dinei Mamon, Nefashos and Malkos. With regard to Dinei Mamon, they argue over the Machlokes between Shmuel and Rebbi Avahu. Shmuel holds 'Shenayim she'Danu, Dineihem Din'. What does Rebbi Avahu say?

(b)How does this Machlokes involve Kareis and Chatas?

(c)And with regard to Dinei Nefashos, they argue over the Machlokes between Rebbi and the Rabbanan. Rebbi holds in the case of 'Niskaven Laharog es Zeh ve'Harag es Zeh', the murderer is Chayav to pay. What do the Rabbanan say?

(d)How does this Machlokes involve Kareis and Chatas?

8)

(a)We established 'Bein Din le'Din' by Diynei Mamon, Nefashos and Malkos. With regard to Dinei Mamon, they argue over the Machlokes between Shmuel and Rebbi Avahu. Shmuel holds 'Shenayim she'Danu, Dineihem Din'; Rebbi Avahu - 'Ein Dineihem Din'.

(b)This Machlokes involves Kareis and Chatas - in a case where two Dayanim did indeed, extract money from Reuven to pay Shimon. According to Shmuel, if Shimon subsequently betroths a woman with it, she is Mekudeshes, whereas according to Rebbi Avahu, it is Gezel, and as we learned in Kidushin, 'ha'Mekadesh be'Gezel Einah Mekudeshes'. Consequently, if first Levi and then Yehudah betroth her, one of them will be Chayav Kareis Mah Nafshach (either according to Shmuel or according to Rebbi Avahu respectively).

(c)And with regard to Dinei Nefashos, they argue over the Machlokes between Rebbi and the Rabbanan. Rebbi holds that buy 'Niskaven Laharog es Zeh ve'Harag es Zeh', the murderer is Chayav to pay, whereas according to the Rabbanan, he is Chayav Misah (and Patur from paying), as we learned in 'ha'Nisrafin'.

(d)This Machlokes involves Kareis and Chatas in the same way as the previous case - if the heirs seize the money from the murderer and then use it to betroth a woman.

9)

(a)And regarding Malkos, they argue over the Machlokes between Rebbi Yishmael, who requires twenty-three Dayanim for Malkos, and the Rabbanan, who suffice with three. How might this Machlokes lead to Kareis or a Korban Chatas?

9)

(a)And regarding Malkos, they argue over the Machlokes between Rebbi Yishmael, who requires twenty-three Dayanim for Malkos, and the Rabbanan, who suffice with three. This Machlokes might lead to Kareis or a Korban Chatas - if the three Dayanim who gave Reuven Malkos subsequently pay him money (like Rebbi Yishmael), which he then uses to betroth a woman ... .

10)

(a)"Bein Nega la'Naga" comes to include the three kinds of Nega'im. The Machlokes between the Zakein Mamrei and Beis-Din by 'Nig'ei Adam is that of Rebbi Yehoshua and the Rabbanan. A Baheres requires two white hairs in the middle of it. Which must come first for the Baheres to be Tamei?

(b)The Rabbanan maintain that a Safek is Tamei. Rebbi Yehoshua says 'Keiheh'. How does Rava interpret 'Keiheh'? What is its significance?

(c)How might this Machlokes involve Kareis or Chatas?

10)

(a)"Bein Nega la'Naga" comes to include the three kinds of Nega'im. The Machlokes between the Zakein Mamrei and Beis-Din by 'Nig'ei Adam is that of Rebbi Yehoshua and the Rabbanan. A Baheres requires two white hairs in the middle of it - which must grow there (or turn white) after the appearance of the Baheres in order to be a Si'man Tumah.

(b)The Rabbanan maintain that a Safek is Tamei. Rebbi Yehoshua says 'Keiheh', which (means that it became paler, and which) Rava interprets as 'Keiheh ve'Tahor' (just like it would be if it occurred during the days that the Nega was locked up).

(c)This Machlokes might involve Kareis or Chatas - if the Safek subsequently entered the Beis Hamikdash or ate Kodshim, where he would be Chayav according to the Rabbanan, and Patur according to Rebbi Yehoshua.

11)

(a)With regard to Nig'ei Batim, they argue over the Machlokes between Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon and the Rabbanan in the Mishnah in Nega'im (which we already discussed in the eighth Perek). Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon (based on the D'rashah of "Kir" "Kiros") requires the Shi'ur of two G'risin by one, on two bricks of two walls in the corner, where the two walls meet. What do the Rabbanan say?

(b)How might this Machlokes involve Kareis or a Chatas?

11)

(a)With regard to Nig'ei Batim, they argue over the Machlokes between Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon and the Rabbanan in the Mishnah in Nega'im (which we already discussed in the eighth Perek). Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon requires the Shi'ur of two Gerisin by one, on two bricks of two walls in the corner, where the two walls meet. The Rabbanan (who do not agree with Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon's D'rashah of "Kir" "Kiros"), consider the house Tamei even if the bricks are not in the corner.

(b)This Machlokes might involve Kareis or Chatas - if someone enters a Bayis ha'Menuga where the stricken bricks were on two sides of the house but not in the corner, and then enters the Beis Hamikdash or ate Kodshim, according to the Rabbanan.

12)

(a)And regarding 'Nig'ei Begadim', they argue over the Machlokes between Rebbi Nasan ben Avtulmus and the Rabbanan. What does Rebbi Nasan ben Avtulmus learn from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Karachas ve'Gabachas" (Nigei Begadim) from "Karachas ve'Gabachas" (Nig'ei Adam), regarding 'P'richah'?

(b)What is P'richah?

(c)What do the Rabbanan say?

(d)How would this Machlokes lead to Kareis or Chatas?

12)

(a)And regarding 'Nig'ei Begadim', they argue over the Machlokes between Rebbi Nasan ben Avtulmus and the Rabbanan. Rebbi Nasan ben Avtulmus learns from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Karachas ve'Gabachas" - Nig'ei Begadim from "Karachas ve'Gabachas" (Nig'ei Adam) that 'P'richah' is Tahor.

(b)'P'richah' means that - the Nega spreads to the entire garment.

(c)According to the Rabbanan - the Beged is Tamei.

(d)This Machlokes too, will lead to Kareis or Chatas - if the Nega spreads to the entire garment, and someone either takes the garment into the Beis- Hamikdash or touches it and goes there himself, according to the Rabbanan.

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