1)

(a)We just learned that a Nochri is Chayav Misah for keeping Shabbos. Which other Mitzvah does Rebbi Yochanan add to this ruling?

(b)On which Pasuk in Ve'zos ha'Berachah is this based?

(c)Why is this Mitzvah not specifically included in the Sheva Mitzvos, assuming we read the Pasuk ...

1. ... "Morashah Kehilas Ya'akov" (as indeed it is written)?

2. ... "Me'orasah Kehilas Ya'akov"?

1)

(a)We just learned that a Nochri is Chayav Misah for keeping Shabbos. Rebbi Yochanan adds go this ruling - Torah-study ...

(b)... based on the Pasuk in Ve'zos ha'Berachah - "Torah Tzivah lanu Moshe, Morashah Kehilas Ya'akov".

(c)This Mitzvah is not specifically included in the Sheva Mitzvos, because assuming we read the Pasuk ...

1. ... "Morashah Kehilas Ya'akov" (as indeed it is written) - it is already included in Gezel (as a NOchri who studies Torah is guilty of stealing our heritage).

2. ... "Me'orasah Kehilas Ya'akov" - it is included in Giluy Arayos (since, as we learned above, a Na'arah ha'Me'urasah of a Yisrael is forbidden to a Nrioch).

2)

(a)To whom does the Pasuk in Acharei-Mos "... asher Ya'aseh osam ha'Adam va'Chai Bahem" refer?

(b)But did we not learn earlier that "Adam" is confined to Yisrael, and does not pertain to Nochrim?

(c)How do we then reconcile Rebbi Yochanan with this Pasuk?

2)

(a)The Pasuk " .. asher Ya'aseh osam ha'Adam va'Chai Bahem" refers to - everybody, including Nochrim.

(b)Even though we learned earlier that "Adam" is confined to Yisrael, and does not pertain to Nochrim - that is the opinion of Rebbi Shimon in Yevamos, whereas this Sugya follows the opinion of Rebbi Meir, who disagrees with him (see also Tosfos DH 'Ela').

(c)And we reconcile Rebbi Yochanan with the Pasuk - by establishing the Pasuk with regard to the Sheva Mitzvos b'nei No'ach (which a Nochri is obligated to study), whereas Rebbi Yochanan is referring to the study of the other Mitzvos.

3)

(a)What does Rebbi Chanina ben Gamliel learn from the word "Damo" in the Pasuk in No'ach "Ach Basar be'Nafsho, Damo Lo Socheilu"?

(b)What do the Rabbanan, who do not forbid Dam min ha'Chai, learn from "Damo"?

(c)Who is the author of the continuation of the Beraisa which comments (on the Pasuk in Re'ei) 'ke'Yotzei ba'Davar atah Omer "Rak Chazak le'Vilti Achol ha'Dam, ki ha'Dam Hu ha'Nafesh"?

(d)What is the Tana then saying?

3)

(a)Rebbi Chanina ben Gamliel learns from the word "Damo" in the Pasuk in No'ach "Ach Basar be'Nafsho, Damo Lo Sochelu" that - blood from a live animal is included in the 'Sheva' Mitzvos b'nei No'ach.

(b)The Rabbanan, who do not forbid Dam min ha'Chai, learn from "Damo" - (not to include, but) to exclude Eiver min ha'Chai of Sheratzim from the prohibition.

(c)The author of the continuation of the Beraisa, which comments 'ke'Yotzei ba'Davar atah Omer' "Rak Chazak le'Vilti Achol ha'Dam, ki ha'Dam hu ha'Nafesh" - is Rebbi Chanina ben Gamliel, who is saying that ...

(d)... there is a separate La'av for Dam min ha'Chai (by Dinei Yisrael, too).

4)

(a)The Rabbanan learn from this Pasuk that Dam Hakazah (the blood of bloodletting) is forbidden. Why would we have thought otherwise?

(b)What is the difference between Dam min ha'Chai and Dam Hakazah?

(c)We ask why, having already issued the Mitzvah of Eiver min ha'Chai to the b'nei No'ach, the Torah finds it necessary to repeat it at Sinai. Why do we not ask the same Kashya with regard to Avodas-Kochavim and Giluy-Arayos?

4)

(a)The Rabbanan learn from this Pasuk that Dam Hakazah (the blood of bloodletting) is forbidden - because previously, the Torah places the prohibition of Dam in the Parshah of Shechitah, implying that the Isur of blood is confined to the blood of Shechitah.

(b)The difference between Dam min ha'Chai and Dam Hakazah is that - the former is not called 'Dam' (because it does not cause the animal's death) and is not therefore subject to Kareis, whereas the latter (which causes the animal's death, if it is not tended to properly) is called blood, which explains why the Chachamim include it in the Chiyuv Kareis.

(c)We ask why, having already issued the Mitzvah of Eiver min ha'Chai to the b'nei No'ach, the Torah finds it necessary to repeat it at Sinai. We do not ask the same Kashya with regard to Avodas-Kochavim and Giluy-Arayos (see Aruch la'Ner) - because the Torah needs to write them, to teach us the punishments (and the various details that do not pertain to b'nei No'ach).

5)

(a)To answer the Kashya, we cite Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina. What does Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina say about Mitzvos that were said to the b'nei No'ach ...

1. ... and were repeated at Sinai (such as Gid-ha'Nasheh)?

2. ... but were not repeated at Sinai?

(b)Which is the only Mitzvah that this latter principle incorporates?

(c)Why do we establish this specifically like Rebbi Yehudah? What do the Chachamim say about Gid ha'Nasheh?

(d)Logically, we would expect whatever is repeated at Sinai to pertain exclusively to Yisrael. What causes Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina to say that it pertains to Nochrim, too?

5)

(a)To answer the Kashya, we cite Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina, who rules that Mitzvos that were said to the b'nei No'ach ...

1. ... and were repeated at Sinai (incorporating all the Sheva Mitzvos) - still apply to the b'nei No'ach too.

2. ... but were not repeated at Sinai - apply to Yisrael only.

(b)The only Mitzvah that this latter principle incorporates is - Gid ha'Nasheh.

(c)We establish this specifically like Rebbi Yehudah - because he learns that Gid ha'Nasheh was said to Ya'akov Avinu in Parshas Vayishlach; whereas according to the Chachamim, it was first said at Sinai, only Moshe inserted it in Vayishlach, to teach us its origin.

(d)Logically, we would expect whatever is repeated at Sinai to pertain exclusively to Yisrael. Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina says that it pertains to Nochrim, too - based on the fact that the Torah specifically punishes the seven nations for transgressing Avodah-Zarah and Giluy-Arayos, even after the Torah was given at Sinai.

6)

(a)What is wrong with attributing the Torah's need to repeat the Mitzvos that pertain to the b'nei No'ach at Sinai to the fact that we would otherwise learn them from Gid ha'Nasheh (which is not repeated at Sinai, and which is permitted to the b'nei No'ach)?

(b)Then why does it repeat them?

(c)Logically, we would expect whatever is not repeated at Sinai to pertain exclusively to b'nei No'ach. So why does Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina say the opposite?

(d)How will we then explain the fact that a ben No'ach is ...

1. ... forbidden to take a Y'fas To'ar, whereas a Yisrael is permitted?

2. ... Chayav for stealing less than a Shaveh P'rutah, even though a Yisrael is Patur?

6)

(a)Attributing the Torah's need to repeat the Mitzvos that pertain to the b'nei No'ach at Sinai to the fact that we would otherwise learn them from Gid ha'Nasheh (which is not repeated at Sinai, and which is permitted to the b'nei No'ach) is wrong - since the Torah writes there specifically "al-Kein Lo Yochlu *b'nei Yisrael*" (whereas the seven Mitzvos were said specifically to the b'nei No'ach).

(b)It repeats them - because we would otherwise learn from Avodah-Zarah (which the Torah does repeat) that whatever is not repeated, no longer applies to the b'nei No'ach.

(c)Logically, we would expect whatever is not repeated at Sinai to pertain exclusively to b'nei No'ach. Nevertheless, Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina says the opposite - because of the principle 'Leka Mida'am ... ' (there is nothing that is permitted to a Yisrael and forbidden to a Nochri).

(d)The fact that a ben No'ach is ...

1. ... forbidden to take a Y'fas To'ar, whereas a Yisrael is permitted - is due to the S'vara that the Heter is connected with the Mitzvah of conquering Eretz Yisrael, which does not pertain to a ben No'ach.

2. ... Chayav for stealing less than a Shaveh P'rutah, even though a Yisrael is Patur - is due to the S'vara that a Yisrael tends to be Mochel such small amounts, whereas a Nochri does not.

59b----------------------------------------59b

7)

(a)How do we query Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina's principle from the Mitzvos of Milah in Tazri'a ("u'va'Yom ha'Shemini Yimol"), and P'ru u'Revu in Va'eschanan ("Lech Emor lahem Shuvu lachem le'Oholechem")?

(b)What do we answer? Why does the Torah in fact repeat the Mitzvah of ...

1. ... Milah?

2. ... P'ru u'Revu?

(c)Why can we then not apply the same principle to all the seven Mitzvos (in which case they will only pertain to Yisrael, but not to b'nei No'ach)?

(d)Why did Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina earlier list the only Mitzvah which is not repeated at Sinai as Gid ha'Nasheh according to Rebbi Yehudah? Why will Milah and Piryah ve'Rivyah , by which the Torah does not come to issue an independent command (as we just explained), not fall under the same category?

7)

(a)We query Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina's principle from the Mitzvos of Milah ("u'va'Yom ha'Shemini Yimol"), and P'ru u'Revu ("Lech Emor lahem Shuvu lachem le'Oholechem") - both of which pertain to Yisrael exclusively (see Tosfos DH 've'Ha'), despite the fact that they were both repeated at Sinai.

(b)And we answer that the Torah repeats the Mitzvah of ...

1. ... Milah - to teach us "u'va'Yom ha'Shemini"; "u'va'Yom", 'even on Shabbos'.

2. ... P'ru u'Revu - to teach us that whatever is forbidden by a Beis-Din, requires a Beis-Din to repeal, even if they placed the prohibition for a fixed period of time.

(c)We cannot apply the same principle to all the seven Mitzvos (in which case they will only pertain to Yisrael, but not to b'nei No'ach) - because there, it is the actual La'av which is repeated (independent of the punishment), which teaches us that the b'nei No'ach are included in the command.

(d)In spite of the fact that the Torah does not issue an independent command by Milah and Piryah ve'Rivyah, Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina listed the only Mitzvah which is not repeated at Sinai as Gid ha'Nasheh, according to Rebbi Yehudah - because when all's said and done, they are mentioned there, even if it is to teach us a Chidush (whereas Gid ha'Nasheh is not mentioned at all).

8)

(a)What alternative answer do we give to explain why, in spite of the fact that Milah was repeated at Sinai, it was only given to Yisrael?

(b)In that case, from where do we know that the Mitzvah does not also apply to the b'nei ...

1. ... Yishmael?

2. ... Eisav?

(c)What does Rebbi Yossi bar Avin (or Rebbi Yossi bar Chanina) then learn from the Pasuk in Lech-l'cha "es B'risi Heifar"? Whom does this come to include?

8)

(a)Alternatively, we ascribe Milah having been given exclusively to Yisrael (in spite of the fact that it was repeated at Sinai) - to the fact that it was initially given specifically to Avraham and his children (as the Torah indicates in Lech-l'cha), and not to the rest of the b'nei No'ach.

(b)Nevertheless, we know that the Mitzvah does not also apply to the b'nei ...

1. ... Yishmael - because the Torah writes in Vayeira "Ki *be'Yitzchak* Yikarei l'cha Zara" (to preclude Yishmael).

2. ... the b'nei Eisav - because, by the same token, we extrapolate "be'Yitzchak", 've'Lo Kol Yitzchak'.

(c)Rebbi Yossi bar Avin (or Rebbi Yossi bar Chanina) learns from the Pasuk in Lech-l'cha "es B'risi Heifar" - to include the six sons of Keturah (alias Hagar, after Avraham remarried her) in the Mitzvah of Milah (see Maharsha).

9)

(a)What does Rav Yehudah Amar Rav learn from the Pasuk ...

1. ... in Bereishis "lachem Yih'yeh le'Ochlah u'le'Chol Chayas ha'Aretz"?

2. ... in No'ach "ke'Yerek Eisev Nasati lachem es Kol"?

3. ... in No'ach "(Ach) Basar be'Nafsho Lo Socheilu"?

(b)From where does he learn that Sheratzim are not subject to Eiver min ha'Chai?

(c)How does Rav Huna explain the fact that Rav Yehudah precludes Sheratzim from there and not animals?

9)

(a)Rav Yehudah Amar Rav learns from the Pasuk ...

1. ... in Bereishis "lachem Yih'yeh le'Ochlah u'le'Chol Chayas ha'Aretz" that - Adam was forbidden to eat meat.

2. ... in No'ach "ke'Yerek Eisev Nasati lachem es Kol" that - No'ach was permitted to eat meat.

3. ... in No'ach "(Ach) Basar be'Nafsho Damo Lo Socheilu" that - the concession to Noach did not include 'Eiver min ha'Chai'.

(b)He learns that Sheratzim are not subject to Eiver min ha'Chai - from the word "Ach", which always comes to exclude.

(c)Rav Huna explains the fact that Rav precludes Sheratzim from there and not animals - because the word "Damo" confines the Isur to animals, whose blood is separate from their flesh (as opposed to insects, whose flesh and blood are one entity).

10)

(a)If Adam was forbidden to eat the flesh of any animal, how could Hash-m order him to "rule over ...

1. ... the fish of the sea"? What use are fish other than as food?

2. ... the birds"? What can one do with birds, other than eat them?

3. ... and over all the living creatures ... "?

(b)Why did we add 'according to Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah' in our answer to the Kashya on the birds?

(c)Rebbi Shimon ben Menasyah bemoaned the world's loss as a result of the curse of the snake'. What would Hash-m have given each Yisrael if the snake had not sinned?

(d)What was the purpose of the rope that would have been placed under its tail?

10)

(a)Adam was indeed forbidden to eat the flesh of any animal, and when Hash-m ordered him to "rule over ...

1. ... the fish of the sea", he meant - for his own personal use, and we cite Rachbah, who asked whether hitching a goat and a Shivuta (a type of fish) to a wagon and driving it along the river-bank is considered Kil'ayim.

2. ... the birds", he meant - to thresh corn, like Rabah bar Rav Huna, who asked whether one is permitted to muzzle chickens and geese whilst they thresh the corn, according to Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah.

3. ... and over all the living creatures ... ", he was referring to the snake, which before the sin, walked upright on two legs, and could speak and understand (and who was in fact, king of the animal world).

(b)We added 'according to Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah', in our answer to the Kashya on the birds - because he is the one who requires an ox to use all four legs before it becomes subject to "Lo Sachsom Shor be'Disho", and according to whom the She'eilah regarding birds (which do not have four legs) is therefore relevant.

(c)Rebbi Shimon ben Menasyah bemoaned the world's loss as a result of the curse of the snake'. Hash-m would otherwise have given each Yisrael - two snakes to serve him, one of which would have traveled to the north, and the other, to the south (see Agados Maharsha), to bring him a variety of precious stones.

(d)The purpose of the rope that they have would have placed under its tail was - to transport earth to the owner's gardens and yards.

11)

(a)What does Rebbi Yehudah ben Teima say in a Beraisa about Adam ha'Rishon reclining in Gan Eden? What were the angels doing for him?

(b)What was the snake's reaction to that?

(c)How do reconcile this with the prohibition of eating the flesh of animals?

(d)In what connection do we ...

1. ... relate the episode with Rebbi Shimon ben Chalafta and the lions?

2. ... quote the Pasuk in Tehilim "ha'Kefirim Sho'agim la'Taref"?

11)

(a)Rebbi Yehudah ben Teima in a Beraisa, describes - how Adam ha'Rishon was reclining in Gan Eden and how the angels were roasting him meat and straining him wine.

(b)When the snake saw that - he was jealous.

(c)We reconcile this with the prohibition of eating the flesh of animals - by establishing the meat as having come down from heaven.

(d)We ...

1. ... relate the episode with Rebbi Shimon ben Chalafta and the lions - where Hash-m sent flesh from heaven to feed the hungry lions, to prove that such things do happen.

2. ... quote the Pasuk "ha'Kefirim Sho'agim la'Taref" - because that was the Pasuk quoted by Rebbi Shimon ben Chalafta (though he was really referring to the continuation of the Pasuk "u'le'Vakesh me'Keil Ochlam", see Agados Maharsha).

12)

(a)What happened to the two thighs of flesh that came down from Heaven?

(b)What did the Chachamim reply when Rebbi Shimon ben Chalafta asked in the Beis-Hamidrash whether it was Kasher?

(c)What did Rebbi Zeira ask Rebbi Avahu in this connection?

(d)What did he reply? What did he mean by 'Ya'arod Na'ala'?

12)

(a)When two thighs of flesh came down from Heaven - the lions ate one of them, leaving the other one for Rebbi Shimon ben Chalafta.

(b)When Rebbi Shimon ben Chalafta asked in the Beis-Hamidrash whether it meat was Kasher, the Chachamim replied that - whatever comes from Heaven is Kasher.

(c)Rebbi Zeira asked Rebbi Avahu - what the Din would be if the meat was shaped like a donkey.

(d)Referring to the questioner as 'a foolish Tanin' (a type of bird), Rebbi Avahu replied - that he had already answered his question. It simply could not happen, and even if it did, the flesh might look T'reifah, but it is nevertheless Kasher.

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