SANHEDRIN 38 (1 Elul) - Dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas Esther Chaya Rayzel (Friedman) bas Gershon Eliezer (Yahrzeit: 30 Av, Yom Kevurah: 1 Elul) by her daughter and son-in-law, Jeri and Eli Turkel of Raanana, Israel. Esther Friedman was a woman of valor who was devoted to her family and gave of herself unstintingly, inspiring all those around her.

1)

1)

(a)Rebbi instructed his servants to give Yehudah and Chizkiyah - sons of Rebbi Chiya some wine ...

(b)... because they were sitting silently at a Se'udah without saying anything.

(c)Having drunk, they stated - that ben David (Mashi'ach) will only come when the heads of the Galus in Bavel and the Nasi in Eretz Yisrael will be destroyed.

(d)Rebbi, the Nasi in Eretz Yisrael, reacted - by accusing them of placing thorns in his eyes (of setting out to hurt him).

(e)Rebbi Chiya defended his sons - by pointing out that since 'Yayin' had the same numerical value as 'Sod', when wine goes in, secrets come out (meaning that what they had said was nothing personal, but the truth).

(a)Rebbi instructed his servants to give Yehudah and Chizkiyah some wine. Who were Yehudah and Chizkiyah?

(b)Why did he do that?

(c)Having drunk, what statement did they make about the coming of ben David? Which two families would have to first be destroyed?

(d)How did Rebbi react to that?

(e)How did Rebbi Chiya defend his sons? What famous adage did he quote in doing so?

2)

(a)How does Rav Chisda Amar Mar Ukva (or Amar Rav Chisda Darash Mari bar Mar) explain the Pasuk in Daniel "va'Yishkod Hash-m al ha'Ra'ah va'Yevi'ehah aleinu ki Tzadik Hash-m Elokeinu"? What sort of righteousness was it to bring the evil upon Yisrael?

(b)The basis for this is the Pasuk in Melachim "ve'ha'Charash ve'ha'Misger Elef" (hinting at the thousand Talmidei-Chachamim who accompanied Yechonyah into Galus). Why were they called ...

1. ... "Charash"?

2. ... "Misger"?

(c)Ula connects Hash-m's righteousness to the Pasuk in Devarim "ve'Noshantem ba'Aretz ... (va'Avadtem Meheirah)". What is the significance of the numerical value of "ve'Noshantem"? What did Hash-m actually do?

(d)How many years after ...

1. ... arriving in Eretz Yisrael did they build the Beis-Hamikdash?

2. ... the Beis-Hamikdash was built was it destroyed?

(e)What does Rav Acha bar Ya'akov learn from the D'rashah of "ve'Noshantem"?

2)

(a)Rav Chisda Amar Mar Ukva (or Amar Rav Chisda Darash Mari bar Mar) explains the Pasuk in Daniel "va'Yishkod Hash-m al ha'Ra'ah va'Yevi'ehah Aleinu ki Tzadik Hash-m Elokeinu" to mean - that Hash-m displayed His righteousness by leaving Galus Yechonyah intact when Galus Tzidkiyah arrived, since they were big Talmidei-Chachamim, who would ensure that with the aid of the great Yeshivos that they set up there, Torah would flourish during the Galus.

(b)The basis for this is the Pasuk in Melachim "ve'ha'Charash ve'ha'Misger Elef" (hinting at the thousand Talmidei-Chachamim who accompanied Yechonyah into Galus). They were called ...

1. ... "Charash" - because once they began to speak (in Divrei Torah), everyone else remained silent.

2. ... "Misger" - because once they stopped (leaving a question unanswered), no-one was able to resume, since there was nobody who was able to find an answer.

(c)Ula connects Hash-m's righteousness to the Pasuk in Devarim "*ve'Noshantem* ba'Aretz ... (va'Avadtem Meheirah)" - whose numerical value is eight hundred and fifty-two, the equivalent of the number of years that they were destined to remain in Eretz Yisrael, before being sent into exile. Hash-m changed His mind however, and sent them to Bavel two years earlier - in order to avoid the fulfillment of the Pasuk ("Ki Avod Toveidun Maher ve'Hishamed Tishameidun"), which predicted their total annihilation.

(d)They build the Beis-Hamikdash ...

1. ... four hundred and eighty years after arriving in Eretz Yisrael, and ...

2. ... it was destroyed - four hundred and ten years later.

(e)Rav Acha bar Ya'akov learns from the D'rashah of "ve'Noshantem" - that when Hash-m said "Meheirah", He means eight-hundred and fifty-two years.

3)

(a)What does the Beraisa mean when, in addition to the reasons given in our Mishnah for Hash-m having created only one man, the Tana adds ...

1. ... 'she'Lo Yih'yu ha'Tadikim Omrim anu B'nei Tzadik"?

2. ... 've'ha'Resha'im Omrim, anu B'nei Rasha'?

(b)When he says 'she'Lo Yih'yu Mishpachos Misgaros Zu ba'Zu', the Tana seems to be repeating the argument of 'my father is greater than your father' mentioned in our Mishnah. But what does he mean when he adds 'Mipnei ha'Gazlanim u'Mipnei ha'Chamsanim'?

(c)But are people not guilty of that anyway?

(d)Our Mishnah refers to Hash-m's praiseworthiness in creating everyone with a different face. Why indeed, did He do that?

3)

(a)When the Beraisa, in addition to the reasons given in our Mishnah for Hash-m having created only one man, adds ...

1. ... 'she'Lo Yih'yu ha'Tzadikim Omrim anu B'nei Tzadik', the Tana means that - the Tzadikim will argue that since they are sons of a righteous man, they do not need to distance themselves from sin, since they are anyway not prone to sin.

2. ... 've'ha'Resha'im Omrim, anu B'nei Rasha', the Tana means that - the Resha'im will claim that they cannot help sinning because they are sons of a wicked man, and that there is therefore no point in doing Teshuvah.

(b)When he says 'she'Lo Yih'yu Mishpachos Misgaros Zu ba'Zu, the Tana seems to be repeating the argument of 'my father is greater than your father' mentioned in our Mishnah. And when he adds 'Mipnei ha'Gazlanim u'Mipnei ha'Chamsanim', he means that - they will steal each other's land on the pretext that it originally belonged to their respective god, and that they are merely taking it back.

(c)True, people are guilty of that crime anyway - but at least Hash-m has given them no legal argument to back up their claim.

(d)Our Mishnah refers to Hash-m's praiseworthiness in creating everyone with a different face. He did that - in order to prevent people from stealing each other's wives or property, under the pretext that they are the husband or the owner.

4)

(a)Rebbi Meir in a Beraisa, lists three things by which each person is unique. Two of them are voice and looks. What is the third?

(b)Why did He create each person with a different ...

1. ... voice and appearance?

2. ... mind?

(c)Another Beraisa lists three reasons why Hash-m did not create Adam until Erev Shabbos; one to counter the heretics, one to put the person in his place and one for his benefit. What are the three reasons?

(d)In the context of the third reason, how does the Tana interpret the Pasuk in Mishlei ...

1. ... "Chachmos Bansah Beisah"?

2. ... "Chatzvah Amudehah Shiv'ah"?

3. ... "Tavchah Tivchah, Maschah Yeinah af Archah Shulchanah"?

4. ... "Shalchah Na'arosehah (al Gapei Meromei K'ras)"?

4)

(a)Rebbi Meir in a Beraisa, lists three things by which each person is unique. Two of them are voice and looks - the third is Da'as (intelligence).

(b)He created each person with a different ...

1. ... voice and appearance - to avoid people from committing adultery, as we explained earlier.

2. ... level of intelligence - to enable them to protect their property against thieves, by outwitting them.

(c)Another Beraisa lists three reasons why Hash-m did not create Adam until Erev Shabbos - To prevent the heretics from claiming that Adam assisted Hash-m in the creation; So that man should realize how insignificant he is (considering that even a gnat preceded him in the creation), and So that he should enter the world and find everything ready for his benefit.

(d)In the context of the third reason, the Tana interprets the Pasuk in Mishlei...

1. ... "Chachmos Bansah Beisah" - with reference to Midas ha'Chochmah, with which Hash-m created the world.

2. ... "Chatzvah Amudehah Shiv'ah" - with reference to the seven days of the Creation.

3. ... "Tavchah Tivchah, Maschah Yeinah, Af Archah Shulchanah" - with reference to the earth and the rivers, all the pleasures of this world (which are compared to a laid table).

4. ... "Shalchah Na'arosehah (al Gapei Meromei K'ras)" - with reference to Adam and Chavah.

5)

(a)How does Rabah bar bar Chanah resolve the discrepancy between the Pasuk "al Gapei ... " (implying that Hash-m placed Adam in a high location) and that of "al Kisei" (implying lower down)?

(b)The Pasuk in Mishlei poses a question "Mi Pesi Yasur Heinah?". What is the question?

(c)What does it reply?

(d)What does this have to do with the Pasuk in Tehilim "No'ef Ishah Chasar Leiv"?

5)

(a)To resolve the discrepancy between the Pasuk "al Gapei ... " (implying that Hash-m placed Adam in a high location) and that of "al Kisei", Rabah bar bar Chanah explains - 'al Gapei', before he sinned, and 'al Kisei' (implying lower down), after he sinned.

(b)The Pasuk in Mishlei poses a question "Mi Pesi Yasur Heinah?" - which means 'Which fool caused Adam to approach here (the Tree of Knowledge)'?

(c)And it replies - 'The one who is lacking intelligence (the woman) told him to'.

(d)It is from the Pasuk in Tehilim "No'ef Ishah Chasar Leiv" - that we ascribe the term "Chasar Leiv" in Mishlei to Chavah (see Agados Maharsha).

6)

(a)What does Rebbi Meir in a Beraisa learn from the Pasuk "Golmi Ra'u Einecha"?

(b)What is the basis for Rav Oshaya Amar Rav saying that ...

1. ... Adam's body was made from the earth of Bavel?

2. ... his head was made from the earth in Eretz Yisrael?

3. ... his buttocks were made from Akra de'Agma? Where is Akra de'Agma?

(c)From which lands were his remaining limbs made?

6)

(a)Rebbi Meir in a Beraisa learns from the Pasuk in Tehilim "Glom Ra'u Einecha" - that Adam was created from all over the world (wherever the eyes can see),as we will now explain.

(b)The basis for Rav Oshaya Amar Rav saying that ...

1. ... Adam's body was made from the earth of Bavel is - the depth of Bavel, which indicates that Hash-m must have taken a lot of earth from there to form him.

2. ... his head was made from the earth in Eretz Yisrael is - the fact that Eretz Yisrael is both the highest and the most important of all the lands.

3. ... his buttocks were made from Ark de'Agma is - the fact that it is the deepest part of Bavel.

(c)His remaining limbs were made - from other parts of the world.

38b----------------------------------------38b

7)

(a)Rebbi Yochanan (or Rebbi Achai) bar Chanina describes what took place on each of the twelve hours of the sixth day of the Creation. If the earth from which he was made was piled up in the first hour and he became a Golem in the second, what happened in the third hour?

(b)In the fourth hour Hash-m breathed a Neshamah into him and in the fifth, he stood up. What did he do in the sixth?

(c)In the seventh hour he married Chavah, and in the ninth, he was commanded not to eat from the Eitz ha'Da'as. What happened in the eighth hour?

(d)We know that Adam was expelled from Gan Eden in the twelfth hour, but what happened in the tenth and the eleventh hours respectively?

7)

(a)Rebbi Yochanan (or Rebbi Achai) bar Chanina describes what took place on each of the twelve hours of the sixth day of the Creation. If the earth from which he was made was piled up in the first hour and he became a Golem in the second - in the third hour Hash-m formed his limbs.

(b)In the fourth hour Hash-m breathed a Neshamah into him, in the fifth, Adam stood up, and in the sixth - he named all the animals.

(c)In the seventh hour he married Chavah, in the ninth, he was commanded not to eat from the Eitz ha'Da'as whilst in the eighth hour - 'Two went to bed, and four climbed out' (Adam, Chavah, Kayin and his twin sister [see Tosfos]).

(d)We know that Adam was expelled from Gan Eden in the twelfth hour; in the tenth hour - he sinned, and in the eleventh - he was judged.

8)

(a)What do we learn from the Pasuk in Tehilim ...

1. ... "Adam bi'Yekar ve'Lo Yalin"?

2. ... "Nimshal ka'Beheimos Nidmu"?

(b)Rav Yehudah Amar Rav describes the dialogue between Hash-m and certain groups of angels. What had Hash-m just told them that elicited the comment "Mah Enosh ki Sizkerenu ... "?

(c)How did Hash-m respond to that?

(d)After the same had happened to a second group of angels, what did the third group say (after alluding to to the fate of the first two groups)?

8)

(a)From the Pasuk ...

1. ... "Adam bi'Yekar ve'Lo Yalin", we learn that - Adam did not even manage to stay one night in Gan Eden before he was expelled.

2. ... "Nimshal ka'Beheimos Nidmu", Rami bar Chama learns that - a wild animal is not able to kill a human-being, unless, on account of the person's sins, it perceives him as a wild animal.

(b)Rav Yehudah Amar Rav describes the dialogue between Hash-m and certain groups of angels. They commented "Mah Enosh ki Sizkerenu ... " after Hash-m had told them - about man's behavior. "Mah Enosh ki Sizkerenu" means that - sinning man is unworthy of being remembered (he does not deserve to be created.

(c)Hash-m responded to that - by placing His little finger among them and burning them.

(d)After the same had happened to a second group of angels, the third group (after alluding to the fate that the first two groups suffered) - replied that, since nothing came of the first two sets of angels who tried to stop Hash-m from creating man, Hash-m, who is Master of the world, should do as He sees fit.

9)

(a)And what was Hash-m's response to the angels, when they pointed to the generation of the flood and of the tower, and asked Him whether the first groups of angels were not right?

(b)What does Rav Yehudah Amar Rav learn from the Pasuk ...

1. ... in Devarim "le'Min ha'Yom asher Bara Elokim es ha'Adam al ha'Aretz u'le'Miktzei ha'Shamayim"?

2. ... in Tehilim "Achor va'Kedem Tzartani *va'Tashes alai Kapecha*"?

(c)And what does Rebbi Elazar learn from the same Pasuk in Devarim "le'Min ha'Yom Asher Bara Elokim es ha'Adam al ha'Aretz u'le'mi'Ketzei ha'Shamayim"?

(d)How do we reconcile Rav Yehudah Amar Rav with Rebbi Elazar?

9)

(a)Hash-m's response to, when the angels pointed to the generation of the flood and of the tower and asked Him whether the first groups of angels were not right, His response was that - He had the patience to wait until old age (for them to do Teshuvah - see Melo ha'Ro'im'.

(b)Rav Yehudah Amar Rav learns from the Pasuk ...

1. ... in Devarim "u'le'Miktzei ha'Shamayim ve'ad Ketzei ha'Shamayim" - that Adam ha'Rishon was as tall as the distance between one end of the world to the other".

2. ... in Tehilim "Achor va'Kedem Tzartani *va'Tashes alai Kapecha*" - that after Adam sinned, Hash-m placed His Hand on him and shrank him down to size.

(c)Rebbi Elazar learns from the same Pasuk in Tehilim "le'Min ha'Yom asher Bara Elokim es ha'Adam al ha'Aretz u'le'Miktzei ha'Shamayim" - that Adam ha'Rishon was as tall as the distance between the earth and the heaven called Raki'a.

(d)We reconcile Rav Yehudah Amar Rav with Rebbi Elazar - by equating the two distances.

10)

(a)What does Rav Yehudah Amar Rav extrapolate from the Lashon of "Yakru" in the Pasuk in Tehilim (in connection with the creation of Adam discussed earlier) "ve'Li Mah Yakru Re'echa Keil"? What does the Pasuk mean?

(b)What caused Adam to make this declaration?

(c)How does Rav Yehudah Amar Rav explain the Pasuk in Bereishis "Vayikra Hash-m Elokim el ha'Adam Vayomer lo *Ayeka*"?

(d)The Pasuk writes in Hoshe'a "ve'Heimah ke'Adam Avru *B'ris*". How does ...

1. ... Rebbi Yitzchak explain this Pasuk, based on the Pasuk in Lech-Lecha "es *B'risi* Heifar"?

2. ... Rav Nachman explains it, based on the Pasuk in Yirmiyah "Vayomru, al asher Azvu es *B'ris* Hash-m Elokei Avosam"?

10)

(a)Rav Yehudah Amar Rav extrapolates from the Lashon of "Yakru" in the Pasuk in Tehilim (in connection with the creation of Adam discussed earlier) "ve'Li Mah Yakru Re'echa Keil" ("How honored are Your friends [the Tzadikim], in my eyes, Hash-m!") - that Adam spoke Arama'ic (since 'Yakru' in this sense is of Arama'ic origin [see Agados Maharsha in Bava Basra 55b DH 'Asidin Tzadikim').

(b)Adam made this declaration - after Hash-m had shown him each subsequent generation together with its Darshanim and its Chachamim, including Rebbi Akiva, in whose Torah he rejoiced, but whose death saddened him.

(c)And Rav Yehudah Amar Rav explains the Pasuk in Bereishis "Vayikra Hash-m Elokim el ha'Adam Vayomer lo *Ayeka*" - as the acronym of 'le'An Natah Libecha' (where did your heart turn?), from which he extrapolates that Adam had leanings towards heresy (see Agados Maharsha).

(d)The Pasuk writes in Hoshe'a "ve'Heimah ke'Adam Avru *B'ris*". Based on the Pasuk ...

1. ... "es *B'risi* Heifar", Rebbi Yitzchak explains this Pasuk to mean - that Adam pulled back the skin of his B'ris Milah, to reverse the B'ris Milah (see Agados Maharsha), whereas ...

2. ... Rav Nachman, based on the Pasuk in Yirmiyahu "Vayomru, al asher Azvu es *B'ris* Hash-m Elokei Avosam", explains it to mean that - he was a Kofer ba'Ikar (that he denied Hash-m's existence).

11)

(a)Rebbi Eliezer says in Pirkei Avos that one should study Torah diligently and know what to reply to an Apikores (which generally pertains to someone who questions the value of Talmidei-Chachamim). How does Rebbi Yochanan qualify Rebbi Eliezer's statement? To whom does it not apply?

(b)What does Rebbi Yochanan say about many Pesukim in the Torah which insinuate that Hash-m spoke to His colleagues (Kevayachol)?

(c)What does the Pasuk ...

1. ... in Bereishis say to counter the Pasuk "Na'aseh Adam"?

2. ... in No'ach say to counter "Havah Nerdah *ve'Navlah* Sham Sefasam"?

3. ... in Shmuel say to counter "u'Mi ke'Amcha Yisrael Goy Echad ba'Aretz, asher Halchu Elokim ... "?

4. ... in Daniel say to counter the " ... ad di Karsin Ramayu", implying a number of thrones for a number of gods?

(d)What do we learn from the Pasuk in Daniel "bi'Gezeiras Irin Pisgama u've'Ma'amar Kadishin She'iltin" that will explain why the Torah uses the plural form in the first place?

11)

(a)Rebbi Eliezer says in Pirkei Avos that one should study Torah diligently and know what to reply to an Apikores (which generally pertains to someone who questions the value of Talmidei-Chachamim, and) which Rebbi Yochanan qualifies here - by restricting it to gentiles (because Jewish Apikorsim tend to reject answers, and even use them to strengthen their own beliefs).

(b)Rebbi Yochanan says that each of the many Pesukim in the Torah which insinuates that Hash-m spoke to His colleagues (Kevayachol) - has a counter proof (either in the form of another Pasuk close by, or from the very phrase itself), which states that Hash-m is One.

(c)To counter the Pasuk ...

1. ... in Bereishis "*Na'aseh* Adam", the Torah writes - "Va'yivra *Elokim* es ha'Adam be'Tzalmo".

2. ... in No'ach "Havah *Nerdah* ve'Navlah Sham Sefasam", the Torah states - Vayered *Hash-m* li'Re'os es ha'Ir ve'es ha'Migdal".

3. ... in Shmuel "u'Mi ke'Amcha Yisrael Goy Echad ba'Aretz asher *Halchu* Elokim ... " the Torah writes Lif'dos *Lo* le'Am" (to redeem for Himself as a nation).

4. ... in Daniel " .. ad di *Karsin* Ramayu" (implying a number of thrones for a number of gods) the Torah writes - "ve'Atik Yomin *Yasiv*" (implying that He alone sits).

(d)To explain why the Torah uses the plural form in the first place, we quote the Pasuk in Daniel "bi'Gezeiras Irin Pisgama u've'Ma'amar Kadishin She'iltin" - which teaches us that Hash-m always consults with His Heavenly Court before taking drastic action in the world.

12)

(a)How will we explain the last of the 'problematic' Pesukim ("Ad di Karsin Ramayu"), which does not fit the previous explanation? If, according to one for Hash-m and one for David Hamelech, what is the significance of the "thrones", according to Rebbi Yossi ha'Gelili?

(b)On what grounds does he object to Rebbi Akiva's explanation?

(c)How do we know that Rebbi Akiva accepted Rebbi Yossi ha'Gelili's explanation?

(d)Rebbi Elazar ben Azarya disagrees however. How does *he* explain the two thrones?

(e)What did he advise Rebbi Akiva to do?

12)

(a)The last of the 'problematic' Pesukim ("ad di Karsin Ramayu") does not fit the previous explanation. The significance of the "thrones", according to Rebbi Akiva is one for Hash-m and one for David Hamelech; according to Rebbi Yossi ha'Gelili - one throne is for Din and one for Tzedakah (Rachamim).

(b)He objects to Rebbi Akiva's explanation - because he does not like the concept of placing a human-being on a par with Hash-m [Kevayachol]

(c)We know that Rebbi Akiva accepted Rebbi Yossi ha'Gelili's explanation - because that is how he himself subsequently explains the Pasuk in a Beraisa.

(d)Rebbi Elazar ben Azarya disagrees however. In his opinion - one of the thrones was for sitting on, the other, for use as a footstool.

(e)And he advised Rebbi Akiva to stick to Nega'im and Ohalos, and to leave Agadah to those who were competent at it.

13)

(a)What did Rav Nachman say in connection with Rav Idis?

(b)How did Rav Idis answer a heretic who asked him why Hash-m said to Moshe (in Parshas Mishpatim) "Aleih el Hash-m", instead of "Aleih Elai"?

(c)And what did he reply when the heretic asked ...

1. ... why we do not then worship him?

2. ... that if, as the Torah specifically writes, Matatron is not even able to forgive our sins, then of what use is he?

13)

(a)Rav Nachman said that - unless someone is able to counter the heretics like Rav Idis, he is better off desisting.

(b)When a heretic asked Rav Idis why Hash-m said to Moshe "Aleih el Hash-m", instead of "Aleih Elai", he replied that - in fact, it was not Hash-m himself who was speaking, but the Angel (the great Sofer) Matatron, whose numerical value equals that of his Master (314, the numerical value of Shakai).

(c)When the heretic asked Rav Idis ...

1. ... why we do not then worship him - he cited him the Pasuk "Al Tamer bo" (Do not confuse Me with him).

2. ... that if, as the Torah specifically writes, Matatron is not even able to forgive our sins, then of what use is he he replied that - indeed, that is why Moshe rejected him as a Shali'ach (insisting that Hash-m accompany Yisrael to Eretz Yisrael, and not Matatron).

14)

(a)What did a certain laundry-man answer the heretic who asked Rebbi Yishmael b'Rebbi Yossi why the Torah writes "va'Hashem Himtir al S'dom ... me'es Hash-m" (and not "me'Iti")?

(b)As a precedent, he cited a Pasuk in Bereishis. What did Lemech say there to his wives in this vein?

(c)The laundry-man claimed that he had heard the above answer from a D'rashah by Rebbi Meir. According to Rebbi Yochanan, how would Rebbi Meir divide his D'rashos into three?

14)

(a)When a certain heretic asked Rebbi Yishmael b'Rebbi Yossi why the Torah writes "va'Hashem Himtir al S'dom ... me'es Hash-m" (and not "me'Iti") a laundry-man answered that - this it is the way of the Torah to write like that.

(b)As a precedent, he cited a Pasuk in Bereishis - where Lemech said to his wives "Neshei Lemech, Ha'azenah Imrasi" (instead of "Nashai").

(c)The laudry-man claimed that he had heard the above answer from a D'rashah by Rebbi Meir, who, according to Rebbi Yochanan, would divide his D'rashos into three - Halachah, Agadah and Meshalim (parables).

15)

(a)How many parables about foxes did Rebbi Meir have up his sleeve? How many of them remain with us?

(b)What does Yechezkel ha'Navi mean when he says "Avos Yochlu Boser, ve'Shinei Banim Tichhenah"?

(c)The second parable is the Pasuk in Acharei-Mos "Moznei Tzedek Avnei Tzedek". The third, a Pasuk in Mishlei, begins "Tzadik mi'Tzarah Nechlatz". How does it end?

15)

(a)Rebbi Meir had - three hundred parables about foxes up his sleeve, of which only three remain with us (though all three are actually part of one story, as we shall now see).

(b)When Yechezkel ha'Navi says "Avos Yochlu Boser (unripe grapes), ve'Shinei Banim Tichhenah" (the first parable), he means that - sometimes children's teeth hurt because their fathers ate unripe grapes (which can also be meant as a rhetorical question).

(c)The second parable lies in the Pasuk "Moznei Tzedek Avnei Tzedek" (see Agados Maharsha). The third, which begins "Tzadik mi'Tzarah Nechlatz" - ends "ve'Yavo Rasha Tachtav".

16)

(a)What happened after the wolf followed the fox's advice and offered to help the Jews to prepare for Shabbos and then join them at the Shabbos-table? How did the Jews react to his request?

(b)Why did the fox then quote the Pasuk in Yechezkel "Avos Yochlu Boser ve'Shinei Banim Tichhenah"?

(c)How did the fox then convince the wolf to enter the second bucket to lower himself into the well? What was the significance of the cheese?

(d)What is the Mashal that lies in the Pasuk "Moznei Tzedek Avnei Tzedek"? What was the significance of the two stones (See Agados Maharsha)?

(e)Why did he finally quote the Pasuk in Mishlei "Tzadik mi'Tzarah Nechlatz, Vayavo Rasha Tachtav"? Who were the Tzadik and the Rasha respectively?

16)

(a)When the wolf followed the fox's advice and offered to help the Jews to prepare for Shabbos and then join them at the Shabbos-table - they chased him out with sticks.

(b)When the fuming wolf then went to kill the fox, he explained that they reacted in that way because his father once did likewise and prompmtly ate the entire Se'udah, quoting him the Pasuk "Avos Yochlu Boser ... " - in answer to the wolf's question as to why he should suffer for his father's sins.

(c)The fox then convinced the wolf to enter the second bucket - by entering the first one and descending into the well, and then pointing to the image of the moon in the well, telling the wolf that there was cheese in the well and meat too.

(d)The Pasuk "Moznei Tzedek Avnei Tzedek" - represents the two stones (each one heavier than himself) that the fox placed, one in each bucket, which he did in case the wolf declined t descend, in which case he would he would be left alone in the well. If that happened, he had only to discard the stone in his bucket and rise to the top.

(e)And finally he quoted the Pasuk in Mishlei "Tzadik mi'Tzarah Nechlatz Vayavo Rasha Tachtav" by which he meant - that he (the Tzadik) was saved and the wolf (the Rasha) took his place.

OTHER D.A.F. RESOURCES ON THIS DAF