1)

(a)Why does the Beraisa forbid the declaration of a leap-year in times of famine?

(b)What is special about the fruit that grows in the vicinity of Ba'al Shalishah?

(c)What can we therefore extrapolate from the Pasuk in Melachim, which informs us that a man from Ba'al Shalishah brought Elisha twenty barley loaves?

(d)How do we know that this episode took place after the Omer had been brought (on the second day of Pesach)?

(e)So what does Rebbi in a Beraisa prove from there?

1)

(a)The Beraisa forbids the declaration of a leap-year in times of famine - because there is no produce left from the previous year, and the people need to eat Chadash (the new corn) immediately.

(b)The fruit that grows in the vicinity of Ba'al Shalishah is special - inasmuch as it is generally the first in the country to ripen.

(c)We can therefore extrapolate from the Pasuk in Melachim, which informs us that a man from Ba'al Shalishah brought Elisha twenty barley loaves and nothing else - that a famine was in effect at that time.

(d)This episode must have taken place after the Omer had been brought (on the second day of Pesach) - because the Navi instructed the man to give the loaves to the people to eat (which would have been forbidden had it not).

(e)Rebbi in a Beraisa therefore proves from there - the prohibition of fixing a leap-year in times of famine (otherwise they ought to have fixed a leap-year due to 'Aviv').

2)

(a)What will be the Din if Beis-Din declares a leap-year before Rosh Hashanah?

(b)We question this from a Beraisa however. Which town is the Tana referring to when he mentions 'Rekes'?

(c)What happened to the pair of witnesses that was sent from Teverya to Bavel?

(d)What were they bringing with them that was made in Luz?

2)

(a)If Beis-Din declare a leap-year before Rosh Hashanah - their declaration is invalid.

(b)We question this from a Beraisa however. When the Tana mentions 'Rekes', he is referring to - Teverya.

(c)The pair of witnesses that was sent from Teverya to Bavel - was arrested by the ruling power (the Persians).

(d)They were bringing with them - Techeiles for Tzitzis, that was made in Luz.

3)

(a)When they were eventually set free, they told Rava about the Amusei Yereichei Nachshon who tried to fix a Netziv, but who were prevented by the ruling power. Who were the 'Amusei Yereichei Nachshon'?

(b)What is a 'Netziv' in this context?

(c)How do we learn this from the Pasuk in Melachim "ve'li'Sh'lomoh Sh'neim-Asar *Netzivim* ve'Chilk'lu es ha'Melech"? What does "Netzivim" mean there?

(d)Rav Yehudah and Rav Nachman argue over the meaning of the word "Netziv" (in the continuation of the Pasuk "u'Netziv Echad asher ba'Aretz". According to one of them, it refers to the commissioner who served during the extra month of a leap-year. What does the other one say?

3)

(a)When they were eventually set free, they told Rava about the Amusei Yereichei Nachshon who tried to fix a Netziv, but who were prevented by the ruling power. 'Amusei Yereichei Nachshon' were - the Nesi'im in Eretz Yisrael, who were descendants of Nachshon ben Aminadav.

(b)A 'Netziv' in this context - is a month (specifically the month of Adar Sheini).

(c)We learn this from the Pasuk "ve'li'Sh'lomoh Sh'neim-Asar *Netzivim* ve'Chilk'lu es ha'Melech" (where "Netzivim" means 'a commissioner') - because the Pasuk goes on to explain that each commissioner served for one month in the year (to provide for the King and his vast household).

(d)Rav Yehudah and Rav Nachman argue over the meaning of the word "Netziv" (in the continuation of the Pasuk "u'Netziv Echad Asher ba'Aretz". According to one of them, it refers to the commissioner who served during the extra month of a leap-year. According to the other one, it is referring to - the chief commissioner, who was in charge of the entire operation.

4)

(a)What problem did the Beis-Din in Teverya initially have with fixing a leap-year?

(b)What did they nevertheless manage to achieve? What is meant by the month in which Aharon died?

(c)How do we reconcile this with the above Beraisa, which forbids fixing a leap-year before Rosh Hashanah?

(d)What is then the reason for the prohibition?

(e)If Beis-Din do declare a leap-year immediately after Rosh Hashanah, will it affect the month that they add? Might they for example, fix a second Kislev?

4)

(a)The problem the Beis-Din in Teverya initially had with fixing a leap-year was - that the Persians strictly forbade them to do so.

(b)What they eventually managed to achieve was - to fix the coming year a leap-year in the month in which Aharon died (Menachem Av, see Agados Maharsha).

(c)We reconcile this with the Beraisa, which forbids fixing a leap-year before Rosh Hashanah - by confining the prohibition to announcing the decision to the people ...

(d)... because the reason for the prohibition is that it is still too early in the year, and the people will most likely forget by the time Nisan arrives). That being the case, Beis-Din were permitted to fix a leap-year at any time, as long as they did not announce their decision until after Rosh Hashanah.

(e)If Beis-Din do in fact, declare a leap-year immediately after Rosh Hashanah - it will not affect the month that they add, which is always Adar Sheini (and not Kislev or any other month).

5)

(a)What does the Beraisa say about Beis-Din declaring this year a leap-year in anticipation of next year's problems?

(b)Why does the Tana not permit them to fix three consecutive leap-years in one sitting?

(c)How do the Rabbanan refute Rebbi Shimon's Kashya from Rebbi Akiva, who did just that?

5)

(a)The Beraisa - forbids Beis-Din to declare this year a leap-year in anticipation of next year's problems.

(b)Neither does the Tana permit them to fix three consecutive leap-years in one sitting - because it will throw the months out of gear, eventually causing Pesach to occur in the summer.

(c)The Rabbanan refute Rebbi Shimon's Kashya from Rebbi Akiva, who did just that - by adding that Rebbi Akiva only made the reckoning, but it was the Beis-Din who subsequently fixed each year in its time.

6)

(a)On what grounds does another Beraisa forbid fixing a leap-year in ...

1. ... the Sh'mitah-year?

2. ... the year following the Sh'mitah?

(b)Why was it customary to fix it in the year prior to the Sh'mitah?

(c)Why does Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel disagree with the middle statement of the Tana Kama?

(d)This Machlokes is equivalent to another Machlokes Tana'im in a Beraisa. The Tana Kama there forbids bringing vegetables from Chutz la'Aretz into Eretz Yisrael. What do 'Raboseinu' say?

(e)What is the basis of the Machlokes?

6)

(a)Another Beraisa forbids fixing a leap-year in ...

1. ... the Sh'mitah-year - because it adds a month to the year, at a time when tilling the land is prohibited, creating hardship for the people.

2. ... the year following the Sh'mitah - because it adds a month to the prohibition of Chadash, when the people need to have access to the new crops as soon as possible.

(b)It was however, customary to fix it in the year prior to the Sh'mitah - because then it would extend the year during which working the land is permitted by one month.

(c)Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel disagrees with the middle statement of the Tana Kama - because, he maintains, there is no problem with importing vegetables and produce from the neighboring countries.

(d)This Machlokes is equivalent to another Machlokes Tana'im in a Beraisa - where the Tana Kama forbids bringing vegetables from Chutz la'Aretz into Eretz Yisrael. 'Raboseinu' - permit it.

(e)The basis of their Machlokes is - whether we contend with the fear that one brings them with the earth still attached to them (which is Metamei be'Ohel [or at least through touching or carrying, see Tosfos DH 'Chosheshin']), or not.

7)

(a)The Tana Kama forbids Beis-Din to declare a leap-year because of Tum'ah. What does Rebbi Yehudah say?

(b)Rebbi Yehudah then relates how Chizkiyahu King of Yehudah fixed a leap-year because Yisrael were Tamei. What kind of Tum'ah is he referring to?

(c)What made them all decide to purify themselves?

(d)So why did he declare a leap-year?

(e)Then why was he sorry for having done so (as is evident from a Pasuk in Divrei ha'Yamim)?

7)

(a)The Tana Kama forbids Beis-Din to declare a leap-year because of Tum'ah, meaning that - either the Nasi is very ill and the doctors assess that he will die on Erev Pesach (bearing in mind that the whole of Yisrael are obligated to bury him), or that most of Yisrael are Tamei from before, and they have run out of ashes of the Parah Adumah. Rebbi Yehudah holds - that one may.

(b)Rebbi Yehudah then relates how Chizkiyahu King of Yehudah fixed a leap-year because Yisrael were Tamei - through contact with Avodah-Zarah (which Chazal gave the Din of a corpse), which they had made during the reign of Chizkiyahu's father Achaz.

(c)They all decided to purify themselves - after Chizkiyahu encouraged them to do Teshuvah.

(d)He declared a leap-year - because he was afraid that all of them would manage to arrive in Yerushalayim in time to bring the Korban Pesach.

(e)He was sorry for having done so (as is evident from a Pasuk in Divrei ha'Yamim - because he reconsidered having declared a leap-year because of Tum'ah (though this creates a seeming discrepancy in Rebbi Yehudah, as we shall see later).

12b----------------------------------------12b

8)

(a)Rebbi Shimon maintains that had Chizkiyahu declared a leap-year because of Tum'ah, it would have been valid. On what grounds did he express regret according to ...

1. ... Rebbi Shimon?

2. ... Rebbi Shimon ben Yehudah in the name of Rebbi Shimon?

(b)On what basis does ...

1. ... the Tana Kama hold 'Ein Me'abrin es ha'Shanah Mipnei ha' Tumah?

2. ... Rebbi Yehudah hold 'Me'abrin'?

8)

(a)Rebbi Shimon maintains that, had Chizkiyahu declared a leap-year because of Tum'ah, it would have been valid. The reason that he expressed regret according to ...

1. ... Rebbi Shimon is - because he fixed Nisan in Nisan.

2. ... Rebbi Shimon ben Yehudah in the name of Rebbi Shimon is - because he caused them to bring a Pesach Sheini (all four opinion will now be explained).

(b)The reason that ...

1. ... Tana Kama holds 'Ein Me'abrin es ha'Shanah Mipnei ha' Tumah is - on account of the principle 'Tum'ah Hutrah be'Tzibur' ('a Korban Tzibur overrides communal Tum'ah, Lechatchilah').

2. ... Rebbi Yehudah holds 'Me'abrin' is - because in his opinion, 'Tum'ah Dechuyah be'Tzibur' (communal Tum'ah is only permitted Bedieved, if it cannot be avoided), but not Lachatchilah.

9)

(a)Rebbi Shimon maintains that the Tzitz (the golden ornament that the Kohen Gadol wore across his forehead, atoned whether he was wearing it or not. What does Rebbi Yehudah say about that?

(b)Rebbi Shimon queried Rebbi Yehudah from Yom Kipur. How did he know that the Kohen Gadol did not wear the Tzitz on Yom Kipur?

(c)What did Rebbi Yehudah reply?

(d)What problem does this create regarding Rebbi Yehudah's earlier statement?

(e)We answer by first pointing out that Rebbi Yehudah contradicts himself even without the second Beraisa. How does he do that?

9)

(a)Rebbi Shimon maintains that the Tzitz (the golden ornament that the Kohen Gadol wore across his forehead), atoned whether he was wearing it or not. According to Rebbi Yehudah - it only atoned whilst he was actually wearing it.

(b)Rebbi Shimon queried Rebbi Yehudah from Yom Kipur - since there were times when he wore only the four white garments, which did not include the Tzitz (yet it atoned).

(c)Rebbi Yehudah replied - that Yom Kipur was different, in that it concerned the communal Avodah, where 'Tum'ah Hutrah be'Tzibur', and does not therefore require the Tzitz to atone for it.

(d)This creates a problem with Rebbi Yehudah's earlier statement 'Tum'ah Dechuyah be'Tzibur'.

(e)We answer by first pointing out that Rebbi Yehudah contradicts himself even without the second Beraisa - since first he ruled 'Me'abrin' (even Lechatchilah), because he held 'Tum'ah Dechuyah be'Tzibur', and then he explained that Chizkiyahu begged forgiveness for declaring a leap-year on account of Tum'ah (as if it was not necessary because 'Tum'ah Hutrah be'Tzibur').

10)

(a)So how do we amend the first Beraisa ('Ein Me'abrin es ha'Shanah Mipnei ha'Tum'ah; Rebbi Yehudah Omer, Me'abrin')?

(b)How does this resolve both discrepancies in one stroke?

(c)How does Rava then reconcile the opinion of the Tana Kama ('Ein Me'abrin ... ') with that of Rebbi Shimon ('Im Mipnei ha'Tum'ah Ibruhah, Me'uberes'), who seems to be saying the same thing?

10)

(a)So we amend the first Beraisa ('Ein Me'abrin es ha'Shanah Mipnei ha'Tum'ah; Rebbi Yehudah Omer, Me'abrin'), to read - 'Ein Me'abrin es ha'Shanah Mipnei ha'Tum'ah, ve'Im Ibrah Me'uberes. Rebbi Yehudah Omer, Einah Me'uberes' ...

(b)... because he holds - that Tum'ah be'Tzibur is Hutrah, and does not require Ibur Shanah (thereby resolving both discrepancies in one stroke).

(c)Rava reconciles the opinion of the Tana Kama ('Ein Me'abrin ... ') with that of Rebbi Shimon ('Im Mipnei ha'Tum'ah Ibruhah, Me'uberes') - by establishing Rebbi Shimon as 'Lechatchilah', whereas the Tana Kama permits it only Bedieved, as he specifically says.

11)

(a)According to Rebbi Shimon, Chizkiyahu was sorry for declaring Nisan in Nisan, as we explained. We have a problem with that however, from the Pasuk in Bo "ha'Chodesh ha'Zeh lachem". What do we Darshen from there that poses a Kashya on Chizkiyahu's initial ruling?

(b)And we answer this with a statement by Shmuel. What did Shmuel say about declaring a leap-year on the thirtieth of Adar?

(c)How do we know that this is indeed what Rebbi Shimon holds?

(d)Rav Asi establishes Rebbi Shimon b'Rebbi Yehudah Amar Rebbi Shimon (that Chizkiyahu was sorry for having caused the people to bring a Pesach Sheini) - when half of Yisrael were Tamei and half were Tahor, and women supplemented the half that were Tahor, to make them a majority. What did Chizkiyahu hold ...

1. ... initially?

2. ... finally?

11)

(a)According to Rebbi Shimon, Chizkiyahu was sorry for declaring Nisan in Nisan, as we explained. We have a problem with this however, from the Pasuk in Bo however, "ha'Chodesh *ha'Zeh* Lachem" - which teaches us that Beis-Din may not declare a leap-year once Nisan arrives (posing a Kashya on Chizkiyahu's initial ruling).

(b)And we answer this with a statement by Shmuel- who forbids declaring a leap-year even on the thirtieth of Adar (since it is fit to become Nisan), which is what Chizkiyahu initially did.

(c)And we know that this is indeed what Rebbi Shimon holds - because we have the support of a Beraisa.

(d)Rav Asi establishes Rebbi Shimon b'Rebbi Yehudah Amar Rebbi Shimon (that Chizkiyahu was sorry for having caused the people to bring a Pesach Sheini) - when the majority of Yisrael were Tamei and a minority, Tahor, and women supplemented the Tehorim, turning it into a majority. Chizkiyahu held ...

1. ... initially - that women are obligated to bring a Korban Pesach. Consequently, they made up the majority of Tehorim, in which case the minority of Temei'im would not have been permitted to bring the Pesach Rishon (only the Pesach Sheini).

2. ... finally that - they are not, in which case the majority of Tamei men would have brought the Korban Pesach anyway, in which case it was unnecessary to declare a leap-year.

12)

(a)What does Ula say about sanctifying Adar Sheini, in the event that Beis-Din declared a leap-year on the thirtieth of Adar?

(b)According to Rava, if they did, the Kidush is void. What does Rav Nachman say?

12)

(a)In the event that Beis-Din declared a leap-year on the thirtieth of Adar - Ula rules that they are not permitted to then sanctify the following month as Adar Sheini.

(b)According to Rava, if they did, the Kidush is void - whereas Rav Nachman holds Bedi'eved 'Me'ubar u'Mekudash'.

13)

(a)According to Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, one starts to ask and to Darshen about Hilchos Pesach two weeks before Pesach. What does the Tana Kama say?

(b)What did this prompt Rava to ask Rav Nachman concerning the previous Halachah? What was his concern regarding eating Chametz on Pesach?

(c)What did Rav Nachman's reply?

13)

(a)According to Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, one starts to ask and to Darshen about Hilchos Pesach two weeks before Pesach. The Tana Kama maintains - on Purim (thirty days before).

(b)This prompted Rava to ask Rav Nachman - how Beis-Din can possibly declare a leap-year after that time. Seeing as the people have already heard D'rashos and asked She'eilos concerning Pesach, why are we not afraid that they will not take Beis-Din's declaration seriously, and will therefore come to eat Chametz on Pesach.

(c)Rav Nachman's replied that - people know that leap-years are dependent upon a discrepancy between the sun year and the moon year (as we explained earlier), and they realize that sometimes, Beis-Din are not aware of the discrepancy until the last minute.

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