1)

(a)Why did Rabban Gamliel (ha'Zaken - see Rashash) ask for one of the eight judges that he found in his attic to leave?

(b)Who got up to leave? How did he explain his presence?

(c)What did Rabban Gamliel respond to that?

(d)Since Shmuel ha'Katan was not really the culprit, why did he make out that he was?

1)

(a)Rabban Gamliel (ha'Zaken - see Rashash) asked for one of the eight judges that he found in his attic, to leave - because he had not been invited, and only judges who were specifically invited are permitted to participate in Ibur Shanah.

(b)Shmuel ha'Katan got up to leave on the pretext that - he had only entered in the first place in order to learn the procedure of Ibur Shanah.

(c)Rabban Gamliel responded - by telling him to sit down, since he was really worthy of sanctifying all the leap-years, only as a matter of principle, only those who were invited were allowed to participate.

(d)Shmuel ha'Katan was not really the culprit, and he made out that he was - in order to spare the true culprit embarrassment.

2)

(a)What similar incident occurred in connection with Rebbi?

(b)Who volunteered there to leave the room?

(c)What did Rebbi Chiya reply when, on the following day, Rebbi Shimon b'Rebbi asked him whether he was really the one to have upset his father?

2)

(a)A similar incident occurred in connection with Rebbi - when someone entered the Beis-Hamedrash smelling of garlic.

(b)There, it was - Rebbi Chiya who volunteered to leave the room.

(c)When, on the following day, Rebbi Shimon b'Rebbi asked Rebbi Chiya whether he was really the one who had upset his father, he replied - 'Chas ve'Shalom! Lo Tehei ke'Zos be'Yisrael!' (see Agados Maharsha).

3)

(a)Rebbi Chiya learned this Midah from Rebbi Meir. What did Rebbi Meir do when a woman came to his Beis-Hamedrash, claiming that one of the Rabbis had betrothed her with Bi'ah?

(b)What ending do this episode and the previous one both have in common?

(c)From whom did Rebbi Meir learn that?

(d)Shmuel ha'Katan in turn, learned it from Shechanyah ben Yechiel. What did the latter say to Ezra, that served as an example for all those subsequent generations?

(e)Some say that Shechanyah ben Yechiel learned it from Yehoshua bin Nun, others, that he learned it from Moshe. What did Hash-m say to ...

1. ... Yehoshua, when He informed him that Yisrael had sinned, and Yehoshua asked Him who (causing thirty-six people to fall at the battle of Ai)?

2. ... Moshe, after some people had gone to gather Manna on Shabbos?

3)

(a)Rebbi Chiya learned this Midah from Rebbi Meir, who, when a woman came to Rebbi Meir's Beis-Hamedrash, claiming that one of the Rabbis had betrothed her with Bi'ah - promptly wrote her a Get.

(b)The ending that both this episode and the previous one have in common is - that in both cases, everyone present took their cue from Rebbi Chiya and Rebbi Meir respectively, and did likewise.

(c)Rebbi Meir learned that - from Shmuel ha'Katan.

(d)Shmuel ha'Katan in turn, learned it from Shechanyah ben Yechiel, who said to Ezra - that they (including himself) had dealt falsely with Hash-m, and had married gentile wives, even though he personally had not done so.

(e)Some say that Shechanyah ben Yechiel learnt it from Yehoshua bin Nun, others, that he learnt it from Moshe. Hash-m said to ...

1. ... Yehoshua (after having informed him that Yisrael had sinned [causing thirty-six people to fall at the battle of Ai], and Yehoshua had asked Him who) - that He could not reply to his question, because it was Lashon ha'Ra. He therefore preferred to say 'Yisrael sinned' (even though most of them had not).

2. ... Moshe, after some people had gone to gather Manna on Shabbos - "Until when will you (including Moshe) refuse to obey the Mitzvos?"

4)

(a)What level of communication did Hash-m employ to communicate with Yisrael after the death of the last prophets?

(b)Who were the last prophets? When did they live?

(c)To whom was the Bas-Kol referring when it declared in the attic of Beis Guryah in Yericho that he was worthy of the Shechinah resting on him, only the generation was not?

(d)How did they eulogize him when he died? Whose disciple did they describe him as?

4)

(a)After the last prophets died, the level of communication that Hash-m employed to communicate with Yisrael was - that of a Bas-Kol (a Heavenly Voice).

(b)The last prophets were - Chagai, Zecharyah and Malachi, who were members of the Anshei K'neses ha'Gedolah at the beginning of the second Beis-Hamikdash.

(c)When the Bas-Kol declared in the attic of Beis Guryah in Yericho that he was worthy of the Shechinah resting on him like Moshe Rabeinu (see Agados Maharsha), only the generation was not it was referring to - Hillel ha'Zakein.

(d)When he died, they eulogized him as - 'Hei Anav, Hei Chasid, Talmido shel Ezra'.

5)

(a)To whom did a very similar set of experiences occur, which began in the attic in Yavneh? Whose disciple did they describe him as?

(b)What did the latter prophesy would happen to ...

1. ... Shimon and Yishmael? Who were they?

2. ... their colleagues? To whom does this refer?

3. ... the nation of Yisrael?

4. ... the rest of the world?

(c)They intended to eulogize Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava in the same way as theyy eulogized Hillel and Shmuel ha'Katan. Then why didn't they?

5)

(a)A very similar set of experiences, which began in the attic in Yavneh, occurred with - Shmuel ha'Katan, whom they described as a disciple of Hillel.

(b)The latter prophesied that ...

1. ... Shimon (Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel) and Yishmael (Rebbi Yishmael Kohen Gadol) - would die by the sword.

2. ... their colleagues - (such as Rebbi Akiva, whose skin was torn from his body with iron combs, and Rebbi Chananya ben T'radyon, who was burned to death) would be murdered (see Agados Maharsha, though his explanation does not seem to conform to the cruel death suffered by Rebbi Yishmael).

3. ... the people of Yisrael - would be taken as spoil.

4. ... the rest of the world - would undergo much suffering.

(c)They intended to eulogize Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava in the same way as theyy eulogized Hillel and Shmuel ha'Katan. They did not do so however - because he was one of the ten martyrs, and one does not eulogize a martyr (who needs to be buried quickly and clandestinely, to avoid reprisals).

6)

(a)Under what condition (with whose consent) does the Beraisa permit the Beis-Din to declare a leap year?

(b)The Tana supports this from an episode with Rabban Gamliel, who happened to be in Syria when the Beis-Din decided to declare a leap year. What was he doing there?

(c)What was the outcome of that episode?

6)

(a)The Beraisa permits the Beis-Din to declare a leap year - only with the Nasi's consent.

(b)The Tana supports this from an episode with Rabban Gamliel who happened to be in Syria - (in order to discuss communal matters), when the Beis-Din decided to declare a leap year.

(c)The outcome of that episode was - that Beis-Din had indeed decided to fix a leap-year only on condition that Rabban Gamliel consented, which he did upon his return. Consequently, that year automatically turned out to be a leap-year.

7)

(a)Three of the four reasons for declaring a leap-year liste by the Beraisa are: because of the roads, the bridges and the Pesach-ovens. What is the common factor that connects all three?

(b)What is the fourth reason?

(c)Why can one not declare a leap-year because of snow or the cold?

(d)What third reason does the Tana add to the latter list?

7)

(a)Three of the four reasons for declaring a leap-year liste by the Beraisa are: because of the roads, the bridges and the Pesach-ovens, all of which are due to the fact that - it is because of the delay caused by the rain spoiling them that the year is being extended.

(b)The fourth reason is - the fact that the Galuyos have already left for Eretz Yisrael, but have not yet arrived in time for Pesach.

(c)One cannot however, declare a leap-year because of snow or the cold - because cold and snow will not prevent people from coming.

(d)The third reason the Tana adds to the latter list is - because the Galuyos have not even set out yet on the journey to Eretz Yisrael.

8)

(a)Another Beraisa does not permit declaring a leap-year because the kid-goats and the lambs are still very young, or because the pigeons are as yet unable to fly. What is the significance of the tender age of ...

1. ... the kids and the lambs?

2. ... the inability of the pigeons to fly?

(b)Then why are these reasons not sufficient to warrant a leap-year?

(c)How does the Tana qualify this ruling?

8)

(a)Another Beraisa does not permit declaring a leap-year because the kid-goats and the lambs are still very young, or because the pigeons are as yet unable to fly. The significance of the tender age of ...

1. ... the kids and the lambs is the fact that - they are needed for the Korban Pesach, and it would be preferable to wait until they have grown.

2. ... the inability of the pigeons to fly is the fact that - anyone who has to bring a bird-offering, such as a woman who gave birth or a Zav (who would normally take advantage of the pilgrimage to Yerushalayim to fulfill their obligation) is obligated to bring grown-up pigeons.

(b)These reasons are not sufficient to warrant a leap-year however - because it is possible to bring a Korban Pesach from the smallest kid or lamb, as long as it is more than seven days old; and as for the pigeon, one always has the option of bringing young doves, which are equally eligible to be brought as a Korban.

(c)Nevertheless, the Tana qualifies this ruling - by permitting any of those reasons as a back-up for one of the main reasons, which will be discussed shortly.

9)

(a)We cite Rebbi Yanai in the name of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel in a Beraisa who elaborates on this point. What additional reason did the latter have to declare a leap-year, besides the fact that Pesach falls out of season?

(b)In another Beraisa, the Tana Kama gives the length of Adar Sheini as thirty days. What does Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel say?

(c)How do we reconcile this with his own opinion in the previous Beraisa, where he himself concluded that they added thirty days?

9)

(a)We cite Rebbi Yanai in the name of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel in a Beraisa who elaborates on the previous point. Besides the fact that Pesach falls out of season - he used the fact that the pigeons were not yet able to fly, to declare a leap-year.

(b)In another Beraisa, the Tana Kama gives the length of Adar Sheini as thirty days. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says - 'a month', which means twenty-nine days.

(c)We reconcile this with his own opinion in the previous Beraisa, where he himself concludes that he and his Beis-Din once added thirty days - by interpreting the Tana Kama of the latter Beraisa to mean specifically thirty days, whilst Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel maintains even twenty-nine days (should the Beis-Din so wish).

11b----------------------------------------11b

10)

(a)The Beraisa refers to Rabban Gamliel (of Yavneh) as 'Tekifa'i Kadma'i' (the early tough one) because of his tough handling of Rebbi Yehoshua (in B'rachos and elsewhere). To whom does he refer as 'Invesani Basra'i' (the latter humble one)?

(b)What did Rabban Gamliel instruct Yochanan the Sofer to write (on a scroll) ...

1. ... to 'our brothers of the upper and the lower Galilee' - (in connection with Ma'asering the olives).

2. ... to 'our brothers in the south' (in connection with Ma'asering the corn)?

3. ... to 'our brothers in Galus' (in connection with the young pigeons and lambs)?

(c)Why did Rabban Gamliel choose to inform the three groups of people that he did, specifically about olives, grapes and the Ibur respectively?

10)

(a)The Beraisa refers to Rabban Gamliel (of Yavneh) as 'Tekifa'i Kadma'i' (the early tough one) because of his tough handling of Rebbi Yehoshua (in B'rachos and elsewhere). 'Invesani Basra'i' refers to - Rabban Gamliel's son Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel (whom we just quoted).

(b)Rabban Gamliel instructed Yochanan the Sofer to write (on a scroll) ...

1. ... to 'our brothers of the upper and the lower Galilee' that - the time for Biy'ur Ma'asros (getting rid of all the Ma'asros [Rishon, Sheini and Ani) of the olives (in the fourth year [see Rashash]) had arrived.

2. ... to 'our brothers in the south' that - the time for Biy'ur Ma'asros of the corn (in the fourth year) had arrived.

3. ... to 'our brothers in Galus' that - the pigeons and lambs were young, and that although Pesach was imminent, spring had not yet arrived, so he and his colleagues had decided to extend the year by adding Adar Sheini (consisting of thirty days).

(c)Rabban Gamliel chose to inform the three groups of people that he did, specifically about olives, grapes and the Ibur respectively - because olives grew in abundance in the north and corn in the south, whereas it was the people who lived in Galus, far away from Yerushalayim, who needed to be informed that that year had been declared a leap-year.

11)

(a)What did the Tana find commendable about Rabban Gamliel's choice of words? What did he say that his son (at the foot of the previous Amud) did not, that elicited the Tana's distinction between the 'tough father' and 'the humble son'?

(b)How do we modify the Tana's statement? Why is his distinction not so clear-cut?

11)

(a)The Tana commended Rabban Gamliel - for adding the words 'I and my colleagues' (which is a sign of humility). Rabban Shimon, his son, on the other hand (in spite of his tremendous humility, did not incorporate his colleagues in his decision. And that is what elicited the Tana's distinction between the 'tough father' and the 'humble son'.

(b)We modify the Tana's statement however - by suggesting that perhaps Rabban Gamliel's statement was made after he had been deposed, and his toughness had dissipated.

12)

(a)Two of the three things listed by the Beraisa for which Beis-Din declare a leap-year (see Tosfos ha'Rosh) are 'al ha'Aviv' and 'al Peiros ha'Ilan'. What is the third?

(b)What is the meaning of ...

1. ... 'al ha'Aviv'?

2. ... 'al Peiros ha'Ilan'?

3. ... 'al ha'Tekufah'?

(c)Why can the reason for 'al ha'Aviv' not be because then they will not have fresh barley with which to bring the Omer?

(d)On what condition will Beis-Din declare a leap-year for the above-mentoned reasons?

(e)Why was everybody happy if one of the reasons was ...

1. ... 'Aviv'?

2. ... 'Tekufah"?

12)

(a)The Beraisa lists three things for which Beis-Din declare a leap-year: 'al ha'Aviv al Peiros ha'Ilan ve'al ha'Tekufah' (see Tosfos ha'Rosh).

(b)The meaning of ...

1. ... 'al ha'Aviv' is that - the corn has not yet ripened by the time Nisan arrives, and the Torah writes (in Parshas Bo, in connection with Pesach) "be'Chodesh ha'Aviv".

2. ... 'al Peiros ha'Ilan' that - the fruit has not ripened by the time Sivan arrives, and the Torah refers to Shavu'os as 'Chag ha'Bikurim' (implying that the fruit has ripened).

3. ... 'al ha'Tekufah' that - the Tamuz season (usually the 21st of June) or the Tishri season (usually the 21st of September) falls late, as will be explained later in the Sugya.

(c)The reason for 'al ha'Aviv' cannot be because they will not have fresh barley with which to bring the Omer - since the Tana will say shortly that if the produce has not ripened in Eiver ha'Yarden and Galil, they declare a leap-year, even though it has ripened in Yehudah (in which case they will have barley with which to bring the Omer).

(d)Beis-Din will declare a leap-year for these reasons - if at least two of them are applicable.

(e)Everybody was happy if one of the reasons was ...

1. ... 'Aviv' - because if it was not, it would result in them having to wait an extra month before being able to eat Chadash (the new crops), even though it is ready to eat.

2. ... 'Tekufah' - because if it was not, then, in spite of the fact that Yom-Tov would be delayed by one month, the rain season would begin in its usual time, and the Olei Regalim would get caught in the rain as they made their way towards Yerushalayim.

13)

(a)What else might Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel have meant when he argued with the Tana Kama and said 'Al ha'Tekufah'?

(b)What are the ramifications of the division of Eretz Yisrael into three areas; Yehudah, Eiver ha'Yarden ve'Galil (in connection with 'Aviv')?

(c)According to the Tana Kama of the Beraisa, in which area should Ibur Shanah should be announced Lechatchilah?

(d)What does Rebbi Chananya Ish Ono say?

(e)Which Pasuk in Re'ei does Rebbi Yehudah b'rei de'Rebbi Shimon ben Pazi cite to explain Rebbi Chananya Ish Ono's opinion?

13)

(a)Alternatively, when Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel argues with the Tana Kama and says 'Al ha'Tekufah', he might have meant that - Beis-Din will fix a leap-year for 'Tekufah' alone, seeing as it is d'Oraysa (in which case the other two reasons must be an Asmachta).

(b)The ramifications of the division of Eretz Yisrael into three areas Yehudah, Eiver ha'Yarden ve'Galil are that - Beis-Din will only declare a leap-year because of 'Aviv', if the crops in any two of the three areas have not yet ripened (but not on one alone).

(c)According to the Tana Kama of the Beraisa, Lechatchilah, Ibur Shanah should be announced - in Yehudah.

(d)Rebbi Chananya Ish Ono holds - that even Bedieved, if Beis-Din declare it Me'ubar in Galil the year is not Me'ubar.

(e)To explain Rebbi Chananya Ish Ono's opinion, Rebbi Yehudah b'rei de'Rebbi Shimon ben Pazi cites the Pasuk in Re'ei - "le'Shichno Sidr'shu u'Va'sa Shamah", which teaches us that whenever one seeks Hash-m, one should do it in the vicinity of the Shechinah (in Yerushalayim).

14)

(a)What does the Beraisa say with regard to Ibur Shanah or Ibur Chodesh by night?

(b)From which Pasuk in Tehilim does Rebbi Aba learn it?

(c)How does he know that the Pasuk is talking about Rosh Chodesh, and not one of the Shalosh Regalim (seeing as the Pasuk mentions the word "Chag")?

(d)How does he learn from the conclusion of the Pasuk "Mishpat l'Elokei Ya'akov" that it must take place by day?

(e)What do we learn from the Pasuk in Ki Seitzei "ve'Hayah be'Yom Hanchilo es Banav"?

14)

(a)The Beraisa says - that Beis-Din cannot fix Ibur Shanah or Ibur Chodesh by night.

(b)Rebbi Aba learns this from the Pasuk in Tehilim - "Tik'u ba'Chodesh Shofar, ba'Kesse *le'Yom* Chageinu ... ".

(c)The Pasuk must be talking about Rosh Chodesh, and not one of the Shalosh Regalim (in spite of the fact that the Pasuk mentions the word "Chag") - because the words "ba'Chodsh ... ba'Kesse" imply that the Pasuk is referring to a Chag which falls on Rosh Chodesh, when the moon is hidden, and the only Chag that fits this description is Rosh Hashanah.

(d)And he learns that Kidush ha'Chodesh must take place by day - because the Pasuk concludes "Mishpat l'Elokei Ya'akov", and 'Mishpat' can only take place in the day.

(e)We learn from the Pasuk in Ki Seitzei "ve'Hayah be'Yom Hanchilo es Banav" that - Mishpat can only be performed during the day (as will be explained in the fourth Perek).

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