1)HOW ONE COULD ADD TO THE MITZVAH OF TEFILIN
(a)Question: If so, also adding to Tefilin does not disqualify a Mitzvah which already was valid!
1.If he made four compartments and put a fifth next to them, it does not invalidate the Mitzvah;
2.If he made five compartments from the beginning, it was invalid from the beginning!
(b)Answer: (Really, he made four compartments and put a fifth next to them.) R. Zeira taught that if the outer boxes are not exposed to the air, the Mitzvah is invalid.
2)THE EXECUTION OF A ZAKEN MAMREI
(a)(Mishnah - R. Akiva): We do not kill him in the Beis Din in his city, nor in the Beis Din of Yavneh. Rather, we bring him to the Great Sanhedrin in Yerushalayim and wait until the Regel (festival) to kill him - "v'Chol ha'Am Yishme'u v'Yira'u v'Lo Yezidun Od";
(b)R. Yehudah says, we do not delay his execution. Rather, we immediately kill him, and send messengers everywhere to spread the word.
(c)(Beraisa - R. Akiva): We do not kill him in the Beis Din in his city, nor in the Beis Din of Yavneh. Rather, we bring him to the Great Sanhedrin in Yerushalayim and wait until the Regel (festival) to kill him - "v'Chol ha'Am Yishme'u v'Yira'u v'Lo Yezidun Od";
(d)R. Yehudah: It does not say 'they will see and fear', rather, "they will hear and fear";
1.There is no need to delay his execution. Rather, we immediately kill him, and send messengers everywhere.
(e)(Beraisa): Four executions must be announced - Mesis, Ben Sorer u'Moreh, Zaken Mamrei and Edim Zomemim;
1.Regarding the first three it says "v'Chol ha'Am" or "v'Chol Yisrael";
2.Regarding Edim Zomemim, it says "veha'Nish'arim (everyone else)", since not everyone is Kosher to testify.
3)THE PUNISHMENTS OF FALSE NEVI'IM
(a)(Mishnah): A false Navi is one who gives a prophecy he did not hear, or what Hash-m did not tell him. Beis Din kills him;
(b)The following are Chayav Misah b'Yedei Shamayim:
1.One who withholds his prophecy (that Hash-m commanded him to tell);
2.One who does not heed a Navi's words;
3.A Navi who transgresses his own prophecy.
4.We learn from "Anochi Edrosh me'Imo."
(c)The following are choked:
1.One who prophesizes in the name of idolatry, even if he gives correct laws (e.g. of Tum'ah and Taharah);
2.One who has Bi'ah with a married woman, once she entered her husband's premises for the sake of Nisu'in, even before she had Bi'ah with her husband;
3.Edim Zomemim who falsely testified that a Bas Kohen was Mezanah, or a man who had adultery with her (even though she is burned for adultery).
i.Edim Zomemim always receive the Misah they plotted to impose on someone else, except when they falsely testified about a Bas Kohen and her adulterer.
(d)(Gemara - Beraisa): Three false Nevi'im are killed by Beis Din, and three are killed b'Yedei Shamayim:
1.Indeed, kills one who gives a prophecy he did not hear, or what Hash-m did not tell him, or prophecizes in the name of idolatry;
2.One who withholds his prophecy, does not heed a Navi's words, or transgresses his own prophecy is killed b'Yedei Shamayim.
(e)Question: What is the source of this?
(f)Answer (Rav Yehudah): "Ach ha'Navi Asher Yazid Ledaber Davar bi'Shmi" refers to one who gives a prophecy that he did not hear;
1."Va'Asher Lo Tzivisiv" implies that Hash-m commanded this to someone else, and the false Navi says 'Hashem told this to me.'
2."Va'Asher Yedaber b'Shem Elohim Acherim" is one who prophesizes in the name of idolatry.
3.Regarding these it says "u'Mes ha'Navi ha'Hu." Beis Din kills him;
i.Any unspecified Misah is choking.
(g)"Veha'Ish Asher Lo Yishma" is one who does not heed a Navi's words. We also read this like 'Lo Yashmi'a', he withholds his prophecy, and 'Lo Yishama', he does not heed his own prophecy;
1.Regarding all of these it says "Anochi Edrosh me'Imo" (Hash-m wil punish him).
(h)An example of one who gives a prophecy he did not hear is "Tzidkiyah... Ko Amar Hash-m b'Eleh Teganach Es Aram."
(i)Question: Tzidkiyah was Anus! The Ru'ach (spirit) of Navos tricked him!
1.(Rav Yehudah): "Va'Yomer Hash-m Mi Yefateh Es Achav... va'Yetzei ha'Ru'ach Tzei va'Ase Ken" - Hash-m told the Ru'ach 'leave My Presence (because it volunteered to deceive).'
2.(R. Yochanan): The Ru'ach was that of Navos.
(j)Answer: He should have known from R. Yitzchak's teaching that he did not receive a true prophecy.
1.(R. Yitzchak): Many Nevi'im can receive the same message, but two Nevi'im do not express it in the same words:
i.Ovadyah said "Zadon Libcha Hisi'echa", and Yirmeyah said "Tiflatztecha Hisi Osach Zadon Libecha."
ii.Here, all the Nevi'im predicting Achav's victory used the same words. This proves that they were false Nevi'im.
(k)Question: Perhaps he did not know R. Yitzchak's teaching!
(l)Answer: Yehoshafat was there. He told them - "ha'Ein Po Navi"!
1.Achav: There are many Nevi'im here!
2.Yehoshafat: I have a tradition. Many Nevi'im can receive the same message, but two Nevi'im do not express it in the same words:
(m)The following is an example prophesizing what Hash-m did not tell him. Yirmeyah was prophesizing in the upper market "Hineni Shover Es Keshes Eilam." Chananyah ben Ozer made a Kal va'Chomer:
1.Eilam (Madai) only came to help Bavel (afflict Yisrael), yet Hash-m said that he would destroy them. All the more so He will destroy the Bavli'im themselves!
2.Chananyah prophesized in the lower market "Shovarti Es Ol Melech Bavel."
(n)Question (Rav Papa): This was not said to any Navi!
(o)Answer (Abaye): Since we may expound Kal va'Chomer, it is as if it was said to Yirmeyah.
(p)An example of prophesizing in the name of idolatry is the Nevi'im of Ba'al;
(q)An example of withholding one's prophecy is Yonah;
(r)An example of not heeding a Navi's words is Michah's colleague:
1.Michah commanded him in the name of Hash-m 'hit me!' He did not. Michah told him "therefore... (you will be eaten by a lion)."
(s)An example of transgressesing one's own prophecy is Ido:
1."Hash-m commanded me (not to eat today. The other man said)... I am a Navi like you (and Hash-m told me to give to you to eat. Ido believed him and ate)... a lion found him."
4)KNOWING WHEN A PROPHECY WAS GIVEN
(a)(A reciter of Beraisos): One who withholds his prophecy is lashed.
(b)Question (Rav Chisda): Do we lash one eats dates (does nothing visibly wrong)?! Who can warn him?
(c)Answer (Abaye): Other Nevi'im can warn him.
(d)Question: How do they know?
(e)Answer (Abaye): "Lo Ya'aseh Hash-m... Ki Im Galah Sodo" (He tells others).
(f)Question: Perhaps Hash-m reconsidered!
(g)Answer: If so, He would inform the other Nevi'im.
(h)Question: Hash-m retracted the prophecy that Ninveh would be destroyed, without informing Yonah!
(i)Answer: Yonah was told that Ninveh would be "Nehefaches", he did not know if this was for good (they would be transformed from sinners to Tzadikim) or for evil (it would be destroyed).
(j)Question: One who does not heed a Navi's words (is Chayav Misah b'Yedei Shamayim). How does he know that it is a true Navi?
(k)Answer: The Navi gives a sign.
(l)Question: Michah did not give a sign, yet Hash-m punished the man who did not obey him!
(m)Answer: Someone established to be a true Navi need not give a sign.
(n)Support: We must say this. If not, how could Yitzchak allow Avraham to slaughter him, and how could Yisrael help Eliyahu offer a Korban outside the Mikdash on Har ha'Karmel?
(a)(R. Yochanan): "Achar ha'Devarim ha'Eleh" - (Hash-m commanded Avraham about the Akeidah) after the Satan complained:
1.You gave Avraham a son at the age of 100, and Avraham did not offer even a bird to You at the feast he made when he weaned him!
2.Hash-m: The feast was due to his son. If I would ask him to offer his son, he would do so immediately!
(b)(R. Shimon bar Aba): "Kach Na" denotes a request;
1.A parable explains this. A king was beset by many wars, and a valiant warrior of his triumphed in all of them;
2.Later, a fierce war erupted. The king told him 'please win this war, lest people say that the previous wars were trivial.'
3.Likewise, Hash-m told Avraham 'I tested you many times, and you passed every test. Please pass this test, lest people say that the previous tests were trivial.''
4.Hash-m: "Es Bincha"
5.Avraham: I have two sons!
6.Hash-m: "Es Yechidcha"
7.Avraham: Each is the only son to his mother!
8.Hash-m: "Asher Ahavta"
9.Avraham: I love both of them!
10.Hash-m: "Es Yitzchak."
11.Question: Why didn't Hash-m specify Yitzchak from the beginning?
12.Answer: Had Avraham heard suddenly, he would have been dazed.
(c)The Satan tried to dissuade Avraham - "ha'Nisah Davar Elecha Til'eh... Yisarta Rabim..." (you brought many close to Hash-m. If you slaughter Yitzchak, they will cease to serve Him, and your life's Avodah will be undone!)
1.Avraham: "Ani b'Sumi Elech" (I will fulfill Hash-m's command simply, without deliberations).
2.The Satan: "Yir'asecha Kislasecha" (this will cause your downfall)!
3.Avraham: "Zechar Na Mi Hu Naki Avad" (Hash-m will ensure that nothing bad results).
(d)The Satan saw that he could not dissuade Avraham, so he tried to weaken his intention to sacrifice his son.
1.The Satan: I heard in back of the curtain that Hash-m will ask you to offer a Seh, and not Yitzchak!
2.Avraham: The punishment of a liar is that even when he tells the truth, he is not believed! (Maharsha - he said this after the Akeidah, that he had not believed him at the time.)
(e)(R. Yehoshua ben Levi): "Achar ha'Devarim ha'Eleh" - it was after Yishmael's words (to Yitzchak):
1.Yishmael: My Mitzvos are greater than yours. You were circumcised when you were eight days old. I was willingly circumcised at the age of 13!
2.Yitzchak: Do you consider yourself greater due to one limb? If Hash-m would ask me to offer myself for a Korban, I would agree!
6)THE PUNISHMENT FOR A MESIS
(a)(Beraisa): If a (false) Navi enticed, he is stoned;
(b)R. Shimon says, he is choked.
(c)Enticers of an Ir ha'Nidachas are stoned;
(d)R. Shimon says, they are choked.
(e)Question: Why do Chachamim say that a Navi who enticed is stoned?
(f)Answer: They learn from a Gezerah Shavah "Hadachah- Hadachah" from Mesis;
1.R. Shimon has no tradition for this Gezerah Shavah. Any unspecified Misah is choking.
(g)Question: Why do Chachamim say that Medichei Ir ha'Nidachas are stoned?
(h)Answer: They learn from a Gezerah Shavah "Hadachah- Hadachah" from Mesis or from a Navi who was Medi'ach;
(i)R. Shimon learns the Gezerah Shavah from a Navi who was Medi'ach.
1.Question: Why doesn't he learn from Mesis?
2.Answer: It is better to learn from one who entices a multitude from one who entices a multitude, than from one who entices an individual.
3.Question: It is better to learn laws of a commoner from a commoner, and not from a Navi!
4.Answer: A Navi who entices to idolatry is the ultimate commoner!