1)THE LANGUAGE AND WRITING OF THE TORAH
(a)Question: Why is the new writing called Ashuris?
(b)Answer: The Yisraelim exiled to Ashur brought it with them.
(c)(Beraisa - Rebbi): At first the Torah was given in Ashuris. After Yisrael sinned, it was changed to Ro'atz (crushed, i.e. forgotten. The Yerushalmi connotes that Ro'atz is Ivri writing.) After they repented, it was returned to Ashuris - "Shuvu l'Vitzaron (to your former glory)"
1.It is called Ashuris because it is the most glorious writing.
2.R. Shimon ben Elazar says, "Vovei ha'Amudim" - just like the Amudim (poles on which the parchment is wound) did not change, the Vovim (the letters, i.e. the writing) did not change.
3.(Another proof is) "ki'Chsavam vechi'Lshonam" - just like the language did not change, the writing did not change.
(d)Question: What do we learn from "Mishnah ha'Torah ha'Zos"?
(e)Answer: This teaches that he writes two Sifrei Torah for himself. One he takes with him, and the other he stores away;
1.The one he takes with him he hangs on his arm - "Shivisi Hash-m l'Negdi Tamid."
2.The other opinion expounds this like Rav Chanah bar Bisna.
3.(Rav Chanah bar Bisna): One who prays must picture the Shechinah in front of him - "Shivisi Hash-m l'Negdi Tamid."
(f)Question: According to R. Shimon, the writing did not change. What do we learn from "Lo cha'Halin Kisva"?
(g)Answer #1 (Rav): The message (written at Belshatzar's party) was written in At-Bash (in place of each letter is substituted the opposite letter of the Aleph-Beis, i.e. Tov for Aleph, Shin for Beis...); it said 'Yatas Yatas Idach Pugchamat';
1.Daniel explained, it means 'Menei Menei Tekel u'Farsin' - Hash-m calculated that your kingship did not yet finish its allotted time. It is being taken from you for a punishment. It will be split among the kingdoms of Peras and Madai.
(h)Answer #2 (Shmuel): The first, fourth, seventh... letters of the (true) message ("Menei Menei..") were made into one word (Mimsos), and likewise for the second, fifth... letters, and the third, sixth ... letters. Hash-m wrote 'Mimsos Nenakfei A'alran.' (Daniel explained that it should be read 'Menei Menei...)
(i)Answer #3 (R. Yochanan): Every word was written backwards - 'Anam Anam Lekes Nisrefu.'
(j)Answer #4 (Rav Ashi): The first two letters of every word were switched - 'Nemei Nemei Ketel Poresin.'
2)USING WHAT A KING USED
(a)(Mishnah): We may not ride on a king's horse, nor sit on his throne, or use his scepter;
(b)We may not see him when he takes a haircut or is naked or in the bathhouse - "Som Tasim Alecha Melech", you must fear him.
(c)(Gemara - R. Yakov): Avishag (the girl picked for David) was permitted to Shlomo, for a king may use what another king used;
1.She was forbidden to Adoniyahu, for he was not a king.
(d)Question: What was her relationship with David?
(e)Answer: "Va'Tehi la'Melech Sochenes va'Tesharesehu."
1.She asked David to marry her; he told her that he may not take a 19th wife.
2.Avishag: That is a lame excuse! (Really, you are too old and weak to have Bi'ah.)
3."Va'Tavo Bas Sheva El ha'Melech ha'Chedrah" - David called Bas Sheva, and she cleaned herself 13 times (there are 13 words in this verse. Rashi - this was after Bi'ah; Ramah - she desired David so much, she emitted his semen from their last Bi'ah) in front of Avishag.
3)THE TIE TO ONE'S FIRST WIFE
(a)(R. Shemen bar Aba): This teaches how terrible divorce is! They permitted David (because he was weak) to be secluded with a woman (which was forbidden after the incident with Amnon), but they did not permit him to divorce one of his wives (in order to marry Avishag).
(b)(R. Eliezer): If one divorces his first wife, even the Mizbe'ach cries over this - "Mizbach Hash-m Bechi va'Anakah... Eshes Ne'urecha Asher Atah Bogadta Bah."
(c)(R. Yochanan): A man's wife dies only if he cannot pay what he owes (Rashi - what he stole; Tosfos - Korbanos that he vowed to bring) - "Im Ein Lecha Leshalem Lamah Yikach Mishkavcha mi'Tachtecha."
(d)(R. Yochanan): If a man's first wife dies, it is as if the Mikdash was destroyed in his lifetime - "Hineni Loke'ach Mimecha Es Machmad Eineicha... va'Tamas Ishti... Hineni Mechalel Es Mikdashi Machmad Eineichem."
(e)(R. Alexandri): If a man's wife dies, the world darkens for him - "Or Chashach b'Ahalo."
(f)(R. Yosi bar Chanina): His steps get shorter - "Yetzeru Tza'adei Ono."
(g)(R. Avahu): His counsel will not succeed - "v'Sachlichehu Atzaso."
(h)(Rabah bar bar Chanah): Matchmaking is as difficult as splitting the Yam Suf - "Elokim Moshiv Yechidim Baysah Motzi Asirim b'Kosharos",
(i)Question: Rav Yehudah taught that 40 days before a fetus is formed, a voice from Heaven announces 'Bas Ploni will marry Almoni!'
(j)Answer: That refers to one's first match, Rabah bar bar Chanah discusses a second match.
(k)(R. Shmuel bar Nachman): There is a substitute for everything except for the wife of one's youth - "v'Eshes Ne'urim Ki Sima'es (even if he despises her, he will return to love her).
(l)(Rav Yehudah): One feels contented only with his first wife - "...u'Smach me'Eshes Ne'urecha."
(m)(His son) Rav Yitzchak: What is an example of this?
(n)Rav Yehudah: Your mother is an example.
(o)Question: Rav Yehudah told Yitzchak 'your mother illustrates "u'Motzi Ani Mar mi'Maves Es ha'Ishah"!'
(p)Answer: She is harsh, but she forgives easily.
(q)(Rav Shmuel bar Onya): A woman is like an unfinished Keli, she makes a covenant with the one (her first husband) who makes her a finished Keli - Ki Vo'alayich Osayich."
1.When a woman dies, it is as if only her husband is bereaved - "Mesah Alai Rachel."
4)WHEN KOHANIM CUT THEIR HAIR
(a)(Mishnah): We may not see him...
(b)(Beraisa): A king cuts his hair every day, a Kohen Gadol every Erev Shabbos, and a regular Kohen once in 30 days.
1.A king cuts his hair every day due to "Melech b'Yafyo Techezenah Einecha."
(c)(R. Shmuel bar Nachman): A Kohen Gadol cuts his hair every Erev Shabbos to look nice for the new Mishmar.
(d)A regular Kohen cuts his hair once in 30 days due to "...u'Fera Lo Yishalechu Kasom Yichsemu Es Rosheihem";
1.We learn a Gezerah Shavah "Pera-Pera" from Nazir. It says here "u'Fera Lo Yishalechu", and it says there "Gadel Pera Se'ar Rosho." Just like there it means 30 days of growth, also here.
2.(Mishnah): If one accepted Nezirus without specifying the term, he is a Nazir for 30 days.
3.Question: What is the source of this law?
4.Answer (Rav Masnah): It says "Kadosh Yihyeh" - the Gematri'a of "Yihyeh" is 30.
(e)Question (Rav Papa): We should say that he may not grow his hair at all!
(f)Answer (Abaye): Had it said 'Lo Yishalechu Pera', that would be correct;
1.However, it says "u'Fera Lo Yishalechu." They may have Pera (30 days growth). They may not have more.
(g)Question: Also nowadays Kohanim should be commanded to cut their hair every 30 days!
(h)Answer: It says "u'Fera Lo Yishalechu", followed by (Yechezkeil 44:21) "v'Yayin Lo Yishtu... b'Vo'am". Just like the Isur to drink wine applies only when Kohanim enter the Mikdash, also the Isur to grow long hair.
(i)Question: Drinking wine is forbidden even nowadays, when they do not enter the Mikdash!
1.(Beraisa - Rebbi): I say that a Kohen should be forbidden to drink wine today (in order that he will be able to serve if the Mikdash will suddenly be rebuilt);
2.However, after the Churban we are not concerned, and he may drink at any time.
3.(Abaye): Nowadays, Kohanim drink wine. This is like Rebbi.
4.Inference: Chachamim forbid them to drink.
5.Summation of question: This is so that they will be ready to serve if the Mikdash is suddenly rebuilt. For the same reason they should be obligated to cut their hair every 30 days!
(j)Answer #1: If the Mikdash is suddenly rebuilt, a long- haired Kohen could cut his hair and serve.
(k)Question: Likewise, a drunk Kohen could nap and serve (yet Chachamim forbid them to drink)!
1.(Rav Acha) Walking a Mil (2000 Amos) or any amount of sleep negates the effects of wine.
(l)Answer: Rav Nachman taught that that is for one who drank only one Revi'is. If he drank more, walking or sleep will worsen his condition!
(m)Answer #2 (Rav Ashi): Shtuyei Yayin (serving when drunk) is Mechalel (disqualifies) the Avodah, therefore Chachamim decreed about it;
1.Pru'ei Rosh (serving with long hair) does not Mechalel Avodah, therefore Chachamim did not decree about it.
(n)Question (Beraisa): The following are Chayav Misah: Pru'ei Rosh and Shtuyei Yayin.
1.We know the source for Shtuyei Yayin - "Yayin v'Shechar Al Tesht... v'Lo Samusu";
2.Question: What is the source for Pru'ei Rosh?
3.Answer: It is equated to Shtuyei Yayin (they are written adjacently). Just like Shtuyei Yayin is Chayav Misah, also Pru'ei Rosh.
4.Summation of question: Likewise, we should equate them and say that Pru'ei Rosh is also Mechalel Avodah!
(o)This is left difficult.
(p)Question (Ravina): How did we know the law before Yechezkeil said these verses?
1.Counter-question (Rav Ashi): "Kol Ben Nechar Erel Lev v'Erel Basar Lo Yavo El Mikdashi" (a Rasha or Arel may not enter the Mikdash). How did we know the law before Yechezkeil?
(q)Answer to both questions (Rav Ashi): You must say that it was a tradition from Sinai. Yechezkeil wrote a verse alluding to it.
5)WHEN KOHANIM CUT THEIR HAIR
(a)Question: What does it mean "Kasom Yichsemu Es Rosheihem"?
(b)Answer (Beraisa): It is a Lulainis haircut.
(c)Question: What is this?
(d)Answer (Rav Yehudah): A unique haircut.
(e)Question: How is it done?
(f)Answer (Rav Ashi): The end of one hair reaches to the root of the next hair.
(g)Question (Rabanan): How did the Kohen Gadol cut his hair?
(h)Answer (Rebbi): Look at Ben El'asha (my son-in-law).
1.(Beraisa - Rebbi): Ben El'asha did not squander his money for naught (to learn this haircut). He did so to demonstrate the haircut of the Kohen Gadol.