Sanhedrin Chart #9
Chart for Sanhedrin Daf 50-76
THE PUNISHMENTS FOR THE PROHIBITIONS OF "ARAYOS"
THE PUNISHMENT GIVEN BY BEIS DIN (1)
THE PUNISHMENT GIVEN BY HASH-M (2)
|1)||NA'ARAH HA'ME'URASAH||Sekilah||Kares (3)|
ESHES AVIV (4)
|5)||BAS KOHEN SHE'ZINSAH (6)||Sereifah||Kares (3)|
|6)||BA'AL ISHAH U'VITAH
& VAS BITAH (7)
NECHDASO ME'ANUSASO (8)
(during his wife's lifetime)
|12)||ESHES ACHIV (11)
(when not for the sake of Yibum)
|13)||ESHES ACHI AVIV ME'AVIV||(12)||Kares, Ariri|
(1) Punishment is administered by Beis Din to a person who sinned willfully and who received proper Hasra'ah, warning, before sinning.
(2) Punishment at the hands of Hash-m ("b'Yedei Shamayim") is administered to a person who sinned willfully, even if he did not receive Hasra'ah.
(3) This is the consensus of the Rishonim and Acharonim. However, see what we wrote in Insights to Yevamos 34a, in the name of the MAHARAM, who infers from the first Mishnah in Kerisus 2a that there is no Kares for sinning with a Na'arah ha'Me'urasah. (The same would appear to be true for a Bas Kohen she'Zinsah, who is also not mentioned in the Mishnah in Kerisus 2a.)
(4) "Imo" refers to his mother who was married to his father or who was not married to his father ("Anusas Aviv"; i.e. he was born out of wedlock). "Eshes Aviv" refers to his father's wife, whether or not she is his mother. (According to Rebbi Yehudah, if a woman is both his mother and his father's wife, he is only Chayav for "Imo" and not for "Eshes Aviv." See Chart #7, to 53b.)
(5) "Behemah" (bestiality) includes both Shochev (male) and Nishkav (male or female) with an animal. "Zachar" (sodomy) includes both Shochev and Nishkav. (See Chart #8, to Daf 54.)
(6) The Tana'im argue whether this applies only to a Bas Kohen who is married with Nisu'in, or whether this applies only to a Bas Kohen who is married with Eirusin, or whether this applies to both (see Chart #6, to 50a).
(7) Included in this Isur is one who sins with Bas Ishto (his wife's daughter), Bas Bitah (the daughter of his wife's daughter), Bas Benah (the daughter of his wife's son), Em Ishto (his wife's mother), Em Em Ishto (the mother of his wife's mother), and Em Aviha (the mother of his wife's father), as the Mishnah states later (75a).
(8) Included in this Isur is one who sins with Bito me'Anusaso (a daughter who was born out of wedlock), Bas Bito (such a daughter's daughter), and Bas Beno (the daughter of a son born out of wedlock). The Mishnah (75a, and Kerisus 2a; see Gemara there, 3b) includes all of these women in the words "Ishah u'Vitah" (even though these are learned from separate verses and not from the verse of "Ishah u'Vitah").
(9) There is no punishment from Beis Din for the Isur of Achoso. Nevertheless, the Isur of Achoso is repeated in Parshas Kedoshim (among the verses of punishments) in order to teach that each Isur of Arayos obligates a person in a separate Korban Chatas (Kerisus 2b), through the Midah of "Davar she'Yatza Min ha'Kelal Lelamed."
(10) There is no punishment from Beis Din for the Isur of Achos Aviv and Achos Imo. Nevertheless, these Isurim are repeated in Parshas Kedoshim (among the verses of punishments) in order to teach that one is also Chayav for sinning with Achos Aviv me'Imo (his father's half-sister through his mother), and with Achos Imo me'Imah (his mother's half-sister through her mother; Yevamos 54b).
(11) For both Eshes Achiv me'Aviv (the wife of his half-brother through his father), and Eshes Achiv me'Imo (the wife of his half-brother through his mother), one is Chayav Kares (Tosfos, Yevamos 2a; see Tosfos in Kerisus 14b, DH Eshes Achiv, and Insights to Yevamos 55:1). However, the punishment of Ariri applies only to Eshes Achiv me'Aviv (ibid., based on the Yerushalmi and Toras Kohanim).
(12) This Isur is repeated in Parshas Kedoshim only to teach that one is also punished with Ariri.
(13) The Isur of Nidah is repeated in Parshas Kedoshim only in order to teach that one is Chayav for doing Ha'ara'ah with any of the Arayos (Yevamos 54b).