Sanhedrin Chart #12
Chart for Sanhedrin Daf 60b-63a
THE VERSES OF WARNING (AZHARAH) AND PUNISHMENT (ONESH) FOR THE SIN OF SERVING AVODAH ZARAH (1)
|1)||"LO SISH'TACHAVEH LA'HEM..."
(Shemos 20:5, Devarim 5:9) (2)
|AZHARAH for bowing,
when it is "k'Darka & she'Lo k'Darka" (3)
|2||"... V'LO SA'AVDEM"
|AZHARAH for bowing to a person who is worshipped (4)|
|3||"ZOVE'ACH LE'LOHIM YACHARAM" (Shemos 22:19) (5)||ONESH for 3 main forms of worship, when it is "she'Lo k'Darda" (6)|
|4||"LO SISH'TACHAVEH LE'LOHEIHEM"
|To differentiate (l'Chalek) (7)
*or* to teach that bowing is a Lav (8)
|5||"... V'LO SA'AVDEM"
|To obligate a single Chatas for many forms of worship (9)
*or* to add an additional Lav (10)
*or* AZHARAH for hugging Avodah Zarah when it is "she'Lo k'Darka" (11)
|6||"LO SISH'TACHAVEH L'EL ACHER"
|AZHARAH for bowing, when it is "she'Lo k'Darkah" (12)|
|7||"V'LO YIZBECHU OD"
|AZHARAH for 3 main forms of worship
when it is "she'Lo k'Darka" (13)
|8||"U'FEN TIDROSH LE'LOHEIHEM LEIMOR EICHAH YA'AVDU..."
|AZHARAH for any form of worship,
when it is "k'Darka" (14)
|9||"VA'YELECH VA'YA'AVOD ELOHIM ACHERIM VA'YISHTACHU LA'HEM... U'SKALTAM..."
|ONESH for bowing, when it is "she'Lo k'Darka" (15)
ONESH for any form of worship,
when it is "k'Darka"
(1) See following Chart for a list of the verses which teach Kares for the sin of Avodah Zarah and what is learned from each.
(2) These two verses -- which are written in the first set of the Aseres ha'Dibros and in the second set -- are considered as one verse, since the second set of Dibros is only a review of what was written in the first set (RASHI 63a, DH Shalosh Hish'tachava'os -- see Insights to 63a).
(3) This refers to bowing down to an Avodah Zarah which is not normally worshipped by bowing down to it, but which is worshipped in some honorable manner (as opposed to an Avodah Zarah such as Markulis and Pe'or, which is served in a disgraceful fashion). That is, from the first verse which prohibits serving an Avodah Zarah in a manner which is Lo k'Darkah, we can only learn to prohibit serving an Avodah Zarah Lo k'Darka if it is normally served in an honorable manner. We need an additional verse (see footnote #12) to teach the prohibition of serving an Avodah Zarah she'Lo k'Darka even if it is normally served in a disgraceful manner (63a and RASHI there).
(4) This is based on the Beraisa (61b). (Once the verse reveals that a person who is worshipped is like any other Avodah Zarah, there is no need to teach that it is prohibited to serve him even she'Lo k'Darkah, or that one will be punished for serving such an Avodah Zarah. A worshipped person is equated to any other Avodah Zarah in all respects -- similar to what TOSFOS writes on 63a, DH Achas.)
(5) "Yacharam" means the death penalty (RASHI 60b, DH Talmud Lomar).
(6) These three forms of Avodah are Zivu'ach (slaughtering), Kitur (burning incense), and Nisuch (pouring wine libations). (The act of Zerikah (such as sprinkling the blood of an animal, as is done in the Beis ha'Mikdash) is included in Nisuch. The acts of "Mekabel u'Molich" (receiving the blood of a sacrifice in a vessel and bringing it to the place of service, as is done in the Beis ha'Mikdash) are not included in this Isur, because we do not find that they are Avodos which are done for the sake of Avodah Zarah.) (60b, and RASHI there, DH v'Lachshov)
(7) This refers to differentiating separate acts of Avodah from each other in order to obligate the person to bring a separate Korban Chatas for each act, when he performed different acts of Avodah (she'Lo k'Darkah) together. This is the view of Abaye (63a), Rebbi Yochanan, and Rav Yosef (according to the Gemara's first version on 62a). (According to RABEINU TAM (63a, Tosfos DH Amar), Rebbi Ami also holds that the verse is teaching "l'Chalek," but he holds that only bowing was singled out only to require a separate Korban for itself. For example, when a person served Avodah Zarah by bowing and by doing other Avodos, he is required to bring one Chatas for bowing, and one Chatas for all of the other Avodos (and not a separate Chatas for each one of those Avodos). This is also the view of Rebbi Yochanan, according to Rabeinu Tam.)
(8) That is, bowing is only a Lav and the sinner is exempt from Kares (however, he will still receive Sekilah; RASHI 62a, DH Hish'tachava'ah). This is the view of Rebbi Zakai (62a), as Rebbi Aba explains his view. This is also the view of Rebbi Ami (63a, and RASHI there, DH li'Devarav), who derives from "Lo Sa'avdem" that the Torah does not require separate Chata'os to be brought for separate forms of Avodah (see row 5). (According to Rabeinu Tam, mentioned above in the previous footnote, Rebbi Ami also holds that "Hish'tachava'ah" was singled out l'Chalek, as mentioned above.)
(9) This is the opinion of Rebbi Zakai (62a, and RASHI DH v'Su) and Rebbi Ami (63a).
(10) This is what RASHI writes (63a, DH li'Dvarav) according to Abaye, who holds that "l'Chalek Yatza." This also would seem to be the view of Rebbi Yochanan and Rav Yosef (see above, footnote #7) who also hold "l'Chalek Yatza." See the following footnote.
(11) This is what RASHI writes on the Mishnah (60b, DH Over b'Lo Ta'aseh), as well as TOSFOS there (DH Azharah). However, Rashi later (63a, DH Aval ha'Megapef) learns this Azharah from other verses (either from the verse in Yirmeyahu, or from "Al Tifnu El ha'Elilim" (Vayikra 19:4)). See MAHARSHA, and Insights to Daf 63a.
(12) Gemara, 60b. This means that bowing is Asur even when done to Pe'or and Markulis, types of Avodah Zarah that are normally worshipped in a disgraceful manner (63a). From here we learn that we do not differentiate -- with regard to the Azharah or Onesh of any Avodah -- between an Avodah Zarah that is served in a disgraceful manner and an Avodah Zarah that is served in an honorable manner (TOSFOS there, DH Achas, and 61a, DH Minayin).
(13) This is according to the Gemara on 61a. This means that these Avodos are prohibited even for an Avodah Zarah that is normally served in a disgraceful manner (as mentioned in the previous footnote), as the Beraisa there states.
(14) Gemara, 63a.
(15) The verse must be referring to bowing to an Avodah Zarah when bowing is she'Lo k'Darkah, because there is already a source ("va'Ya'avod" in the beginning of the verse) that teaches the Onesh for bowing when it is k'Darkah. We learn from this verse that one is Chayav even for bowing to Pe'or (an Avodah Zarah that is normally served in a disgraceful manner), see footnote #12 above.