[a - 55 lines; b - 57 lines]
1)[line 1]וסתרתה למזיהV'SASRASA L'MAZYAH- and she uncovered her hair
2)[line 4]כהנא רבאKAHANA RABA- Kohen Gadol (High Priest)
3)[line 4]סגניSEGANEI- deputies [of the Kohen Gadol]
4)[line 7]ומיטלל לכוU'MITLAL LECHU- and he is making fun of you
5)[line 8]כופתאKUFTA- dung
6)[line 9]רבותא דידיהREVUSA DIDEI- his greatness
7)[line 10][ויאמר שמשון] תמות נפשי עם פלשתים [ויט בכח ויפל הבית על הסרנים ועל כל העם אשר בו ויהיו המתים אשר המית במותו רבים מאשר המית בחייו]"[VA'YOMER SHIMSHON,] 'TAMOS NAFSHI IM PELISHIM!' [VA'YET B'CHO'ACH VA'YIPOL HA'BAYIS AL HA'SERANIM V'AL KOL HA'AM ASHER BO, VA'YIHEYU HA'MESIM ASHER HEMIS B'MOSO RABIM ME'ASHER HEMIS B'CHAYAV]" - "[And Shimshon said (to HaSh-m),] 'Let me die with the Pelishtim.' [And he bowed with all his might; and the house fell upon the lords, and upon all the people who were in there. And so, the dead whom he slew at his death were more than those whom he slew in his life.]" (Shoftim 16:30) (SHIMSHON DIES WITH THE PELISHIM)
(a)This verse, "Tamos Nafshi Im Pelishtim," is used as an expression of a person's willingness to die or suffer in order to afflict his enemies.
(b)Due to the treachery of his wife Delilah, Shimshon fell into the hands of the Pelishim. After poking out his eyes, they took him down to the jail in Azah, where they made him grind wheat, a task that was both grueling and degrading (Metzudas David).
(c)Meanwhile, his hair began to grow again, and so did his strength.
(d)Some time later, the princes gathered to celebrate a thanksgiving to their god, Dagon, whom they held responsible for Shimshon's capture. They hauled Shimshon from his prison to amuse them with accounts of his mighty deeds while the large audience reveled at the spectacle of their enemy in his degradation.
(e)Shimshon then asked the boy who led him to place his hands on the main pillars supporting the house so that he could lean on them. He prayed to Hash-m to restore his strength sufficiently to avenge one of his eyes from the Pelishim. For that, he would receive reward in the World to Come. His prayers were answered. He heaved the two middle pillars, one with his right hand and the other with his left and with the words, "Let me die with the Pelishim," he brought the entire house crashing to the ground, killing thousands of Pelishim at once.
8)[line 18]לעבר שניםL'ABER SHANIM - to add an extra (thirteenth) month to the year (SHANAH ME'UBERES)
(a)A Shanah Me'uberes (a leap year) is one in which an extra month is added. The only month that is ever added is Adar, such that in a Shanah Me'uberes there are two months of Adar. The reason for adding the extra month is in order to be certain that Pesach falls in the season of Aviv (spring), as it states in the verse, "Shamor Es Chodesh ha'Aviv, v'Asisa Pesach..." - "Observe the month of Aviv, and do the Pesach Sacrifice..." (Devarim 16:1).
(b)A Beis Din of the Chachamim decides whether there is a need for a Shanah Me'uberes based upon three signs: the spring equinox; the spring season in the districts of Yehudah, Ever ha'Yarden and Galil; the ripening of fruits. 1: If, according to the calculation of the Chachamim, the spring equinox will fall on the 16th of Nisan or later, the extra month is added. The month that would have been Nisan is called Adar Sheni. 2 & 3: These two signs are interrelated. If the Chachamim decide that the spring season has not come, i.e., the days are still short and dark and the fruits that are normally ripe at the time of Pesach will not have ripened, the extra month is added, even if the equinox falls before the 16th of Nisan. If spring arrived in two out of three of the districts mentioned above, the extra month was not added.
(c)Besides the principal signs mentioned above, the Chachamim list four more reasons to add an extra month, based upon necessity. 1. If the roads are impassable and will prevent the Diaspora Jews from getting to the Beis ha'Mikdash in time for the Pesach sacrifice. 2. If bridges are washed out and the journey is impossible or dangerous for the Diaspora Jews. 3. If the Diaspora Jews have started their journey, but will not arrive in Yerushalayim on time. 4. If the ovens that were meant to be used for roasting the Pesach sacrifices in Yerushalayim were destroyed during the rainy season, and there are no substitutes for them (RAMBAM Hilchos Kidush ha'Chodesh 4:1-5).
9)[line 19]ולקבוע חדשיםV'LIKBO'A CHADASHIM- and to establish the months in the Jewish calendar
10)[line 24]קנא את אשתוKINEI ES ISHTO- [every husband] warned his wife [not to be alone with Moshe Rabeinu]
11)[line 33]להכישוL'HAKISHO- [that a snake] should bite him
12)[line 34]ויזבח אדניהו צאן ובקר ומריא עם אבן הזוחלת [אשר אצל עין רגל ויקרא את כל אחיו בני המלך ולכל אנשי יהודה עבדי המלך]"VA'YIZBACH ADONIYAHU TZON U'VAKAR U'MERI IM EVEN HA'ZOCHELES [ASHER ETZEL EIN ROGEL; VA'YIKRA ES KOL ECHAV BENEI HA'MELECH UL'CHOL ANSHEI YEHUDAH AVDEI HA'MELECH" - "And Adoniyahu sacrificed sheep and cattle and fat bulls next to the Zocheles-stone which is near Ein Rogel; and he called all his brothers, the sons of the king, and to all the men of Yehudah, the servants of the king." (Melachim I 1:9) (ADONIYAHU'S UPRISING)
(a)Adoniyahu decided to usurp the kingdom from his father David, and he made for himself a chariot and riders, with fifty runners to run in front of it. Their spleens and the soles of their feet were removed so that they were able to run for long distances without feeling pain in their feet and without getting tired.
(b)The Chachamim teach that his father David made a serious mistake by not rebuking his errant son, and this resulted in Adoniyahus's untimely death.
(c)He succeeded in obtaining the following of such leaders as Yo'av ben Tzeruyah, Amasa, and Avshalom, who hoped that Adoniyahu would reign instead of Shlomo.
(d)On the other hand, Tzadok ha'Kohen, Benayahu ben Yehoyada, and Nasan ha'Navi remained loyal to David and declined to join forces with Adoniyahu.
(e)Adoniyahu further tightened his claim to the throne by sacrificing many animals next to a large stone called the "Even ha'Zocheles," inviting virtually all his brothers, the men of Yehudah, and the servants of the king to join his banquet. He did not, however, invite Nasan ha'Navi, who had prophesied that Shlomo was next in line to rule, or his brother Shlomo who was destined to succeed his father on the throne.
13)[line 38]המתרעםHA'MISRA'EM- one who complains (that his teacher is behaving too harshly toward him)
14)[line 41]פרדות לבנותPERADOS LEVANOS- white mules
15)[line 42]אקלידי וקילפי דגילדאAKLIDEI V'KILPEI D'GILDA- and the keys and locks were made of leather. Even though the locks and keys were made of leather, there was still a need for 300 mules to transport them.
16)[line 42]מטמוניותMATMONIYOS- hidden treasures
17)[line 43]לאנטונינוס בן אסוירוסL'ANTONINUS BEN ASVIROS- to ANTONINUS BEN ASVIROS - a Roman emperor who maintained a close friendship with Rebbi Yehudah ha'Nasi
18)[line 48]לזבולLI'ZEVUL- to Zevul, one of the seven firmaments (see Chagigah 12b)
19)[line 49]חיציםCHITZIM- arrows
20)[line 50]למבריהL'MIVREI- to create it
21)[line 51]פיתחאPISCHA- an opening
22)[line 52]רבינוRABEINU- our teacher, a reference to Rebbi Yehudah ha'Nasi
23)[line 52]נתבצרNISBATZER- a place was set up high for them
24)[line 53]טייעאTAIYA- an Arab merchant
25)[line 54]בזעיBIZ'EI- cracks
26)[line 54]קיטראKITRA- smoke
27)[line 54]גבבא דעמראGEVAVA D'AMRA- a ball of wool shearings
28)[line 54]אמשייה מיאAMSHAYEI MAYA- he soaked it in water
29)[line 54]בריש רומחיהB'RESH RUMCHEI- with the tip of his spear
30)[line 55]איחרךICHRACH- it became singed
31)[line 55]אציתATZIS- listen, pay attention
32)[line 55]בדאיםBADA'IM- liars
33)[line 1]להו גהינום מהדראMEHADRA LEHU GEHINOM- Gehinom returns them to here
34)[line 2]קלחתKALACHAS- pot
35)[line 51]בכרכי היםB'KERACHEI HA'YAM- in the large cities of the sea (islands, or coastal cities)
36)[line 51]לינוקא פתיאL'YENUKA PASYA- [they call] a young child, "Pasya." The word "Pesi" usually connotes a fool. Here, Rebbi Akiva applies the word to a young child, in the sense that HaSh-m does not punish a blameless, young child for his father's sins.
37)[line 51][ודי חזה מלכא עיר וקדיש נחת מן שמיא ואמר] גודו אילנא וחבלוהי ברם עקר שרשוהי בארעא שבקו [ובאסור די פרזל ונחש בדתאא די ברא ובטל שמיא יצטבע ועם חיות ברא חלקה עד די שבעה עדנין יחלפון עלוהי]"[V'DI CHAZAH MALKA IR V'KADISH NACHIS MIN SHEMAYA V'AMAR] GODU ILANA V'CHABLUHI BERAM IKAR SHARSHOHI B'AR'A SHEVUKU; [UVE'ESUR DI FARZEL U'NECHASH B'DIS'A DI VARA; UV'TAL SHEMAYA YITZTABA, V'IM CHEIVAS BARA CHALAKEI AD DI SHIV'AH IDANIN YACHLEFUN ALOHI]" - "[And this is what the king saw: a holy angel came down from the heavens and said,] 'Chop down the tree and destroy it, but leave its major roots in the ground [secured with a band of iron and copper in the herbage of the field. It will be washed by the dew of the heavens and its lot will be with the beasts of the field, until seven periods have passed over it.]" (Daniel 4:20) (NEVUCHADNETZAR'S PERSONAL DREAM)
(a)From this verse, Rebbi Akiva learns that the young children of evildoers will not be cut off ("leave it major roots in the ground"), even though there fathers have no share in the World to Come ("chop down the tree and destroy it").
(b)This verse describes the dream of Nevuchadnetzar, in which he saw a gigantic tree, the numerous branches of which spread across the entire land. It bore sufficient fruit to sustain his entire kingdom. Wild beasts rested in its shade and birds dwelled in its branches.
(c)He saw an angel descend from the heavens and call out for the tree to be cut down, together with its branches and fruit, scattering all the wild beasts and the birds that found shelter there. However, the roots were to remain intact and would be tied to the spot in chains to feed from the herbs and the grass of the field, like the beasts of the field, for seven years.
(d)The king consulted his wise men about the meaning of his dream, but there was none among them who was able to interpret it. That was when he called for Daniel, who had already interpreted one dream for him.
(e)Daniel again interpreted the king's dream. The mighty tree was none other than the king himself, an indication of his tremendous success in building up his kingdom. HaSh-m had decreed, however, that he would be banished from mankind to live for seven years among the animals of the field, to share their habitat and their food. This was in order to teach him that HaSh-m is the ultimate Sovereign and that it is He who designates sovereignty to kings of human form.
(f)Daniel continued and explained that when the seven-year period will terminate, the king will be returned to his throne as before.
(g)Finally, Daniel gave the king advice. Having seen how many of his impoverished brethren were going from door to door begging, he suggested that Nevuchadnetzar redeem himself by giving Tzedakah generously, and thereby delay the fulfillment of the dream by one year.
38)[line 52]שיורי מצוהSHIYUREI MITZVAH- (lit. the remnants of a Mitzvah) (a) a "light" mitzvah, or (b) those aspects of a Mitzvah which, while required l'Chatchilah, are not essential to the Mitzvah's fulfillment b'Di'eved, like the wavings performed while holding the Lulav. The Gemara teaches that HaSh-m will reward the wicked while they are still alive for any good deed that they may have done, whether major or minor, or for even the most minute details of any Mitzvos they may have done, to deprive them of reward in the World to Come. (See Sukah 38a.)