[a - 56 lines; b - 53 lines]
1)[line 2]ונושבותV'NOSHVOS- and they (the winds) blow
2)[line 4]שדוממוSHE'DOMEMU- that they subside
3)[line 5]ארזEREZ- a cedar tree
4)[line 9]רוח דרומיתRU'ACH DEROMIS- a southern wind. The south winds are the strongest winds. (RASHI)
5)[line 11]קולמוסKULMUS- a stylus or quill
6)[line 14]איתניESANEI- mighty ones
7)[line 19]בלשכת הגזיתB'LISHKAS HA'GAZIS- the Chamber of Hewn Stone, the seat of the Jewish Supreme Court, known as the Great Sanhedrin of 71 judges. See Background to Sanhedrin 104:1.
8)[line 19]ומשפחות סופרים וגו'"U'MISHPECHOS SOFRIM YOSHVEI YA'BETZ, TIR'ASIM SHIM'ASIM SUCHASIM, HEMAH HA'KINIM HA'BA'IM ME'CHAMAS AVI VEIS RECHAV."- "And the families of scribes who lived in Ya'betz; Tir'asim, Shim'asim and Shuchasim. These were the descendants of Keini who descended from Chamas, the father of the house of Rechav." (Divrei ha'Yamim I 2:55)
9)[line 22]ובני קיני חותן משה וגו'"U'VENEI KEINI CHOSEN MOSHE ALU ME'IR HA'TEMARIM..."- See Background to Sanhedrin 104:2.
10)[line 27]בין לביא ללביאהBEIN LAVI L'LEVI'AH- between a lion and a lioness
11)[line 27]שנזקקין זה עם זהSHE'NIZKAKIN ZEH IM ZEH- when they mate with each other
12)[line 28]ליבון אספירLIBUN ASPIR- (a) the foreign land of Libun Aspir (RASHI); (b) alt. Girsa LIGYON ASPOR - the Latin and Greek words for a legion of soldiers (ARUCH)
13)[line 35]זימהZ IMAH- licentiousness (immoral behavior)
14)[line 35]כלי פשתןKLEI PISHTAN- linen garments. (The MAHARSHA explains that while in Mitzrayim, the Jews became accustomed to wearing linen clothes, for linen grows abundantly there. Forty years after the Jews left Mitzrayim, they were eager to replace their old clothes with new ones.)
15)[line 36]קלעיםKELA'IM- (lit. curtains) tents
16)[line 37]וילדהV'YALDAH- (lit. and the girl) and the younger woman
17)[line 39]בשוהB'SHAVEH- at its full price
18)[line 41]וצרצורי של ייןV'TZARTZUREI SHEL YAYIN- and pitchers of wine
19)[line 42]יראתהYIR'ASAH- (lit. her fear) her idol [of Ba'al Pe'or]
20)[line 43]פיעורPI'UR- defecation
21)[line 44]מנחתך שאיניSHE'ENI MANCHASECHA- I do not let you [fulfill your desire]
22)[line 46]דברי שטותDIVREI SHETUS- matters of foolishness
23)[line 47]בעלי קרייןBA'ALEI KERYIN (BA'AL KERI)
A man who has emitted Keri (semen) becomes a Rishon l'Tum'ah. He may not enter the Machaneh Leviyah (i.e. the Temple Mount), nor may he eat Ma'aser, Terumah or Kodshim. After he immerses in a Mikvah during the day he becomes Tahor and may eat Ma'aser and enter Machaneh Leviyah once again (mid'Oraisa - the Rabanan however prohibited him from entering the Ezras Nashim until nightfall). He remains a "Tevul Yom" until nightfall, after which he may once again eat Terumah or Kodshim.
24)[line 47]שריפוSHE'RIPU- that they weakened
25)[line 55]גמלא אזלא למיבעי קרני אודני דהוו ליה גזיזן מיניהGAMLA AZLA L'MIBA'EI KARNEI UDNEI D'HAVU LEI GEZIZAN MINEI- the camel went to ask for horns, and the ears he already had were shorn from him. Similarly, Bil'am's desire for riches led to his death; had he not sought a reward for helping to kill the Jews, he would not have been in Midyan at the time of the Jewish invasion and would not have been killed. (RASHI)
26)[line 55]ואת בלעם בן בעור הקוסם"V'ES BIL'AM BEN BE'OR HA'KOSEM [HARGU BA'CHEREV EL CHALELEIHEM.]" - "And Bil'am the son of Be'or the sorcerer [they killed along with the other slain.]" (Yehoshua 13:22)
(a)This verse refers to the battle with Midyan which Moshe fought, in which he defeated their army and killed the five princes, including Tzur (alias Balak, king of Moav).
(b)Bil'am, who was granted a brief spell of prophecy (in order to portray Yisrael's unique character), died a sorcerer. What was Bilam, who lived in Aram, doing in Midyan? He had gone there to claim his remuneration for his "good" advice (the sin of Ba'al Pe'or) which had caused the death of 24,000 Jews. The verse here informs us that he indeed received his remuneration, although not from Midyan (or Moav) but from Yisrael.
(c)The Medrah cites two versions that describe his death. Both begin with Bil'am, using his powers of sorcery, trying to escape from Yisrael by flying off into the air. Both end with Pinchas (who was the Kohen Gadol appointed for war) killing him. In the first version, Pinchas held up the Tzitz and caused Bil'am to fall down to the ground. After Bil'am "landed," Pinchas killed him with his sword. In the second version, Pinchas uttered the Name of HaSh-m and pursued Bil'am. When Pinchas caught up to him, Bil'am pleaded with him to let him go. Pinchas ignored his pleas, drew his sword, and killed him. Bil'am's corpse fell to the ground and landed among the corpses of Midyan.
27)[line 56]מסגני ושילטי הואי אייזן לגברי נגריMI'SIGNEI V'SHILTEI HAVAI AIZAN L'GAVREI NAGAREI- the wife of officers and ministers commits adultery with men who pull ships (alt. with carpenters) (RASHI)
28)[line 2]ארבע מיתות סקילה ושריפה הרג וחנקARBA MISOS SEKILAH SEREIFAH HEREG CHENEK (ARBA MISOS BEIS DIN)
Arba Misos Beis Din, the four death penalties administered by Beis Din, in their order of stringency are:
1.Sekilah (stoning, whereby the transgressor is thrust down from the height of two stories, and then (if he is still alive) a large rock is thrown down upon him). (See Background to Sanhedrin 37:37.)
2.Sereifah (burning with molten lead, which is poured down the throat).
3.Hereg (killing with a sword) (Sefer ha'Chinuch #50).
4.Chenek (strangulation) (Sefer ha'Chinuch #47).
(b)According to Rebbi Shimon (Mishnah Sanhedrin 9:3, Gemara Sanhedrin 49b), the order of their stringency is Sereifah, Sekilah, Chenek, and Hereg.
(c)Bil'am was punished with all four forms of death penalty. According to RASHI, he was hanged on a stake beneath which a fire was lit, and as he was hanging he was beheaded and fell into the surrounding blaze. According to the YAD RAMAH, all four punishments were carried out simultaneously: scarves were tied around his throat and pulled in opposite directions at the same moment that hot lead was poured down his throat and a stone was cast on him. At that very moment, he was beheaded.
29)[line 4]בר כמה הוהBAR KAMAH HAVAH- how old was Bil'am (when he was killed)?
30)[line 4]מיכתב לא כתיבMICHTAV LO KESIV- there is nothing written (about Bil'am's age) in Scripture
31)[line 8]פנקסיהPINKESEI- his archives
32)[line 9]חגיראCHAGIRA- lame
33)[line 10]פנחס ליסטאהPINCHAS LISTA'AH- Pinchas the bandit (so is called by the archives of Bil'am's family). Pinchas was the commander of the invading army of Yisrael. Even if someone else killed Bil'am, his death is attributed to Pinchas since he was in command. (RASHI)
34)[line 11]לא תפיש למדרשLO TAPISH L'MIDRASH- do not increase expounding Scriptural hints [in a derogatory manner about someone] (RASHI)
35)[line 19]תתהללTIS'HALEL- you will take pride
36)[line 20]נטוי עליךNATUY ALECHA- bent or spread over you
37)[line 26]משפה ולחוץMI'SAFAH VELA'CHUTZ- from the lips and outward (i.e., Do'eg's Torah was superficial, he did not internalize it)
38)[line 33]יתצך לנצחYITATZECHA LA'NETZACH- He (HaSh-m) will shatter you (Do'eg) forever
39)[line 37]הלכות פסוקותHALACHOS PESUKOS- decided laws; clear-cut laws that do not need further analysis
40)[line 37]במגדל הפורח באוירB'MIGDAL HA'PORE'ACH BA'AVIR - (a) [Do'eg expounded 300 Halachos] in the reason for why the top of the upper part of the letter Lamed bends downwards; (b) [Do'eg expounded 300 Halachos] in the subject of a person who is carried in a sealed container (Migdal; lit. cupboard or closet) into the airspace of land outside Eretz Yisrael, which can act as a barrier to protect the person from the Tum'ah of Chutz la'Aretz;
(c)[Do'eg knew 300 methods] of suspending a tower in the air through sorcery (RASHI); (d) The MAHARSHA understands the Migdal as an allusion to the Beis ha'Mikdash and the uncertainty as to where it was supposed to be built; (e) according to the Girsa MIGDAL HA'OMED BA'AVIR - the laws regarding Tum'as Mes that is inside or outside of (i) a cupboard located in the doorway of a house, with the door of the cupboard open to a field or a courtyard (RASHI); (ii) a cupboard suspended in the air by ropes (ARUCH) - See Mishnayos Ohalos 4:1-3 (see also Background to Chagigah 15:37)
41)[line 39]רבותא למבעי בעייRABUSA L'MIBA'EI BA'AYEI- it is a sign of greatness to ask questions
42)[line 39]כולי תנויי בנזיקיןKULEI TENUYEI B'NIZIKIN- all the Talmudic academies at that time taught the Mishnaic order of Nezikin (damages)
43)[line 39]בעוקציןB'UKTZIN- in Uktzin (the last tractate of Mishnayos
44)[line 40]שכובשתSHE'KOVESHES- that she preserves
45)[line 40]בטרפיהןB'TARPEHEN- with their leaves
46)[line 41]הויותHAVAYOS- the questions of
47)[line 41]תלת סרי מתיבתאTELAS SAREI MESIVASA- 13 Yeshivos
48)[line 41]שליף מסאניהSHALIF M'SANEI- he took off his shoe (and rain came)
49)[line 42]צוחינןTZAVCHINAN- we cry out
50)[line 42]וה' יראה ללבב"[VA'YOMER HASH-M EL SHMUEL, 'AL TABET EL MAR'EIHU V'EL GEVOHAH KOMASO, KI ME'ASTIHU KI LO ASHER YIR'EH HA'ADAM, KI HA'ADAM YIR'EH LA'EINAYIM,] VA'HASH-M YIR'EH LA'LEVAV" - "And HaSh-m said to Shmuel, 'Do not look at his appearance and at his tall stature, for I have rejected him, since it is not as man sees, because man sees with the eyes, but HaSh-m sees into the heart.'" (Shmuel I 16:7) (THE CHOICE OF DAVID AS THE NEW KING)
(a)Following HaSh-m's rejection of King Shaul, He sent Shmuel to Yishai's house to anoint one of Yishai's sons as King of Israel. When Yishai brought his oldest son son, Eli'av, before him, Shmuel, impressed by his regal appearance, declared that this son must be HaSh-m's anointed one. HaSh-m, however, informed Shmuel that He had rejected Eli'av on the basis of his trait of anger, which, although dormant until now, would materialize later when David came to visit his brothers in their barracks.
(b)One by one, HaSh-m rejected all of Yishai's sons until the only one that remained was the youngest son, the shepherd David. For reasons described in the Midrash, David was an outcast, and so it did not even enter Yishai's mind to present David as a possible candidate for the throne; it was Shmuel who insisted that the youth be brought before him. After describing him as "ruddy, with beautiful eyes and good looks," the verse concludes with HaSh-m's instructions: "Arise and anoint him…." Shmuel promptly took out the horn with oil and anointed David, and returned to his home in Ramah.
(c)From that moment on, the spirit of HaSh-m enveloped David, even as it departed from Shaul ha'Melech, leaving Shaul with a Ru'ach Ra'ah (an evil spirit) in its place.
51)[line 44]דלא הוה סלקא להו שמעתאD'LO HAVAH SALKA SHMAISA- studying did not lead them to the correct halacha
52)[line 46]מוסגר ומוחלטMETZORA MUSGAR/METZORA MUCHLAT
(a)When a person develops a mark that looks like Tzara'as, a Kohen must ascertain whether or not it is a Nega Tzara'as. If it is indeed a Nega Tzara'as, the Kohen tentatively pronounces him Tamei for one or two weeks, making him a Metzora Musgar. The Kohen returns after a week to see what changes, if any, occurred to the mark. If the Kohen confirms the Tum'ah of the Metzora due to the appearance of Simanei Tum'ah in the mark, the Kohen pronounces him a Metzora Muchlat. A Metzora Muchlat remains Tamei until his Simanei Tum'ah go away.
(b)The names and colors of four types of marks that make a person a Metzora are 1. Baheres, which is the color of snow; 2. Se'es, which is the color of clean, white newborn lamb's wool; 3. Sapachas of Baheres, which is the color of the plaster used to whitewash the Beis ha'Mikdash; 4. Sapachas of Se'es, which is the color of the white membrane found on the inside of an egg
53)[line 46]פריעה ופרומהPERI'AH/PERIMAH
A Metzora, like a mourner, must let his hair grow (Peri'ah) and make a tear (Perimah) of at least a Tefach in the upper part of his clothes as is learned from the verse in Vayikra (13:45).
54)[line 47]מלאכי חבלהMAL'ACHEI CHABALAH- angels of destruction
55)[line 50]לא חצו ימיהםLO CHATZU YEMEIHEM- they did not live out half their days