[50a - 46 lines; 50b - 47 lines]
1)[line 1] NESU'AH YOTZ'AH LI'SEREIFAH V'LO ARUSAH- a woman fully married (with Nisu'in) [who committed adultery] is excluded [from the punishment of Chenek] to receive the punishment of Sereifah, but an Arusah (a woman only betrothed with Eirusin) is not [excluded from the punishment of Sekilah for committing adultery]
2)[line 7] MAMONAN AVAD- their property is destroyed
3)[line 7] EIZEH KO'ACH MERUBEH- which sin is more severe (lit. which strength is greater)
4a)[line 8] HA'MEDI'ACH- one who persuades others to worship Avodah Zarah
b)[line 8] HA'NIDACH- one who was persuaded to worship Avodah Zarah
5)[line 12] MAKEH AVIV V'IMO - one who hits his father or his mother (CHOVEL B'AV V'EM)
(a)A person who strikes his father or mother such that blood flows from the wound, after having received a proper warning that the act is punishable with death, is liable to the death penalty of Chenek (choking), as it states in the Torah (Shemos 21:15).
(b)If blood does not flow from the wound when the person strikes his father or mother, the penalty is the same as Chovel b'Chaveiro, one who strikes his fellow man (see Background to Sanhedrin 2:3). (RAMBAM Hilchos Chovel u'Mazik 4:7)
6)[line 22] MARGELA B'FUMEI D'REBBI YOCHANAN- (a) it was a common saying in the mouth of Rebbi Yochanan (but it was not a Mishnah or Beraisa, but rather what he had heard from his teachers, -- RASHI); (b) it was like a *jewel* in the mouth of Rebbi Yochanan
7)[line 32] SHNEI KELALOS NE'EMRU B'VAS KOHEN- two general principles were said [by the Torah] with regard to the daughter of a Kohen [who commits adultery]. That is, when the Torah says that a married woman (a Nesu'ah) who commits adultery is punished with Chenek, that includes the daughter of a Kohen. Second, when the Torah says that a betrothed woman (an Arusah) who commits adultery is punished with Sekilah, that includes the daughter of a Kohen. The Torah then takes the daughter of a Kohen out of each category, giving her the punishment of Sereifah whether she is a Nesu'ah or an Arusah (according to Rebbi Shimon).
8)[line 37] ZOMEMEI NESU'AH BAS KOHEN BI'CHELAL ZOMEMEI NESU'AH BAS YISRAEL- the Edim Zomemim (see Background to Sanhedrin 27:1) of a married woman (a Nesu'ah), the daughter of a Kohen whom they falsely accused of adultery, are in the same category of Edim Zomemim of a married woman, the daughter of a Yisrael (and they are punished with Chenek, the normal punishment given to an adulterous wife, and they are not punished with Sereifah, the punishment given to an adulterous wife who is the daughter of a Kohen)
9)[line 41] IM ZIKAS HA'BA'AL- with the connection to a husband (i.e. while she is betrothed)
10)[line 46] NA'ARAH / BOGERES (KETANAH / NA'ARAH / BOGERES)
A girl is a Ketanah (minor) until she has two pubic hairs after she enters her twelfth year. During the following six months she is a Na'arah (maidenhood). When six months elapse she becomes a Bogeres (adult).
11)[line 46] ARUSAH / NESU'AH (EIRUSIN / NISU'IN)
For a discussion of the entire process of the Jewish marriage, see Background to Kidushin 2:1. The two major stages of marriage are:
1.EIRUSIN - betrothal, the stage of marriage known as "Eirusin" in the Torah (Devarim 22:23), that was given the name "Kidushin" by the Rabanan to denote that through this act, the husband prohibits the wife to the entire world, just as Hekdesh (a sanctified object) is prohibited for ordinary use (Kidushin 2b; see also TOSFOS to Kidushin 7a DH v'Nifshetu and Background to Kidushin 2:1:II:b).
2.NISU'IN - the stage of completion of the marriage, in general connoting that the husband brings his wife into his house (see Background to Kidushin 2:1:II:c).