[44a - 56 lines; 44b - 55 lines]
1)[line 1]עכן, מאי טעמא איענושACHAN, MAI TA'AMA IY'ANUSH- [in the case of] Achan, why was [Klal Yisrael] punished?
2)[line 3]אף על פי שחטא, ישראל הואAF AL PI SHE'CHATA, YISRAEL HU- even though [a member of Klal Yisrael] has sinned, he remains a Yisrael
3a)[line 4]אסא דקאי ביני חילפיASA D'KA'I BEINI CHILFEI- a myrtle (Hadas) that stands among the nettles (O.F. orties, or similar plants covered with thorns, that grow in ruined buildings and desolate vineyards and fields)
b)[line 5]אסא שמיה, ואסא קרו ליהASA SHEMEI, V'ASA KARU LEI- it is still a myrtle, and people call it so
4)[line 5]"[חָטָא יִשְׂרָאֵל] וְגַם עָבְרוּ אֶת בְּרִיתִי אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי אוֹתָם; [וְ]גַם לָקְחוּ מִן הַחֵרֶם, [וְ]גַם גָּנְבוּ, [וְ]גַם כִּחֲשׁוּ, [וְ]גַם שָׂמוּ בִכְלֵיהֶם""[CHATA YISRAEL] V'GAM AVRU ES BERISI ASHER TZIVISI OSAM; V'GAM LAKCHU MIN HA'CHEREM, V'GAM GANVU, V'GAM KICHASHU, V'GAM SAMU BI'CHLEIHEM"- "[Yisrael has sinned] and they have also transgressed My covenant that I have commanded them; and they have also taken from (the spoils) that were sanctified, and they have also stolen, and they have also denied, and they have also placed (their ill-gotten gains) into their vessels" (Yehoshua 7:11).
5)[line 11]מושך בערלתוMOSHECH B'ORLASO- he would extend his foreskin so as not to appear circumcised
6)[line 13]"[וְעָרֵל זָכָר אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִמּוֹל אֶת בְּשַׂר עָרְלָתוֹ, וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מֵעַמֶּיהָ;] אֶת בְּרִיתִי הֵפַר""[V'AREL ZACHAR ASHER LO YIMOL ES BESAR ORLASO, V'NICHRESA HA'NEFESH HA'HI ME'AMEHA;] ES BERISI HEFAR"- "And an uncircumcised male who does not circumcise the flesh of his foreskin shall be cut off from his people; he has violated My covenant" (Bereishis 17:14).
7)[line 13]פשיטא!PESHITA!- this is obvious! (Rebbi Ila'ah has already told us that Achan transgressed the entire Torah.)
8)[line 14]במצוה דגופיה לא פקרB'MITZVAH D'GUFEI LO FAKAR- regarding a Mitzvah involving his very body, (I might have thought) he would not let himself loose
9)[line 14]"[וְהָיָה הַנִּלְכָּד בַּחֵרֶם, יִשָּׂרֵף בָּאֵשׁ אֹתוֹ וְאֶת כָּל אֲשֶׁר לוֹ; כִּי עָבַר אֶת בְּרִית ה',] וְכִי עָשָׂה נְבָלָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל""... V'CHI ASAH NEVALAH B'YISRAEL"- "[Whoever is singled out [as having taken] the consecrated [spoils], he and all of his possessions shall be burnt in fire; for he has transgressed the covenant of HaSh-m,] and has committed a disgrace in Yisrael" (Yehoshua 7:15).
10)[line 16]נערה המאורסהNA'ARAH HA'ME'ORASAH - A Betrothed Maiden
Normally, the penalty for adultery is death by Chenek (strangulation) for both participants. In the case of a betrothed maiden, they receive the harsher penalty of Sekila. See Background to Sanhedrin 10:4. Of course, any punishment in Beis Din only applies when the sin was committed wittingly, with a warning and before two witnesses.
11)[line 17]"[וְהוֹצִיאוּ אֶת הַנַּעֲרָ אֶל פֶּתַח בֵּית אָבִיהָ, וּסְקָלוּהָ אַנְשֵׁי עִירָהּ בָּאֲבָנִים וָמֵתָה,] כִּי עָשְׂתָה נְבָלָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל [לִזְנוֹת בֵּית אָבִיהָ; וּבִעַרְתָּ הָרָע מִקִּרְבֶּךָ]""[V'HOTZI'U ES HA'NA'ARAH EL PESACH BEIS AVIHA, U'SKALUHA ANSHEI IRAH BA'AVANIM VA'MESAH,] KI ASESAH NEVALAH B'YISRAEL [LI'ZNOS BEIS AVIHA; U'VI'ARTA HA'RA MI'KIRBECHA]"- "[And they shall bring the maiden out to the entry of her father's house, and the people of her city shall stone her with stones and she shall die,] for she has committed a disgrace in Yisrael [to commit adultery in her father's house; and you shall remove the evil from your midst]" (Devarim 22:21).
12)[line 18]כולי האי לא פקר נפשיהKULEI HAI LO FAKAR NAFSHEI- he did not let himself loose to such a degree (adultery is a sin against both HaSh-m and man, for he humiliates the maiden's family and makes her forbidden to her husband (even when the death penalty does not apply) - RASHI)
13)[line 21]"וַיִּקַּח יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶת עָכָן בֶּן זֶרַח וְאֶת הַכֶּסֶף וְאֶת הָאַדֶּרֶת וְאֶת לְשׁוֹן הַזָּהָב וְאֶת בָּנָיו וְאֶת בְּנוֹתָיו וְאֶת שׁוֹרוֹ וְאֶת חֲמוֹרוֹ וְאֶת צֹאנוֹ וְאֶת אָהֳלוֹ וְאֶת כָּל אֲשֶׁר לוֹ [וְכָל יִשְׂרָאֵל עִמּוֹ; וַיַּעֲלוּ אֹתָם עֵמֶק עָכוֹר]""VA'YIKACH YEHOSHUA ES ACHAN BEN ZERACH, V'ES HA'KESEF V'ES HA'ADERES V'ES LESHON HA'ZAHAV, V'ES BANAV V'ES BENOSAV, V'ES SHORO V'ES CHAMORO V'ES TZONO V'ES AHOLO V'ES KOL ASHER LO, [V'CHOL YISRAEL IMO; VA'YA'ALU OSAM EMEK ACHOR]"- "And Yehoshua took Achan ben Zerach, and the money and the cloak and the golden ribbon, and his sons, and his daughters, and his ox, donkey and flock, and his tent and all that was his, [and all of Yisrael along with him; and he bought them up to the Valley of Achor]" (Yehoshua 7:24).
14)[line 27]לרדותןLI'RDOSAN- to chastise them
15)[line 29]בתרתי?B'TARTEI?- with two (punishments)?
16a)[line 32]איצטלא דמילתאITZTELA D'MEILASA- a robe of fine wool
b)[line 33]סרבלא דצריפאSARBELA DI'TZERIFA- a cloak dyed with alum
17)[line 34]"[וַיִּקָּחוּם מִתּוֹךְ הָאֹהֶל וַיְבִאוּם אֶל יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְאֶל כָּל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל;] וַיַּצִּיקוּם לִפְנֵי ה'""... VA'YATZIKUM LIFNEI HASH-M"- "[And they took them from inside the tent and brought them to Yehoshua and all of Bnei Yisrael;] and he spread them out before HaSh-m" (Yehoshua 7:23).
18)[line 36]"וַיַּכּוּ מֵהֶם אַנְשֵׁי הָעַי כִּשְׁלֹשִׁים וְשִׁשָּׁה אִישׁ...""VA'YAKU ME'HEM ANSHEI HA'AI KI'SHELOSHIM V'SHISHAH ISH"- "And the people of Ai stuck down thirty six of the men..."
19)[line 40]ששקול כנגד רובה של סנהדריןSHAKUL K'NEGED RUBAH SHEL SANHENDRIN- who was equivalent [in importance] to [36 judges,] the majority of the Sanhedrin (which consists of 71 judges)
20)[line 44]אטו פנחס לא עביד הכי?ATU PINCHAS LO AVID HACHI?- did Pinchas not do the same? (See Sanhedrin 82a-82b.)
21)[line 46]שעשה פלילות עם קונוASAH PELILOS IM KONO- he made quarrels with his Maker
22)[line 46]בא וחבטןBA V'CHAVATAN- he came and cast them (Zimri and Kozbi) down
23)[line 48]"[וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, אֲהָהּ ה' אֱלֹקִים,] לָמָה הֵעֲבַרְתָּ הַעֲבִיר אֶת הָעָם הַזֶּה אֶת הַיַּרְדֵּן [לָתֵת אֹתָנוּ בְּיַד הָאֱמֹרִי לְהַאֲבִידֵנוּ; וְלוּ הוֹאַלְנוּ וַנֵּשֶׁב בְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן]""[VA'YOMER YEHOSHUA, AHAH, HASH-M EL-KIM,] LAMAH HEI'AVARTA HA'AVIR ES HA'AM HA'ZEH ES HA'YARDEN, [LA'SES OSANU B'YAD HA'EMORI L'HASHMIDENU; V'LU HO'ALNU VA'NESHEV B'EVER HA'YARDEN]"- "... why did You bring this nation across the Jordan, [to give us into the hands of the Emorites to annihilate us? If only we had decided to settle in the Transjordan!]'" (Yehoshua 7:7).
24)[line 50]שלך קשה משלהםSHELECHA KASHEH MISHE'LAHEM- your [transgression] was worse than theirs
25)[line 50]"וְהָיָה בְּעָבְרְכֶם אֶת הַיַּרְדֵּן תָּקִימוּ [אֶת הָאֲבָנִים הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם הַיּוֹם, בְּהַר עֵיבָל; וְשַׂדְתָּ אוֹתָם בַּשִּׂיד]""V'HAYAH B'OVRECHEM ES HA'YARDEN, TAKIMU [ES HA'AVANIM HA'ELEH ASHER ANOCHI METZAVEH ESCHEM HA'YOM, B'HAR EIVAL; V'SADTA OSAM BA'SID]" - "It shall be when you have gone over the Yarden, that you shall set up [these stones, which I command you this day, at Mount Eival; and you shall plaster them with plaster]" (Devarim 27:4) (HAR GERIZIM AND HAR EIVAL)
(a)The Torah commands that as soon as Bnei Yisrael enter the land of Kena'an, they were to perform a ceremony to accept upon themselves a list of blessings and curses (Devarim 11:29-32; 27:1-26). During the ceremony, six tribes stood on Har Gerizim (Shimon, Levi, Yehudah, Yosef, and Binyamin) and six on Har Eival (Re'uven, Gad, Asher, Zevulun, Dan, and Naftali). The Elders of the Kohanim and the Leviyim stood with the Aron ha'Kodesh in the valley between the mountains.
(b)The Elders first faced Har Gerizim and pronounced the verses in Devarim 27:15-26 in the form of a blessing, e.g. "Blessed is the person who does not make an idol...," contrary to the form of the verse. They next turned towards Har Eival and pronounced the same verse as it is written, "Cursed is the person...," and so on for all twelve verses (Sotah 37b).
(c)The twelve stones that the people cut from the dry bed of the Yarden River (Yehoshua 4:3, 20) were used to build a Mizbe'ach on Har Eival. They sacrificed Olos and Shelamim there, and ate and drank and rejoiced in the Simchah of having accepted the Mitzvos.
(d)According to one opinion of the Tana'im, Har Gerizim and Har Eival are mountains in the Shomron, in the vicinity of Shechem. Another Tana claims that they were actually two hillocks that were named Har Gerizim and Har Eival for the ceremony, and were near Gilgal, in the vicinity of Yericho (TOSFOS here DH V'Atem, and to Sotah 33b DH Mul).
26)[line 51]ואתם ריחקתם ששים מילV'ATEM RICHAKTEM SHISHIM MIL- and you travelled [an unnecessary] distance of 60 mil! (See the previous entry, (d). 60 mil is equivalent to 54.7 km, 57.6 km, or 69.1 km, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.)
27a)[line 51]בתר דנפקBASAR D'NAFAK- after he (Rebbi Shila) left
b)[line 51]אוקים רב אמורא עליהOKIM RAV AMORA ILAVEI- Rav appointed an interpreter for himself (to proclaim his lesson aloud to the assembled)
28)[line 53]אתה גרמת להםATAH GARAMTA LAHEM- you caused this [to happen] to them (i.e. you should not have forbidden the spoils of Yericho - RASHI)
29)[line 53]והיינו דקאמר ליה בָּעָיHAINU D'KA'AMAR LEI BA'AI- this is what HaSh-m said to Yehoshua at [the second battle at] Ai
30)[line 53]"וְעָשִׂיתָ לָעַי וּלְמַלְכָּהּ כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתָ לִירִיחוֹ וּלְמַלְכָּהּ, [רַק שְׁלָלָהּ וּבְהֶמְתָּהּ תָּבֹזּוּ לָכֶם...]""V'ASISA LA'AI UL'MALKAH KA'ASHER ASISA LI'YRICHO UL'MALKAH, [RAK SHELALAH U'VHEMTAH TAVOZU LACHEM...]"- "And you shall do unto Ai and its king as you did unto Yericho and its king, [only that its spoils and animals you shall plunder for yourselves...]"
31)[line 54]"וַיְהִי בִּהְיוֹת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּירִיחוֹ, וַיִּשָּׂא עֵינָיו וַיַּרְא [וְהִנֵּה אִישׁ עֹמֵד לְנֶגְדּוֹ וְחַרְבּוֹ שְׁלוּפָה בְּיָדוֹ; וַיֵּלֶךְ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֵלָיו וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ 'הֲלָנוּ אַתָּה אִם לְצָרֵינוּ']. וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא כִּי אֲנִי שַׂר צְבָא ה' עַתָּה בָאתִי; וַיִּפּוֹל יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶל פָּנָיו אַרְצָה וַיִּשְׁתָּחוּ [וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ מָה אֲדֹנִי מְדַבֵּר אֶל עַבְדּוֹ]""VA'YEHI BI'HYOS YEHOSHUA BI'YRICHO, VA'YISA EINAV VA'YAR [V'HINEI ISH OMED L'NEGDO V'CHARBO SHELUFAH B'YADO; VA'YELECH YEHOSHUA EILAV VA'YOMER LO, 'HA'LANU ATAH IM L'TZAREINU?']. VA'YOMER, 'LO, KI ANI SAR TZEVA HASH-M, ATAH VASI;' VA'YIPOL YEHOSHUA EL PANAV ARTZAH VA'YISHTACHU..."- "And it was when Yehoshua was at Yericho, that he lifted his eyes and saw [that behold, there was a man standing opposite him, and his unsheathed sword in his hand; and Yehoshua went to him and said, 'Are you with us, or with our enemies?' And he said, "No! For I am the general of the armies of HaSh-m, now I have come!' And Yehoshua fell upon his face to the ground and bowed down, [and said to him, 'What does my master speak to his servant?']"
32)[line 55]היכי עביד הכי?HEICHI AVID HACHI?- how did Yehoshua do such a thing (i.e. bow down before one whose identity was not verified)
33)[line 55]חיישינן שמא שד הוא!CHAYESHINAN SHEMA SHED HU!- we suspect that it might be a demon (and one may not use HaSh-m's name in greeting - RASHI)
34)[last line]גמירי דלא מפקי שם שמים לבטלהGEMIRI D'LO MAPEKEI SHEM SHAMAYIM L'VATALAH- we have a tradition that Shedim do not utter the name of HaSh-m in vain
35)[line 1]אמר לוAMAR LO- [the angel] said to him (Yehoshua)
36)[line 1]אֶמֶשׁEMESH- last evening (in this instance, afternoon)
37)[line 1]תמיד של בין הערביםTAMID SHEL BEIN HA'ARBAYIM- the afternoon Korban Tamid - see Background to Sanhedrin 36:2.
38)[line 2]ביטלתם תלמוד תורהBITALTEM TALMUD TORAH- you neglected to study Torah (due to the war taking place by day, you should have made sure to return to the camp at Gilgal to study Torah at night -RASHI)
39a)[line 3]וילן יהושע בלילה ההוא בתוך העמקVA'YALEN YEHOSHUA BA'LAILAH HA'HU BESOCH HA'EMEK- Yehoshua spent that night in the valley (this is a combination of two Pesukim, Yehoshua 8:9 and 8:13; see TOSAFOS to Megilah 3a DH va'Yalen)
b)[line 5]שלן בעומקה של הלכהSHE'LAN BE'OMEKAH SHEL HALACHAH- he spent the night [involved] in the depths of Halachah
40)[line 8]האי קרא, במערבא במאי מוקמיתו ליה?HAI KERA, BE'MA'ARAVA, B'MAI MUKMISU LEI?- this Pasuk, how do they interpret it in Eretz Yisrael?
41)[line 9]"אַל תֵּצֵא לָרִב מַהֵר; פֶּן מַה תַּעֲשֶׂה בְּאַחֲרִיתָהּ, בְּהַכְלִים אֹתְךָ רֵעֶךָ. רִיבְךָ רִיב אֶת רֵעֶךָ, וְסוֹד אַחֵר אַל תְּגָל""AL TETZEI LA'RIV MAHER; PEN MAH TA'ASEH B'ACHARISAH, B'HACHLIM OSECHA REI'ECHA. RIVECHA RIV ES REI'ECHA, V'SOD ACHER AL TEGAL"- "Do not go out hastily to enter a fight; lest you be defenseless at the end, when your friend humiliates you. [If you must] fight against your friend, but do not reveal the [past] secrets of another" (Mishlei 25: 8-9).
42)[line 13]"[וְאָמַרְתָּ, כֹּה אָמַר ה' אֱ-לֹקִים לִירוּשָׁלִַם, מְכֹרֹתַיִךְ וּמֹלְדֹתַיִךְ מֵאֶרֶץ הַכְּנַעֲנִי;] אָבִיךְ הָאֱמֹרִי וְאִמֵּךְ חִתִּית""[VE'AMARTA, KOH AMAR HASH-M EL-KIM LI'YRUSHALAYIM, MECHOROSAYICH U'MOLEDOSAYICH ME'ERETZ HA'KENA'ANI;] AVICH HA'EMORI V'IMECH CHITIS"- "... so says HaSh-m to Yerushalayim, [from your evil deeds it seems as if] your origin and birth were from the land of the Canaanites; your father was the Emori, and your mother was [of the] Chiti [nation]!" (Yechezkel 16:3).
43)[line 14]רוח פסקוניתRU'ACH PASKONIS- the Mal'ach (angel) Gavriel (RASHI)
44)[line 16]וּמַכְלִים אותםU'MACHLIM OSAM- humiliate them
45)[line 17]ומי אית ליה רשותא כולי האי?U'MI IS LEI RESHUSA KULEI HAI?- and does he (Gavriel) have sanction [to speak freely] to this degree
46a)[line 20]שפוסק דברים כלפי מעלהPOSEK DEVARIM KELAPEI MA'ALAH- he speaks conclusively towards Above
b)[line 21]שאוטם עונותיהן של ישראלOTEM AVONOSEIHEN SHEL YISRAEL- he holds back the sins of Yisrael
c)[line 22]כיון שסוגר, שוב אינו פותחKEIVAN SHE'SOGER, SHUV EINO POSE'ACH- once he ceases his arguments (on behalf of Yisrael unsuccessfully, such as at a time of Divine wrath), no other Mal'ach begins
47)[line 22]"הֲיַעֲרֹךְ שׁוּעֲךָ לֹא בְצָר [וְכֹל מַאֲמַצֵּי כֹחַ]""HA'YA'AROCH SHU'ACHA LO V'TZAR, [V'CHOL MA'AMATZEI CHO'ACH]"- "Would your nobility be emplaced forever, without any misfortune or oppressing force?" (Iyov 36:19). The Gemara will interpret the word "שׁוּעֲךָ", "your nobility," as "שַׁוְעַךָ", "your prayer."
48)[line 24]שאילמלאILMALEI- were it not for (see Tosafos to Megilah 21a DH Ilmalei)
49)[line 26](מרשעי) [משונאיהן של] ישראל(MEI'RISH'EI) [MI'SONE'EIHEN SHEL] YISRAEL- from "the enemies of" Bnei Yisrael (euphemistically, Bnei Yisrael)
50)[line 35]"וּבְנֵי זֶרַח, זִמְרִי וְאֵיתָן וְהֵימָן וְכַלְכֹּל וָדָרַע, כֻּלָּם חֲמִשָּׁה""U'VNEI ZERACH, ZIMRI V'EISAN V'HEIMAN V'CHALKOL V'DARA, KULAM CHAMISHAH"- "The sons of Zerach were Zimri, Eisan, Heiman, Kalkol, and Dara, altogether five" (Divrei haYamim I 2:6).
51)[line 39]מעשה זמריMA'ASEH ZIMRI- (a) adultery (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) any sin that resulted in the deaths of numerous members of Klal Yisrael (RASHI, 2nd explanation)
52)[line 40]שעיכן עונותיהן של ישראלSHE'ICHEN AVONOSEIHEN SHEL YISRAEL- who caused the [punishment for previous] sins of Klal Yisrael to wind [and revisit them] like a snake
53)[line 43]בתי דיניןBATEI DININ- the courts; some have the Girsa הדיינים - the judges
54)[line 51]כל כמיניה?KOL K'MINEI?- does he have the power (i.e., do we believe him)?
55)[line 52]כיון שהגיד, שוב אינו חוזר ומגידKEIVAN SHE'HIGID, SHUV EINO CHOZER U'MAGID- once a witness has testified, he cannot retract and testify again [about the same event]
56)[line 53]כי ההוא מעשה דבעיא מיכסאKI HA'HU MA'ASEH D'BA'AYA MICHSA- such as the story of Ba'aya, the tax-collector (See RASHI at length. After Shimon ben Shetach successfully eradicated eighty witches in Ashkelon, their relatives sought revenge. Two of them testified falsely about his son, and had him sentenced to death in Beis Din. As the son was being led out to be stoned, he declared, "If I am guilty of this crime, let my death not atone for me, but if I am not guilty, let my death atone for all of my (other) sins, and let the guilt hang upon the heads of the witnesses!" Upon hearing this, the witnesses retracted, and explained that they were acting out of hatred over their relatives' execution. Nonetheless, Beis Din did not accept the retraction of the testimony, and the son of Shimon ben Shetach was not vindicated.)
57a)[last line] האיש נסקל ערום HA'ISH NISKAL AROM a man is stoned unclothed (i.e. with a minimal covering, as stated by Rebbi Yehuda)
b)[last line] ואין האשה נסקלת ערומה V'EIN HA'ISHAH NISKELES ARUMAH but a woman is not stoned unclothed (with minimal covering, rather with a full garment)