[30a - 55 lines; 30b - 42 lines]

1)[line 1] V'CHOL LISHNEI D'VEI DINA- and all of the language used in a document written by a Beis Din of three judges (see Background to Sanhedrin 29:49)

2a)[line 2] B'MOSAV TELASA HAVEINA- we were sitting three together (as a proper session of Beis Din)

b)[line 2] V'CHAD LEISOHI- and one of them is no longer [alive]

3)[line 5] CHAISHINAN L'VEIS DIN TO'IN- we are concerned for a mistaken Beis Din (that does not know that two judges are invalid to be a Beis Din)

4)[line 9] BEI DINA D'RAVNA ASHI- the Beis Din of Rav Ashi (the supreme Halachic authority of the time)

5)[line 13] HITMIN- he hid

6a)[line 13] SHIDAH- a large chest

b)[line 14] TEIVAH- a chest

c)[line 14] MIGDAL- (O.F. mestier) a cupboard (RASHI to Eruvin 30b)

7a)[line 18] IM K'MOSER- if [he said it] as one who is relaying [truthful information, as a testament to his sons]

b)[line 18] IM K'MA'ARIM- if [he said it] as one who is trying to trick [his sons into believing that he has less money than it appears that he has, since he is worried that they will take it or assume that he is rich and add to his expenses]

8)[line 19] BA'AL HA'CHALOM- the ministering Angel (Gavriel -- MARGOLIYOS HA'YAM, citing the ZOHAR) in charge of producing dreams and revealing information to people (RASHI)

9)[line 21] DIVREI CHALOMOS LO MA'ALIN V'LO MORIDIN- the words (messages) of dreams do not have any legal effect

10)[line 24] LI'SHELUMEI IHU MANASA BA'HADAIHU- [the difference is] whether he (the judge who was overruled by the other two) has to pay a portion together with them (in case their ruling was in error and they have to compensate the victim from their own funds)

11)[line 26] IY L'DIDI TZAISISUN- if you [two] would have paid attention to me

12)[line 27] LI'SHELUMEI INHU MANASA DIDEI- [the difference is] whether they (the two judges who made an error in judgement and now have to compensate the victim from their own funds) have to pay his portion (i.e. the portion of the third judge, who did not agree with their ruling)

13)[line 34] ELA LA'EDIM- rather, the Mishnah -- when it says that the judges of the Beis Din would "bring them in" after they finished deliberating about the matter -- is referring to bringing in the two witnesses

14a)[line 34] L'OLAM EIN EDUSAN MITZTRAFES- their testimonies are not combined

b)[line 35] AD SHE'YIR'U SHNEIHEN K'ECHAD- until the two of them appear together as one

15)[line 39] NEKIYEI HA'DA'AS SHEB'YERUSHALAYIM- (lit. the pure of mind) those who were meticulous about their conduct, who lived in Yerushalayim

16)[line 46] "[V'NEFESH KI SECHETA V'SHAM'AH KOL ALAH] V'HU ED [O RA'AH O YADA, IM LO YAGID V'NASA AVONO.]"- "[And if a person sins, and hears (and accepts) the demand for an oath,] and he is a witness, [whether he has seen or known of it; if he does not utter it (i.e. testify), then he shall bear his iniquity.]" (Vayikra 5:1)

17)[line 47] "LO YAKUM ED [ECHAD B'ISH L'CHOL AVON UL'CHOL CHATAS B'CHOL CHET ASHER YECHETA; AL PI SHENEI EDIM O AL PI SHELOSHAH EDIM YAKUM DAVAR.]"- "One witness shall not rise up [against a man for any iniquity, or for any sin, in any sin that he may commit; according to two witnesses or three witnesses, shall the matter be established.]" (Devarim 19:15)

18)[line 48] ZEH BANAH AV (BINYAN AV)

In the Introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash to Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists thirteen methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is called Binyan Av. A Binyan Av (lit. "building through a father" -- father in this sense means a Biblical source), is a rule of Biblical interpretation in which one subject is deemed a prototype in order to apply a Halachah stated in that subject to other comparable subjects.

19)[last line] "IM LO YAGID V'NASA AVONO"- "If he does not testify, he shall bear his iniquity." (Vayikra 5:1)


20)[line 5] HAVAH MISHTAKID- he was attempting

21)[line 9] DEIN YADA- this one (i.e. Rebbi Yosi bar'Rebbi Chanina) knows

22)[line 10] LEIMA EIZO- let him say which one (see Chochmas Mano'ach, who translates "Eizo" or "Eizi" as "my beloved one")

23)[line 10] AMAR LEI "LISMECHEI MAR B'REISHA"- he (Rebbi Shimon ben Elyakim) said to him (Rebbi Yochanan), "Let the master first give him (Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina) Semichah"

24)[line 12] L'ZEH HUTZRACHTI?!- for this [statement] I was in need?!

25)[line 13] HO'IL V'ALISA LO SERED- since you have been elevated (and given Semichah), you shall not be lowered

26)[line 19] NEZIKIN D'VEI KARNA- the tractate Nezikin learned in the Yeshiva of Karna (it was different than the tractates of Nezikin that we have)

27a)[line 19] EDUS BECHOR - testimony that the blemish (Mum) on a Bechor came about by itself and was not inflicted on the animal by the Kohen himself (BECHOR BEHEMAH TEHORAH)

(a)The Kedushah of Bechor rests on every first-born male of an ox, goat or sheep when it comes out of its mother's womb. Nevertheless, there is a Mitzvah for a person to sanctify it himself (Erchin 29a, based on Devarim 15:19). He must then give it to a Kohen; it may not be redeemed.

(b)If the animal has no Mum (blemish), the Kohen must bring it as a Korban during its first year. After its blood and Emurim (see Background to Yevamos 7:8 and 100:9) are offered on the Mizbe'ach, its meat is eaten in Yerushalayim during the following two days and the intervening night.

(c)If the animal has or develops a Mum, it becomes the property of the Kohen. It must be slaughtered and eaten during its first year. If it developed a Mum after the first year, it must be slaughtered and eaten within thirty days. The Kohen can give it away or sell it, even to a non-Kohen. However, it may not be sold in a meat market or weighed in the usual manner. It may not be redeemed with money.

(d)Now that there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, a Kohen must care for a Bechor until it develops a Mum. Alternatively, he can sell it, even if it has no Mum, to a non-Kohen, who may eat it after it develops a Mum. It may not be bought, however, in order to be sold for a profit (Sefer ha'Chinuch #393, #445).

b)[line 20] EDUS CHAZAKAH- testimony to establish a Chezkas Shalosh Shanim (see Background to Sanhedrin 28:1)

c)[line 20] SHEB'VEN VESHEB'VAS - concerning a boy and concerning a girl (SIMANIM)

A boy is considered a Katan (minor) until he has two pubic hairs after he becomes thirteen years old. A girl is a Ketanah (minor) until she has two pubic hairs after she enters her twelfth year. During the following six months she is a Na'arah (maidenhood). When six months elapse she becomes a Bogeres (adult).

28a)[line 22] ACHAS B'GABAH- (a) one hair on her back (RASHBAM to Bava Basra 56b); (b) one hair on her knuckles (lit. backside, referring to the backside of her fingers, where they meet the hands) (RASHI here and to Bava Kama 70b); (c) one pubic hair below her private area (RASHI to Nidah 52b; see ARUCH LA'NER here)

b)[line 22] ACHAS BI'KEREISAH- one pubic hair on her abdomen

29)[line 22] HAI CHATZI DAVAR V'CHATZI EDUS HU!- when the Torah says, "According to the word of two witnesses shall a case be established (Yakum *Davar*)" (Devarim 19:15), it means that the witnesses must see, and testify about, the entire act for which the person is being held accountable. If they see only half of the act (in our case, only one hair), their testimony cannot be used to deem the girl an adult.

30)[line 25] MECHOZA- Mechoza, a large Jewish trading town on the Tigris River

31)[line 34] SHADA BAH NARGA- swung an ax at it (cutting it down), i.e. disproved it

32)[line 35] AMAR LEI HAINU DI'SHEMI'A LI ALAICHU D'RAMISU DIKLEI V'ZAKFISU LEHU- he (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak) said to him (Rav Huna brei d'Rav Yehoshua), "This confirms what I have heard about you (i.e. the people of your city, -- RASHI), that you throw down palm trees and then put them back up" (i.e. you answer difficult questions and then you defend the questions)

33)[line 37] EDUS HA'MAKCHESHES ZU ES ZU BI'VEDIKOS - the testimonies of two witnesses which are contradictory in the matter of Bedikos (DERISHAH V'CHAKIRAH)

(a)When witnesses testify in Beis Din about a specific event in order to convict the perpetrator, the judges interrogate each witness separately to determine whether their testimony is reliable.

(b)Chazal learn from the verses of the Torah (Devarim 13:15, 17:4, 19:18) that two types of questions are employed to ascertain the truth of their testimonies: Chakiros and Derishos (or Bedikos). There is no limit to the amount and type of Derishos that are used. Chakiros, however, are limited to seven specific questions (Sanhedrin 32a).

34)[line 39] ARNEKI- a wallet, money-bag

35)[line 40] MANEH - one Maneh (which is equal to 25 Sela'im, or 100

Dinerin (1 Sela = 4 Dinar))

36)[line 41] SAYIF- a sword

37)[line 41] ARIRAN- a battle-ax

38)[last line] EIN ZEH NACHON- this is not corroborative testimony. The term "Nachon" (lit. "correct") in this context is based on the verse, "v'Hineh Emes, *Nachon* ha'Davar" (Devarim 13:15), which is the verse from which the Gemara (Sanhedrin 40b) derives the obligation for Beis Din to interrogate the witnesses with questions of "Derishos" (or "Bedikos") (RASHI)

39)[last line] KELAV- his clothes