[13a - 30 lines; 13b - 41 lines]
1)[line 2]"... וְחַג הָאָסִיף תְּקוּפַת הַשָּׁנָה""... V'CHAG HA'ASIF TEKUFAS HA'SHANAH"- "... and the festival of gathering at the season of the [new] year" (Shemos 34:22). These words refer to the festival of Sukos. The "season of the year" is a reference to the beginning of the new year (Rosh HaShanah), which occurs two weeks prior to the commencement of Sukos. Rav Yehudah explains in the name of Shmuel that both Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Yosi understand from this verse that the part of Sukos during which one may gather - i.e., Chol ha'Mo'ed, when one may harvest his crops if he would otherwise suffer a loss - must fall in the new season; i.e., autumn, which begins with the autumnal equinox (Tekufas Tishrei).
2a)[line 3]מר סבר כוליה חג בעינן בתקופה חדשהMAR SAVAR KULEI CHAG BA'INAN B'TEKUFAH CHADASHAH- [Rebbi Yehudah] maintains that the entire Chol ha'Mo'ed must be included in the new season [and there is therefore no need to extend the year when Tekufas Tishrei falls on the sixteenth of the month which is the first day of Chol ha'Mo'ed in Eretz Yisrael]
b)[line 4]ומר סבר מקצת חג בעינן בתקופה חדשהU'MAR SAVAR MIKTZAS CHAG BA'INAN B'TEKUFAH CHADASHAH- and [Rebbi Yosi] maintains that only part of Chol ha'Mo'ed must be included in the new season [and there is therefore no need to extend the year when Tekufas Tishrei falls on the twenty-first of the month, which is the last day of Chol ha'Mo'ed]
3a)[line 5]יום תקופה גומרYOM TEKUFAH GOMER- The day during which the autumnal equinox falls is considered the last [day of the previous season]. (The duration of a solar year is 365 days and one-quarter days, and solar years are counted from Tekufas Nisan. Thus, the Halachic autumnal equinox is assumed to always fall in the middle of a day: at 9 PM, 3 AM, 9 AM, or 3 PM.)
b)[line 8]יום תקופה מתחילYOM TEKUFAH MASCHIL- the day during which the autumnal equinox falls is considered the first [day of the new season]
4)[line 13]שתי ידות בחודשSHTEI YADOS BA'CHODESH- two "hands" of the month; as the Beraisa explains, this means two equal parts; i.e., two thirds
5)[line 14]כ' יוםESRIM YOM- twenty days. This means that if the Tekufah would occur after twenty days of Tishrei have passed - on the twenty-first, which is the last day of Chol ha'Mo'ed - then according to Rebbi Yehudah, the year should be made into a leap year. This is because although Rebbi Yehudah in this Beraisa maintains that only part of Chol ha'Mo'ed need fall out during the new season, he also rules that Yom Tekufah Gomer, and therefore the last day of Chol ha'Moed would still be considered summer.
6)[line 14]מחשביןMECHASHVIN- we calculate
7a)[line 14]ששה עשר לפני הפסח, מעבריןSHISHAH ASAR LIFNEI HA'PESACH, ME'ABRIN- if the spring equinox, which normally occurs before Pesach, falls out more than sixteen days into the month of Nisan, then we make the year into a leap year. The reasoning for this is as follows: Every solar season lasts for approximately ninety-one days. Therefore, there are about 182 days between the spring equinox and the autumnal equinox. In a standard lunar year, every other month is twenty-nine days and every other month is thirty days. Thus, six consecutive lunar months total 177 days, a difference of five days. If the spring equinox falls on the seventeenth day of Nisan, then the autumnal equinox will fall on the twenty-second day of Tishrei, which is Shemini Atzeres. Although Rebbi Yosi in this Beraisa maintains that Yom ha'Tekufah Maschil, there would still be no days of Chol ha'Mo'ed Sukos in the autumn season. It should be noted that although Rebbi Yosi states his opinion in terms of days in Nisan, the festival which he requires to fall in the correct season is Sukos, not Pesach.
b)[line 15]ששה עשר לפני החג, אין מעבריןSHISHAH ASAR LIFNEI HA'CHAG, EIN ME'ABRIN- if the autumnal equinox, which normally occurs before Sukos, falls out more than sixteen days into the month of Tishrei, then we do not make the year into a leap year. This is because there are plenty of remaining days of Chol ha'Mo'ed, which does not end until the twenty-first of Tishrei, in the autumn season. The Gemara will later ask that this ruling appears to be obvious.
8)[line 16]אף ששה עשר לפני החג מעבריןAF SHISHAH ASAR LIFNEI HA'CHAG ME'ABRIN- even if the autumnal equinox, which normally occurs before Sukos, falls out more than sixteen days into the month of Tishrei, then we do make the year into a leap year. This is because Rebbi Shimon rules that the entire Chol ha'Mo'ed must be included in the new season. The Gemara will later ask that this opinion appears to be identical with that of the Tana Kama.
9)[line 18]קשיאKASHYA- [the opinion of (the Tana) Rebbi Yehudah in this Beraisa remains] a[n unresolved] question [on the way (the Amora) Rav Yehuda in the name of Shmuel presented his opinion]
10)[line 21][רבי יוסי] היינו רבי יהודה![REBBI YOSI] HAINU REBBI YEHUDAH!- [the opinion of Rebbi Yosi] is synonymous with [that of] Rebbi Yehudah [in that both maintain that only part of Chol ha'Mo'ed Sukos need fall in the new season]!
11a)[line 25]שיבסרSHIVSAR- seventeen
b)[line 25]תמניסרTAMNEISAR- eighteen
12)[line 26]איןIN- [the year is] indeed [made into a leap year]
13)[line 27]בצירBATZIR- less
14)[line 27]אִידִי ואידיIDI V'IDI- both [the seventeenth and the eighteenth days] (and for that matter, the nineteenth through twenty-first as well)
15)[line 27]וְאַיְידֵיAIDI- since
16)[line 2]ולא מסיימיLO MESAIMI- there is no indication [of which Tana holds which opinion]
17)[line 4]האיכאHA'IKA- there is [a fulfillment of these conditions when the Yom Tekufah falls on the fifteenth of Tishrei]
18)[line 5]בתקופת ניסןTEKUFAS NISAN- the spring (vernal) equinox
19)[line 6]"שָׁמוֹר אֶת חֹדֶשׁ הָאָבִיב, [וְעָשִׂיתָ פֶּסַח לַה' אֱ-לֹקֶיךָ...]""SHAMOR ES CHODESH HA'AVIV, [V'ASISA PESACH LA'SH-M ELOKECHA…]"- "Observe the month of Aviv, [and offer the Pesach sacrifice to HaSh-m your G-d...]" (Devarim 16:1). According to Acherim, "Aviv" refers to the first solar "month" of the spring season, when the grain ripens. The word "Chodesh" implies "Chidush," "[the moon's] renewal." The Torah requires that the first solar "month" of spring coincide (at least in part) with the renewal of the moon in the first half of the month of Nisan (RASHI).
20)[line 8]וליעבריה לאדר?V'LEI'ABREI L'ADAR?- and why not add a day to the month of Adar [making it a thirty day month instead of a twenty-nine day month, thereby deferring Pesach by a day]?
21)[line 8]תנא מלמעלה למטה קחשיבTANA MI'LEMAILAH L'MATAH KA'CHASHIV- the Tana [of Acherim] is counting down; i.e., if the spring equinox does not occur until seventeen days into Nisan, or sixteen, etc., then make the year into a leap year
22)[line 9]עד מיעוטוAD MI'UTO- if the Tekufah does not occur until just after a minority of the days in the month have passed (i.e., the fifteenth day of Nisan has passed) [proclaim a leap year; but if the Tekufah will occur on the fifteenth, we may in fact add a day to Adar to avoid making leap year (RASHI)]
23)[line 12]ויום טוב ראשוןV'YOM TOV RISHON- including the first day of Sukos (upon which one may not perform any constructive labor)
24)[line 13]חג הבא בזמן אסיפהCHAG HA'BA B'ZMAN ASIFA- the festival that occurs at the time of the harvest
25)[line 14]"וְסָמְכוּ זִקְנֵי הָעֵדָה [אֶת יְדֵיהֶם עַל רֹאשׁ הַפָּר לִפְנֵי ה'; וְשָׁחַט אֶת הַפָּר לִפְנֵי ה']""V'SAMCHU ZIKNEI HA'EDAH [ES YEDEIHEM AL ROSH HA'PAR LIFNEI HASH-M, V'SHACHAT ES HA'PAR LIFNEI HASH-M]" (PAR HE'ELEM DAVAR SHEL TZIBUR - Bulls Offered by the Supreme Court to Atone for their Mistaken Ruling)
(a)If the Sanhedrin (the Supreme Court of the Jewish People) issues a ruling in error, permitting a transgression punishable by Kares had it been transgressed intentionally, and the people of Eretz Yisrael - either the majority of Klal Yisrael or most of the Shevatim - act upon their ruling, then the Sanhedrin must offer a "Par He'elem Davar" to atone for the nation. This Korban consists of a bull offered as a Korban Chatas. Rebbi Meir rules that the Sanhedrin must offer a single bull. Rebbi Yehudah maintains that each Shevet (tribe) offers a bull, for a total of twelve bulls. Rebbi Shimon is of the opinion that both are true, and a total of thirteen bulls are offered (Mishnah, Horayos 4b). If the sin committed was idolatry, the Sages of the Sanhedrin must bring a bull as an Olah and a goat as a Chatas (Mishnah, Horayos 9a). (RAMBAM Hilchos Shegagos 12:1)
(b)Regarding the procedure for offering the bull, the verse states, "And the elders of the people shall lean [their hands upon the head of the bull before HaSh-m; and he shall slaughter the bull before HaSh-m]" (Vayikra 4:15). After the bull is slaughtered, the blood of the bull is sprinkled seven times in the Heichal in the direction of the Paroches. It is then applied to the Keranos (the cubic posts placed upon the corners) of the Mizbe'ach ha'Ketores (the smaller altar located in the Heichal upon which the incense offering is burned daily). The Sheyarei ha'Dam (remainder of the blood) is poured on the western Yesod (base) of the Mizbe'ach, whereas the Emurim (certain fats and innards) are burned on the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon (outer Mizbe'ach).
(c)The flesh and remaining parts of the bull is burned outside of Yerushalayim (Vayikra 4:12-21). The clothing of those who carry the carcass out of the Azarah becomes Tamei. (According to Rebbi Shimon in Yoma 67b, this applies also to those involved with burning the bull.)
26)[line 15]זקני השוקZIKNEI HA'SHUK- elders of the marketplace; i.e., those who are not members of the Sanhedrin
27)[line 16]קטני עדהKETANEI EDAH- members of lower courts
28)[line 16]מיוחדין שבעדהMEYUCHADIN SHEB'EDAH- members of the unique court; i.e., the Sanhedrin
29a)[line 17]"וסמכו" שנים"V'SAMCHU," SHENAYIM- "and they shall lean" [implies a minimum of] two [elders]
b)[line 17]"זקני" שנים"ZIKNEI," SHENAYIM- "the elders of" [implies a minimum of an additional] two
30)[line 17]ואין ב''ד שקולEIN BEIS DIN SHAKUL- a court cannot be even; i.e., it must consist of an odd number of judges in order that they not reach a hung verdict
31)[line 22]ההוא מיבעי ליה לגופיהHA'HU MIBA'I LEI L'GUFEI- that [word] is necessary for itself (i.e., to teach that they have a Mitzvah to lean on the head of the bull before it is slaughtered)
32)[line 26]מאי "על"? בסמוךMAI "AL"? B'SAMUCH- what does the word "Al" mean? -alongside
33)[line 26]גמר "ראש" "ראש" מעולהGAMAR "ROSH" "ROSH" ME'OLAH (GEZEIRAH SHAVAH - A Derivation that Connects Two Subjects through a Common Word or Phrase)
(a)In a Beraisa found in the introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash on Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists the thirteen methodologies employed by Chazal when determining Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of these is Gezeirah Shavah, in which two identical words (or two words that share the same root) that appear in two different sections of the Torah reveal that the Halachos applicable to one section apply to the other and vice versa.
(b)One may apply a Gezeirah Shavah only if he has received a tradition from his teachers that such a connection between the two words exists. Once the connection is established, however, then one may derive Halachos that were not specified in the tradition.
(c)A Gezeirah Shavah is unlimited; one may not pick and choose which Halachos he would like to apply. This facet of a Gezeirah Shavah is termed "Ein Gezeirah Shavah l'Mechetzah." This rule is waived in the case of an explicit teaching that precludes the application of a specific Halachah.
(d)There are three possible configurations of a Gezeirah Shavah:
1.MUFNEH MI'SHNEI TZEDADIM - If both words are seemingly unnecessary and are not used in the derivation of any other teaching, then all of the rules described above apply.
2.MUFNEH MI'TZAD ECHAD - If the word in only one of the sections is available, some maintain that Halachos may be derived from such a Gezeirah Shavah only if there is no argument against comparing the two sections. This status is known as "Lemedin u'Meshivin." Others rule that such a Gezeirah Shavah is no more limited than one that is Mufneh mi'Shnei Tzedadim.
3.EINO MUFNEH KOL IKAR - If neither word is free, then those who maintain that a Gezeirah Shavah that is Mufneh mi'Tzad Echad is unlimited grant such a Gezeirah Shavah the status of Lemedin u'Meshivin. Those who applied the status of Lemedin u'Meshivin to a Gezeirah Shavah that is Mufneh mi'Shnei Tzedadim rule that this one may not be used to determine any Halachos whatsoever.
(e)Rebbi Yehudah maintains that the word "v'Samchu" did not have to have been written in the verse describing the offering of the Par He'elem Davar. This is because one could have derived that Semichah is necessary in this case through a Gezeirah Shavah utilizing the word "Rosh" in this verse, and the word "Rosh" written in the verse describing the Mitzvah of Semichah of a private Korban Olah (see next entry).
34)[line 27]"[וְסָמַךְ יָדוֹ עַל] רֹאשׁ [הָעֹלָה...]""[V'SAMACH YADO AL] ROSH [HA'OLAH...]" (SEMICHAH - Leaning on the Head of a Sacrifice)
The verse states, "[And he shall lean with his hand upon] the head of his [Olah offering...]" (Vayikra 1:4). This teaches that there is a positive commandment to lean with all of one's might on the head of his sacrifice before it is slaughtered.
35)[line 27]ורבי שמעון לא גמרREBBI SHIMON LO GAMAR...- Rebbi Shimon did not have a tradition from his Rebbi that a Gezeirah Shavah connects these two verses.
36)[line 30]מיסמך סביMISMACH SABEI- the granting of Rabbinical certification to the elders
37)[line 31]"וַיִּסְמֹךְ אֶת יָדָיו עָלָיו [וַיְצַוֵּהוּ, כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר ה' בְּיַד מֹשֶׁה]""VA'YISMOCH ES YADAV ALAV [VA'YETZAVEHU, KA'ASHER DIBER HASH-M B'YAD MOSHE]"- "And he leaned his hands upon him [and he commanded him, according to the word of HaSh-m in the hand of Moshe]" (Bamidbar 27:23). This verse describes the passing of the mantle of leadership from Moshe Rabeinu to Yehoshua.
38)[line 32]תסגיTISGI- it should be enough
39)[line 33]משה במקום שבעים וחד קאיMOSHE BI'MKOM SHIV'IM V'CHAD KA'I- Moshe stands in place of [a] seventy-one [member court since he stood at their head]
40)[line 35]בידא ממש סמכין ליה?B'YADA MAMASH SAMCHINAN LEI?- must one physically place his hand upon the head of [he who is receiving certification]?
41)[line 36]בשמאBI'SHMA- with a title
42)[line 37]למידןL'MEIDAN- to rule upon
43)[line 37]דיני קנסותDINEI KENASOS- cases involving fines (defined as a payment that over-compensates for damages or a set penalty that does not change based upon the damages)
44)[line 39]ברםBARAM- however
45)[line 40]שאילמלא הואILMALEI HU- if not for him
46)[last line]נשתכחו? נגרוסינהו!NISHTAKCHU? NAGRUSINHU!- they would have been forgotten? we could have [re]learned them!