[7a - 50 lines; 7b - 49 lines]
1)[line 2]היינו תנא קמא!HAINU TANA KAMA!- this is [then the same opinion expressed by] the Tana Kama (quoted on 6a, last line) [who rules that a judge may not effect a compromise once the verdict has been delivered - implying that until that point he may do so]!
2)[line 2]מצוהMITZVAH- [that which a judge] ought to [offer the option of a compromise]
3)[line 4]היינו דרבי שמעון בן מנסיאHAINU D'REBBI SHIMON BEN MENASYA!- [the opinion of the Tana Kama] is [then the same opinion expressed by] Rebbi Shimon ben Menasya (quoted on 6b, line 40) [who rules that a judge may effect a compromise until he becomes aware of which side appears to have presented the winning argument]!
4)[line 5]משתשמע דבריהןMISHE'TISHMA DIVREIHEN- [whether or not a judge may effect a compromise] after he has heard their arguments [and is aware of who has presented the winning claim, but before the verdict has been delivered]
5)[line 7]ופליגא דרבי תנחום בר חנילאיU'FELIGA D'REBBI TANCHUM BEN CHANILA'I- and [those opinions expressed on 6b who interpret the verse of (a) "בּוֹצֵעַ בֵּרֵךְ, נִאֵץ ה'" "Botze'a Berech Ni'etz HaSh-m..." (6a, line 5; RASHI); (b) "תּוֹרַת אֱמֶת הָיְתָה בְּפִיהוּ... וְרַבִּים הֵשִׁיב מֵעָו?ֹן" "Toras Emes Hayesah b'Fihu... v'Rabim Heshiv me'Avon" (6a, line 9; TOSFOS DH Keneged) in various ways] disagree with [the opinion of] Rebbi Tanchum ben Chanila'i
6)[line 8]מקרא זהMIKRA ZEH- this verse [of (a) "Botze'a Berech Ni'etz HaSh-m..." (6a, line 5; RASHI); (b) "Toras Emes Hayesah b'Fihu..." (6a, line 9; TOSFOS DH Keneged)]
7)[line 9]מעשה העגלMA'ASEH HA'EGEL- [that which Aharon played a role in] the episode of the Golden Calf (Shemos 32:15-35)
8)[line 11]חורCHUR- son of Calev and Miriam from the tribe of Yehudah; he and his uncle Aharon were left as leaders of Klal Yisrael when Moshe Rabeinu was on Har Sinai for forty days and nights (Shemos 24:14)
9)[line 11]שזבוח לפניוSHE'ZAVU'ACH LEFANAV- who was slaughtered before him. Chur was murdered when he attempted to stop Klal Yisrael from worshipping the Golden Calf (Vayikra Rabah 32:5). Our Gemara interprets the words "וַיִּבֶן מִזְבֵּחַ לְפָנָיו" "va'Yiven Mizbe'ach Lefanav" to mean that Aharon "understood from [he who was] slaughtered before him."
10)[line 13]"אִם יֵהָרֵג בְּמִקְדַּשׁ ה' כֹּהֵן וְנָבִיא""... IM YEHAREG B'MIKDASH HASH-M KOHEN V'NAVI"- "[... How was it possible that women should eat the fruit of their womb, the infants whom they pampered?] How was it possible that a Kohen and prophet should be murdered in the sanctuary of HaShm?" (Eichah 2:20). In the last part of this verse, HaSh-m answers the questions of how He allowed the atrocities committed against Klal Yisrael at the time of the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash. The reason was that hundreds of years earlier, Zecharyah son of Yehoyada the Kohen - not to be confused with Zecharyah ben Berechyah who prophesied in the early days of Bayis Sheini (see Background to Shekalim 13:40) - had been murdered by princes of Yehudah following the orders of King Yo'ash. Zecharyah had been standing in the Beis ha'Mikdash delivering a prophecy remonstrating against the worship of King Yo'ash as a god (Divrei ha'Yamim II 24:20-22). In the context of our Gemara, Aharon - who prophetically knew of this episode that was yet to unfold - was aware that the murder of an individual who is both a Kohen and Navi, as he himself was, is an unforgivable crime. (See Insights.)
11)[line 14]ולא הויא להו תקנתא (לעולם)V'LO HAVYA LEHU TAKANTA (L'OLAM)- and they would not (ever) be able to make amends
12)[line 14]מוטב דליעבדו לעגל...MUTAV D'LEI'AVDU L'EGEL...- better that they should serve the Golden Calf... According to Rebbi Tanchum ben Chanila'i, the verse in question (see above, entry #5) may be interpreted to mean (a) "And [Aharon] compromised his ideals to further the blasphemy of HaSh-m" (RASHI); (b) "[Aharon] turned many from [a greater] sin [by allowing them to worship the Golden Calf instead of murdering him]" (TOSFOS DH Keneged).
13)[line 16]והני תנאיHANEI TENA'EI- those Tana'im [who disagree with Rebbi Shimon ben Menasya and maintain that compromise is permitted even after the arguments have been heard and evaluated]
14)[line 17]דינו של אדםDINO SHEL ADAM- a person's judgment [in the World to Come]
15)[line 18]"פּוֹטֵר מַיִם רֵאשִׁית מָדוֹן""POTER MAYIM REISHIS MADON..."- "Self-exemption from Torah is the beginning of judgment..." (Mishlei 17:14). Torah is compared to water (Ta'anis 7a).
16a)[line 18]האי תיגראHAI TIGRA- an argument
b)[line 18]דָּמְיָא לצינורא דבידקא דְמַיָּאDAMYA L'TZINORA D'VIDKA D'MAYA- is similar to a rivulet of water that breaches the dike holding back a river
c)[line 19]כיון דרווח, רווחKEIVAN D'RAVACH, RAVACH- once it breaks through, it quickly widens [unless it is immediately brought under control]. Rav Huna suggests that the verse of "Poter Mayim..." may be read to mean, "Like water breaching a dike is the beginning of an argument..."
17)[line 19]אביי קשישא אמרABAYEI KESHISHA AMAR- Abaye the elder suggested [another parable for the beginnings of an argument]
18a)[line 19]דמי לגודא דגמלאDAMI L'GUDA D'GAMLA- [it is] akin to the planks of a [new] bridge [which are at first loose and shaky]
b)[line 20]כיון דקם, קםKEIVAN D'KAM, KAM- once they become set in place, they remain there. RASHI explains that this parable is unrelated to a verse. TOSFOS (DH l'Guda) maintain that it is another interpretation of "Poter Mayim...," and that Abaye Keshisha reads the verse to mean, "Like that which enables one to avoid water (i.e., the bridge) is the beginning of an argument...."
19)[line 20]שמע"י ושת"י שב"ע זמירו"ת הו"א סימןSHAM"EI V'SHT"EI SHEV"A ZEMIRO"S H"U SIMAN - This mnemonic device refers to the following five wise sayings for which Amora'im find sources in verses. They are:
1."דשמע" "d'Shama" (line 21)
2."אתרתי" "aTartei" (line 23)
3."שב" "Shev" (line 25)
4."לזמר" "Lizmor" (line 27)
5."היא" "Hi" (line 29)
20)[line 20]דהוה קאמר ואזילHAVAH KA'AMAR V'AZIL- he would say as he went along; i.e., he was fond of saying
21a)[line 21]טוביה דשמע ואדיש!TUVEI D'SHAMA V'ADISH!- praiseworthy is he who hears others degrade him and [habitually] remains silent!
b)[line 21]חלפוה בישתיה מאהCHALFUHA BISHTEI ME'AH- [due to his restraint] he has avoided one hundred evils [that would have come upon him as a result of becoming embroiled in an argument]
22)[line 22]קרא כתיב!KRA KESIV!- this is written in a verse!
23a)[line 22]"פּוֹטֵר מַיִם רֵאשִׁית מָדוֹן""POTER MAYIM RESHIS MADON..."- (Shmuel now interprets this verse to mean) "The opening of an argument [through response to provocation] is the beginning of judgment..."
b)[line 22]ריש מאה דיניREISH ME'AH DINEI- ["Reishis Madon" can be interpreted to mean] the beginning of one hundred decrees [since the word "Madon" (a) is a contraction for "Me'ah Dinei"; (b) has the Gematriya of 100]
24)[line 23]אתרתי תלת, גנבא לא מיקטלA'TARTEI TELAS, GANAVA LO MIKTIL- [do not wonder if] a thief is not killed (i.e., punished from Heaven) for two or three [thefts, since HaSh-m will sometimes wait until one has accrued multiple sins and then exact retribution from the sinner with one large punishment]
25)[line 23]"כֹּה אָמַר ה', 'עַל שְׁלֹשָׁה פִּשְׁעֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְעַל אַרְבָּעָה לֹא אֲשִׁיבֶנּוּ...'""KOH AMAR HASH-M, 'AL SHELOSHAH PISH'EI YISRAEL, V'AL ARBA'AH LO ASHIVENU'"- "Thus says HaSh-m, 'For three sins of Yisrael [I have forgiven them], but on the fourth I shall not respond [without punishment]...'" (Amos 2:6).
26)[line 25]שב בירי לשלמנא, וחדא לעביד בישSHEV BEIREI L'SHALMANA, V'CHADA L'AVID BISH- seven pits [are dug to trap] a wholesome man [and he is saved from them all], and one for an evil man [and he falls into it]
27)[line 25]"כִּי שֶׁבַע יִפּוֹל צַדִּיק וָקָם; (ורשע יפול באחת) [וּרְשָׁעִים יִכָּשְׁלוּ בְרָעָה]""KI SHEVA YIPOL TZADIK VA'KAM; (V'RASHA YIPOL B'ACHAS) [U'RESHA'IM YIKASHLU V'RA'AH]"- "For a righteous man will fall seven times and then get up; (but a wicked man will fall at once) [but the wicked shall stumble [and not arise] when the evil befalls them]" (Mishlei 24:16).
28a)[line 26](דאזיל) [ד]מבי דינא (שקל גלימא) [שקיל גלימיה](D'AZIL) [DE]MI'BEI DINA (SHAKAL GELIMA) [SHAKIL GELIMEI]- [a litigant] who has had his cloak confiscated by Beis Din [as payment to another]
b)[line 27]ליזמר זמר וליזיל באורחאLIZMOR ZEMAR V'LEIZIL B'ORCHA- ought to sing a song as he walks along the way [since Beis Din has ensured that he will not sin by retaining an item that does not belong to him]
29)[line 28]"... וְגַם כָּל הָעָם הַזֶּה עַל מְקוֹמוֹ יָבֹא בְשָׁלוֹם""... V'GAM KOL HA'AM HA'ZEH AL MEKOMO YAVO V'SHALOM"- "[If you carry out this matter, and HaSh-m commands you to do so, then you will be able to hold up;] and this entire nation, too, will return to its place in peace" (Shemos 18:23). This verse records the advice offered by Yisro to his son-in-law Moshe Rabeinu regarding Yisro's plan of setting up a judicial system. Our Gemara infers that after a court case, all parties are at peace - even those that have lost the case.
30)[line 29]היא ניימא, ודיקולא שפילHI NAIMA, V'DIKULA SHAFIL- when [a woman] nods off to sleep, the basket [upon her head in which she stores her sewing materials] falls; i.e., when one is lazy, his work is not accomplished
31)[line 29]"בַּעֲצַלְתַּיִם יִמַּךְ הַמְּקָרֶה; וּבְשִׁפְלוּת יָדַיִם יִדְלֹף הַבָּיִת""BA'ATZALTAYIM YIMACH HA'MEKAREH, UV'SHIFLUS YADAYIM YIDLOF HA'BAYIS"- "Through laziness the roof beams will collapse, and through idleness of the hands the house will leak" (Koheles 10:18).
32a)[line 30]גברא דרחיצנא עליהGAVRA D'RACHITZNA ALEI- he whom I relied upon [in the past]
b)[line 30]אדייה לגזיזיה וקםADYEI LI'GEZIZEI V'KAM- (a) raised his fist and stood against me (RASHI); (b) took up his weapons and stood against me (ARUCH)
33)[line 31]"גַּם אִישׁ שְׁלוֹמִי אֲשֶׁר בָּטַחְתִּי בוֹ אוֹכֵל לַחְמִי, הִגְדִּיל עָלַי עָקֵב""GAM ISH SHELOMI ASHER BATACHTI VO..."- "Furthermore, he whom I was at peace with - upon whom I relied, and shared my bread - rose up to plot against me" (Tehilim 41:10).
34a)[line 32]כי רחימתין הוה עזיזאKI RECHIMTIN HAVAH AZIZA- when the love [between my wife and I] was strong
b)[line 32]אפותיא דספסירא שכיבןA'PUSYA D'SAFSIRA SHECHIVAN- we were able to lie [together] on the width of a sword
35)[line 33]פוריא בר שיתין גרמידי לא סגי לןPURYA BAR SHITIN GARMIDEI LO SAGI LAN- a bed sixty Amos wide is not [wide] enough for us
36)[line 34]"וְנוֹעַדְתִּי לְךָ שָׁם, וְדִבַּרְתִּי אִתְּךָ מֵעַל הַכַּפּוֹרֶת...""V'NO'ADTI LECHA SHAM V'DIBARTI ITCHA ME'AL HA'KAPORES..."- "And I shall appoint a time for you there, and I shall speak to you from above the cover of the Ark [from between the two Cherubim that are upon the Ark of the Covenant...]" (Shemos 25:22).
37a)[line 35]ארון תשעהARON TISH'AH- the Ark is nine [Tefachim tall]
b)[line 35]וכפורת טפחV'CHAPORES TEFACH- and the cover of the Ark is one [Tefach high]
38)[line 35]"וְהַבַּיִת אֲשֶׁר בָּנָה הַמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה לַה' שִׁשִּׁים אַמָּה אָרְכּוֹ וְעֶשְׂרִים רָחְבּוֹ וּשְׁלֹשִׁים אַמָּה קוֹמָתוֹ""VEHA'BAYIS ASHER BANAH HA'MELECH SHLOMO LA'SH-M..."- "And the house that Shlomo ha'Melech built for HaSh-m was sixty Amos long, twenty wide, and thirty Amos high" (Melachim I 6:2). This verse refers to the Heichal (Sanctuary) of the first Beis ha'Mikdash. One Amah contains six Tefachim.
39)[line 37]"כֹּה אָמַר ה', הַשָּׁמַיִם כִּסְאִי וְהָאָרֶץ הֲדוֹם רַגְלָי; אֵי זֶה בַיִת אֲשֶׁר תִּבְנוּ לִי, וְאֵי זֶה מָקוֹם מְנוּחָתִי""KOH AMAR HASH-M, 'HA'SHAMAYIM KIS'I VEHA'ARETZ HADOM RAGLAI; EY ZEH VAYIS ASHER TIVNU LI..."- "Thus says HaSh-m, 'The heavens are My throne and earth is My footstool; what house can you build for Me, and where is My place of rest?'" (Yeshayah 66:1). In this verse, HaSh-m rhetorically asks what building Klal Yisrael could possibly build that would befit His honor. This question is posed even though the Heichal of the Beis ha'Mikdash was far larger than the area between the Cherubim, which was ten Tefachim above the ground and two and a half Amos long. The reason for this is that Klal Yisrael had sinned, and HaSh-m no longer wished to confine His presence, as it were, to even as large an area as that of the Heichal.
40a)[line 38]דהאי "לא תָגוּרוּ"HAI "LO SAGURU"- that [which the verse states] "Do not fear [anyone]" (Devarim 1:17)
b)[line 38]לישנא דכנושי הואLISHNA D'CHENUSHEI HU- is a term that implies withholding (see Background to 6:19 and Daf 6 lines 49-50)
41)[line 39]"... וְיַיִן לֹא תִשְׁתֶּה וְלֹא תֶאֱגוֹר...""... V'YAYIN LO SISHTEH V'LO SE'EGOR..."- "... and you shall neither drink wine nor gather it in..." (Devarim 28:39). This verse is found in the Tochachah (rebuke).
42)[line 40]"תָּכִין בַּקַּיִץ לַחְמָהּ; אָגְרָה בַקָּצִיר מַאֲכָלָהּ""TACHIN BA'KAYITZ LACHMAH; AGRAH VA'KATZIR MA'ACHALAH"- "[The ant] prepares its provisions [for the winter] in the summer [when it is plentiful]; it gathers in its food at the time of the harvest" (Mishlei 6:8).
43)[line 41]"אוֹגֵר בַּקַּיִץ בֵּן מַשְׂכִּיל...""OGER BA'KAYITZ BEN MASKIL..."- The wise son gathers in [grain] in the summer [which is the time of the harvest]..." (Mishlei 10:5).
44)[line 41]אמ"ת ממו"ן ירא"ה, סימןEME"S MAMO"N YIR"EH SIMAN - This mnemonic device refers to the following three teachings of Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachmani in the name of Rebbi Yonasan. The word "Mamon" is missing from our text; its proper place is indicated below (see RASHASH, RIF, and ROSH). The teachings referred to are:
1."Kol Dayan she'Dan Din Emes la'Amito..." (line 41)
2." Kol Dayan she'Notel (Mamon) mi'Zeh..." (line 46)
3."l'Olam Yir'eh Dayan Atzmo..." (line 49)
45)[line 42]שדן דין אמת לאמיתוDAN DIN EMES LA'AMITO- judges a case in an absolutely truthful manner
46)[line 43]משרה שכינה בישראלMASHREH SHECHINAH B'YISRAEL- causes the Divine Presence to dwell amongst Klal Yisrael
47)[line 43]"אֱלֹקִים נִצָּב בַּעֲדַת קֵל, בְּקֶרֶב אֱלֹקִים יִשְׁפּוֹט""EL-KIM NITZAV BA'ADAS KEL, B'KEREV ELOHIM YISHPOT"- "El-kim stands among the assembly of G-d, in the midst of the judges He shall judge" (Tehilim 82:1). The "assembly of G-d" is a reference to the judges of Beis Din.
48)[line 44]גורם לשכינה שתסתלק מישראלGOREM L'SHECHINAH SHE'TISTALEK MI'YISRAEL- causes the Divine Presence to withdraw from Klal Yisrael
49)[line 45]"מִשּׁוֹד עֲנִיִּים, מֵאֶנְקַת אֶבְיוֹנִים; עַתָּה אָקוּם יֹאמַר ה'...""MI'SHOD ANIYIM ME'ENKAS EVYONIM, 'ATAH AKUM!' YOMAR HASH-M..."- "Due to the oppression of the poor [and] the cries of the destitute, 'I will now arise [and take retributive action on their behalf]!' says HaSh-m..." (Tehilim 12:6).
50)[line 46]שנוטל [ממון]NOTEL [MAMON]- takes [money]
51)[line 47]"אַל תִּגְזָל דָּל כִּי דַל הוּא, וְאַל תְּדַכֵּא עָנִי בַשָּׁעַר. כִּי ה' יָרִיב רִיבַָם, וְקָבַע אֶת קוֹבְעֵיהֶם נָפֶשׁ""AL TIGZAL DAL KI DAL HU, V'AL TEDAKEI ANI BA'SHA'AR. KI HASH-M YARIV RIVAM, V'KAVA ES KOVEIHEM NAFESH"- "Do not steal from a poor man simply because he is poor [and unable to defend himself], and do not trample one who is impoverished in the gate [of Beis Din]. For HaSh-m will take up their cause, and rob the soul of those who robbed them" (Mishlei 22:22-23). This verse warns judges against taking advantage of those who have no authority to hold over them.
52)[last line]כאילו חרב מונחת לו בין ירכותיוK'ILU CHEREV MUNACHAS LO BEIN YARCHOSAV- as if a sword is lying between his thighs; i.e., as though he can easily err, and that the consequences of doing so would be immediately injurious (see MAHARSHA)
53)[line 1]"הִנֵּה מִטָּתוֹ שֶׁלִּשְׁלֹמֹה שִׁשִּׁים גִּבּוֹרִים סָבִיב לָהּ, מִגִּבּוֹרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. כּוּלָּם אֲחוּזֵי חֶרֶב מְלוּמְּדֵי מִלְחָמָה; אִישׁ חַרְבּוֹ עַל יְרֵיכוֹ מִפַּחַד בַּלֵּילוֹת""HINEI MITASO SHELI'SHLOMO..."- "Behold, this is the bed of Shlomo; surrounded by sixty warriors, of the warriors of Yisrael. All of them wielding a sword, well versed in warfare; each man his sword on his thigh, due to fear of the night" (Shir ha'Shirim 3:7-8). (See Insights.)
54)[line 6]"בֵּית דָּוִד, כֹּה אָמַר ה', דִּינוּ לַבֹּקֶר מִשְׁפָּט וְהַצִּילוּ גָזוּל מִיַּד עוֹשֵׁק...""BEIS DAVID: 'KO AMAR HASH-M, 'DINU LA'BOKER MISHPAT...'"- "House of David: Thus says HaSh-m, 'Sit in judgment in the morning, and deliver he who was robbed from the oppressor - [lest my fury go forth like fire, and burn such that none can quench it, due to the evil of your actions]" (Yirmeyahu 21:12). In the simple understanding of this verse, HaSh-m exhorts the kings of Yehudah to put the needs of others after arising before they take of their own needs.
55)[line 8]אם ברור לך הדבר כַּבֹּקֶרIM BARUR LECHA HA'DAVAR KA'BOKER- if the verdict is clear to you as the morning [is bright]
56)[line 11]"אֱמוֹר לַחָכְמָה, 'אֲחוֹתִי אָתְּ', [וּמֹדָע לַבִּינָה תִקְרָא]""EMOR LA'CHOCHMAH ACHOSI AT, [U'MODA LA'BINAH SIKRA]"- "Say to wisdom, 'You are my sister,' [and call understanding 'friend']" (Mishlei 7:4). This verse exhorts one to be as familiar with wisdom and understanding as he is with his family and friends.
57)[line 12]כאחותך שהיא אסורה לךKA'ACHOSCHA SHE'HI ASURA LECHA- as that which [a relationship with] your sister is forbidden to you
58)[line 13]קולר תלוי בצואר כולןKOLAR TALUY B'TZAVAR KULAN- metal chains (placed by the Romans over the necks of prisoners awaiting execution; related to the word "collar") hang from their collective neck; this refers to the punishment that looms if they pervert the judgment
59)[line 14]לתלמיד היושב לפני רבוTALMID HA'YOSHEV LIFNEI RABO- a student sitting before his Rebbi [who remains silent even after realizing that his Rebbi has erred]
60)[line 14]כי הוה אתי דינא לקמיהKI HAVAH ASI DINA L'KAMEI- when a case came before him [to be judged]
61)[line 14](מיכניף) [מכניף](MICHNIF) [MACHNIF]- he would gather
62)[line 14]ומייתיMAISI- bring
63)[line 15]מבי רבBEI RAV- the Beis ha'Midrash
64)[line 15]כי היכי דלימטיין שיבא מכשוראKI HEICHI D'LIMTAYIN SHIVA MI'KESHURA- so that [each of] us would [only] receive sawdust from the plank; i.e., so that if a mistake were to be made, he would receive only a portion of the collective punishment
65)[line 16]טריפתאTREIFESA- an animal that [may or may not have] had a condition that would cause it to die within the year [which would render it non-kosher]
66)[line 16]טבחיTABACHAEI- lit. butchers; in this context, those who were expert in determining the nature of the status of a Tereifah
67)[line 16]דמתא מחסיאMASA MECHASYA- the town of Mechasya (probably a suburb of Sura)
68)[line 18]"מֶלֶךְ בְּמִשְׁפָּט יַעֲמִיד אָרֶץ, וְאִישׁ תְּרוּמוֹת יֶהֶרְסֶנָּה""MELECH B'MISHPAT YA'AMID ARETZ, V'ISH TERUMOS YEHERSENAH"- "A king through justice establishes the land, but an arrogant man destroys it" (Mishlei 29:4). One who thinks that he cannot err will not be patient enough to ensure that the proper verdict has been reached. Our Gemara proceeds to interpret the word Terumos in a different sense - that of a "Terumah," or gift.
69)[line 19]שאינו צריך לכלוםSHE'EINO TZARICH L'CHLUM- in that he needs for nothing [from others]; i.e., the judge in question is so learned that he has no need to ask others in order to arrive at the proper Halachic ruling, similar to a king who is so wealthy that he has no need of the money of others (see also TOSFOS DH she'Eino)
70)[line 19]שמחזר בבית הגרנותSHE'MECHAZER B'VEIS HA'GERANOS- who pursues [Terumah (see Background to Bava Basra 24:11)] at the threshing floor [from those who bring their grain there]
71)[line 20]דבי נשיאה אוקמו דיינא דלא הוה גמירD'VEI NESI'A UKMU DAYANA D'LO HAVAH GAMIR- the house of the Nasi (lit. prince; the hereditary position of spiritual leader of the generation of the Jews in Eretz Yisrael) appointed a judge who was unlearned
72)[line 20]אמרו ליהAMRU LEI...- [the members of the household of the Nasi] said to Rebbi Yehudah bar Nachmani
73)[line 21]מתורגמניהMETURGEMANEI- his Meturgeman [whose job was to (a) repeat the lesson of the Rav in a louder voice (RASHI to Berachos 56a); (b) translate the lesson of the Rav from Hebrew into the vernacular (RASHI to Yoma 20b)]
74)[line 21]קום עליה באמוראKUM ALEI B'AMORA- stand beside (lit. upon) him to act as his Meturgeman
75a)[line 21]קם, גחין עליהKAM, GACHIN ALEI- [Rebbi Yehudah bar Nachmani] arose, and leaned over him [to hear the words of Torah that he would say]
b)[line 21]ולא אמר ליה ולא מידיV'LO AMAR LEI V'LO MIDI- and he said absolutely nothing to him
76)[line 22]"הוֹי אוֹמֵר לָעֵץ הָקִיצָה, עוּרִי לְאֶבֶן דּוּמָם; הוֹא יוֹרֶה, הִנֵּה הוּא תָּפוּשׂ זָהָב וָכֶסֶף וְכָל רוּחַ אֵין בְּקִרְבּוֹ""HOY OMER LA'ETZ, 'HAKITZAH!'; 'URI!' L'EVEN DUMAM; HU YOREH? HINEI HU TAFUS ZAHAV VA'CHESEF, V'CHOL RU'ACH EIN B'KIRBO"- "Woe to he who says to [an idol fashioned of] wood, 'Stir yourself!'; 'Awaken!' to [an idol fashioned of] mute stone - is he able to rule? Behold he is covered in gold and silver, and is devoid of any spirit" (Chabakuk 2:19). Rebbi Yehudah bar Nachmani applied this verse to the judge appointed by the house of the Nasi, who had been appointed due to his great wealth ("gold and silver"), and had no spirit of Torah within him.
77)[line 23]ועתיד הקדוש ברוך הוא ליפרע ממעמידיןASID HA'KADOSH BARUCH HU LI'PARA MI'MA'AMIDIN- HaSh-m will in the future exact retribution from those who appointed him
78)[line 23]"וַה' בְּהֵיכַל קָדְשׁוֹ, הַס מִפָּנָיו כָּל הָאָרֶץ""VA'SH-M B'HEICHAL KODSHO; HAS MI'PANAV KOL HA'ARETZ"- "And HaSh-m in His sacred sanctuary [is ready to exact retribution from those who worship idols]; the whole world is silently desolate before Him" (Chabakuk 2:20). This verse immediately follows the one cited earlier. Rebbi Yehudah bar Nachmani continues his interpretation by inferring that the sin of appointing unworthy candidates as judges can lead to the destruction of the world.
79)[line 25]שאינו הגוןSHE'EINO HAGUN- who is unworthy [of the position]
80)[line 25]נוטעNOTE'A- he has planted
81)[line 25]אשירהASHEIRAH- a tree that had been worshipped as an Avodah Zarah. (Asheirah was a popular fertility goddess in the Near East; she has been identified with Astarte (Ashteros) and Aphrodite.) (see Insights)
82)[line 25]"שׁוֹפְטִים וְשׁוֹטְרִים תִּתֶּן לְךָ [בְּכָל שְׁעָרֶיךָ...]""SHOFTIM V'SHOTRIM TITEN LECHA [B'CHOL SHE'ARECHA...]"- "You should appoint judges and law enforcers [in all of your gates...]" (Devarim 16:18).
83)[line 26]"לֹא תִטַּע לְךָ אֲשֵׁירָה כָּל עֵץ, אֵצֶל מִזְבַּח ה' אֱ-לֹקֶיךָ [אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶׂה לָּךְ]""LO SITA LECHA ASHEIRAH KOL ETZ, ETZEL MIZBACH HASH-M EL-KECHA [ASHER TA'ASEH LACH]"- "Do not plant for yourself any type of Asheirah tree, next to the altar of HaSh-m your G-d [which you shall make for yourself]" (Devarim 16:21).
84)[line 26]ובמקום שיש תלמידי חכמיםB'MAKOM SHE'YESH TALMIDEI CHACHAMIM- [if the unworthy candidate has been appointed] in a place in which there are Talmidei Chachamim
85)[line 27]כאילו נטעו אצל מזבחK'ILU NETA'O ETZEL MIZBE'ACH- it is as if he has planted [the Asheirah tree] next to a Mizbe'ach [next to which it is forbidden to plant trees or build buildings (see above, entry #83 and Tamid 28b)]
86)[line 28]"לֹא תַעֲשׂוּן אִתִּי; אֱלֹהֵי כֶסֶף וֵאלֹהֵי זָהָב...""LO SA'ASUN ITI; ELOHEI CHESEF VE'LOHEI ZAHAV..."- "Do not fashion [images of those heavenly bodies that are] with Me; [do not fashion for yourselves] gods of silver and gods of gold" (Shemos 20:20).
87)[line 29]הא דעץ שרי?HA D'ETZ SHAREI?- [does this then imply that] those of wood are permitted?
88)[line 29]אלוה הבא בשביל כסףELO'AH HA'BA BISHVIL KESEF- a god that comes due to silver; i.e., a judge appointed due to that which he bribed his superior with a present of silver
89)[line 30]כי הוה אתי לבי דינאKI HAVAH ASI L'VEI DINA- when he would come to court [to judge a court case]
90a)[line 30]ברעות נפשיה לקטלא נפיקBI'RE'US NAFSHEI L'KETALA NAFIK- of his own free will he (referring to himself in the third person) goes out to [judge, for which he may] die [if he perverts justice]
b)[line 30]וצבי ביתיה לית הוא עבידU'TZEVI BEISEI LEIS HU AVID- and he is not working toward the needs (lit. desire) of his household [in this judgment]
c)[line 31]וריקן לביתיה עיילV'REIKAN L'VEISEI AYAL- and he will return home empty-handed [as he will not profit from judging the case]
d)[line 31]ולואי שתהא ביאה כיציאהU'LEVAI SHE'TEHEI BI'AH K'YETZI'A- and were it only (i.e., the best case scenario is) that his return be [as free of sin] as his departure
91)[line 31]חזיCHAZI- see
92)[line 32]אמבוה (דספרי) אבתריהAMBUHA (D'SAFREI) A'BASREI- throngs [of people following] behind him [to honor him]
93)[line 32]"אִם יַעֲלֶה לַשָּׁמַיִם שִׂיאוֹ, [וְרֹאשׁוֹ לָעָב יַגִּיעַ]. כְּגֶלְלוֹ לָנֶצַח יֹאבֵד, [רֹאָיו יֹאמְרוּ אַיּוֹ]""IM YA'ALEH LA'SHAMAYIM SI'O, V'ROSHO LA'AV YAGI'A. K'GELELO LA'NETZACH YOVED; RO'AV YOMRU AYO"- "Though his prominence may ascend to the heavens and his head reach the clouds. He shall disappear forever like his own dung; those who had seen him will ask, 'Where is he?'" (Iyov 20:6-7).
94a)[line 33]כי הוו מכתפי ליהKI HAVU MECHATFEI LEI- when [his servants] would carry him [in a sedan chair] upon their shoulders [to where he delivered his lecture, since he walked slowly due to age and would therefore have unnecessarily inconvenienced his students to stand for him had he walked]
b)[line 33]בשבתא דריגלאB'SHABATA D'RIGLA- (a) on the Shabbos [that fell approximately thirty days before] a festival [when they would teach the laws pertaining to the festival] (RASHI here); (b) on the Shabbos that fell [on Chol ha'Mo'ed] during a festival (implication of Sukah 26a; see ARUCH LA'NER)
95)[line 34]"כִּי לֹא לְעוֹלָם חוֹסֶן; וְאִם נֵזֶר לְדוֹר וָדוֹר""KI LO L'OLAM CHOSEN; V'IM NEZER L'DOR VA'DOR"- "For strength does not endure forever; does the crown last from generation to generation?" (Mishlei 27:24). Although the simple understanding of this verse refers to wealth, Rav interpreted it to be referring to the honor accorded him by others.
96)[line 35]הוו מתונין בדיןHEVU MESUNIN B'DIN- be patient when ruling; i.e., be sure to examine all angles of a case before deciding upon a final verdict
97)[line 35]"[וְ]לֹא תַעֲלֶה בְמַעֲלוֹת [עַל מִזְבְּחִי]""[V']LO SA'ALEH V'MA'ALOS [AL MIZBECHI...]"- "Do not ascend steps [upon my altar...]" (Shemos 20:23). This verse contains the injunction to build a ramp, as opposed to steps, as a means of ascending to the top of the Mizbe'ach. Bar Kaparah in our Gemara interprets the words, "Lo Sa'aleh v'Ma'alos" to mean, "Do not speed thoughtlessly..."
98)[line 35]"וְאֵלֶּה הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים [אֲשֶׁר תָּשִׂים לִפְנֵיהֶם]""V'ELEH HA'MISHPATIM [ASHER TASIM LIFNEIHEM]"- "And these are the laws [that you shall place in front of them]" (Shemos 21:1). These words introduce Parshas Mishpatim, which contains numerous rulings for Beis Din to follow. Thus, "Lifneihem" means "in front of [the judges of Beis Din]."
99)[line 36]שלא יפסע על ראשי עם קודשLO YIFSA AL ROSHEI AM KODESH- should not step upon the heads of the holy nation; i.e., should not arrive after his students have settled for the lecture such that he must walk through where they are sitting upon the floor, thereby appearing to "walk upon their heads"
100)[line 37]"לֹא תַעֲלֶה בְמַעֲלוֹת""LO SA'ALEH V'MA'ALOS..."- See above, entry #97. Here Rebbi Elazar interprets these words to mean "Do not step above...."
101)[line 37]"אֲשֶׁר תָּשִׂים", "אשר תלמדם" מיבעי ליה!"ASHER TASIM"- "ASHER TELAMDEM" MIBA'I LEI! - (The Gemara now asks) [that which the verse states that] "[...These are the laws] that you shall place in front of them," should rather read "[...These are the laws] that you should teach them"!
102)[line 38]ואיתימאITEIMA- some say
103)[line 38]אלו כלי הדייניןELU KLEI HA'DAYANIN- these [items hinted to in the verse that should be placed before a judge] are the tools of the judges
104)[line 39]נפקNAFAK- go out
105)[line 39]אפיקו לי מאני חנותאי!APIKU LI MANEI CHANUSA'I!- take out the tools of my trade (lit. shop) for me!
106a)[line 39]מקלMAKEL- a rod [used to administer Makas Mardus (Rabbinic flogging; see Background to Kesuvos 45:35)]
b)[line 39]ורצועהRETZU'AH- a strap [used to administer Malkus (lashes; see Background to Sotah 44:16)]
c)[line 40]ושופראSHOFARA- a horn [used to announce that the judge has placed someone in Shamta or Niduy (excommunication; see Background to Moed Katan 15:24)]
d)[line 40]וסנדלאSANDELA- a sandal [used in Chalitzah (see Background to Bava Metzia 15:41)]
107)[line 40]"וָאֲצַוֶּה אֶת שׁוֹפְטֵיכֶם בָּעֵת הַהִיא לֵאמֹר, שָׁמוֹעַ בֵּין אֲחֵיכֶם וּשְׁפַטְתֶּם צֶדֶק בֵּין אִישׁ וּבֵין אָחִיו וּבֵין גֵּרוֹ""VA'ATZAVEH ES SHOFTEICHEM BA'ES HA'HI LEIMOR, 'SHAMO'A BEIN ACHEICHEM U'SHFAT'TEM TZEDEK, BEIN ISH U'VEIN ACHIV U'VEIN GERO'"- "And I instructed your judges at that time saying, "Listen [well] to [the arguments between] your brothers and judge truthfully, between a man, his brother, and his litigant" (Devarim 1:16). The term "Tzivuy" - instruction - implies that he instructed should act with alacrity (Kidushin 29b).
108)[line 40]כנגד מקל ורצועה תהא זריזKENEGED MAKEL U'RETZU'AH TEHEI ZARIZ- act with alacrity regarding the rod and strap [(a) and use them for the sake of Heaven in order to strike the fear of HaSh-m and His Beis Din into the populace (RASHI); (b) and do not use them overly much so as not to overly intimidate the populace (TOSFOS DH Tehei)]
109)[line 42]שלא ישמע דברי בעל דין קודם שיבא בעל דין חבירוSHE'LO YISHMA DIVREI BA'AL DIN KODEM SHE'YAVO BA'AL DIN CHAVEIRO- that he should not listen to the arguments of one litigant before the other litigant arrives [since once a judge hears one uncontested side of a case it is difficult for him to consider a different version of events]
110)[line 43]יטעים דבריוYAT'IM DEVARAV- present his case
111)[line 43]קרי ביה נמי "שַׁמֵּעַ בין אחיכם"KARI BEI NAMI "SHAME'A BEIN ACHEICHEM"- read [the verse] to also mean "make yourself heard [only when you are present] together with your brother"
112a)[line 44]מ"לֹא תִשָּׂא [שֵׁמַע שָׁוְא...]""LO SISA [SHEMA SHAV...]"- "Do not accept [vain testimony...]" (Shemos 23:1). According to this way of interpreting the verse, it warns a judge not to listen to one litigant present his case when the other is not present.
b)[line 44][קרי ביה] "לא תַשִּׂיא"[KARI BEI] "LO SASI..."- [read it also to mean] "Do not present [vain testimony...]"
113)[line 45]צַדֵּק את הדין, ואחר כך חתכהוTZADEK ES HA'DIN, V'ACHAR KACH CHATCHEHU- determine the accuracy of the verdict, and [only] afterward proclaim it
114)[line 46]אפילו בין בית לעלייהAFILU BEIN BAYIS LA'ALIYAH- even [a case] between [brothers who inherited both] a lower-story dwelling (which is more valuable than a second-story dwelling) and the second-story above it [in which case a judge must ensure that they each receive an inheritance of equal value, and not merely that each receives a place to live]
115a)[line 47]בין תנור לכיריםBEIN TANUR L'CHIRAYIM- between [brothers who inherited both] an oven (which is more valuable than a range) and a range (which are utensils necessary for living - "Megurim," related to the word "Gero" of the Pasuk) [in which case a judge must ensure that they each receive an inheritance of equal value, and not merely that each receives a utensil used for cooking] (see also RABEINU CHANANEL)
116)[line 47]"לֹא תַכִּירוּ פָנִים בַּמִּשְׁפָּט, [כַּקָּטֹן כַּגָּדֹל תִּשְׁמָעוּן, לֹא תָגוּרוּ מִפְּנֵי אִישׁ כִּי הַמִּשְׁפָּט לֵא-לֹקִים הוּא; וְהַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר יִקְשֶׁה מִכֶּם תַּקְרִבוּן אֵלַי וּשְׁמַעְתִּיו]""LO SAKIRU FANIM BA'MISHPAT, [KA'KATON KA'GADOL TUSHMA'UN, LO SAGURU MI'PENEI ISH KI HAMISHPAT LE'L-KIM HU; VHA'DAVAR ASHER YIKSHEH MIKEM TAKRIVUN EILAI U'SHMA'TIV]"- "Do not show favoritism in judgment, [ listen to great and small alike, fear no man for judgment is in the province of G-d...]" (Devarim 1:17).
117a)[line 47]לא תכירהוLO SAKIREHU- do not favor him [if you like him]
b)[line 48]לא תנכרהוLO SENAKREHU- do not disfavor him (from Nochri - foreign) [if you dislike him]
118)[line 48]אושפיזכניה דרבUSHPIZICHNEI D'RAV- he who had once hosted Rav
119)[last line]לאו אושפיזכני את?LAV USHPIZICHNI AT?- am I not your landlord; i.e., do you not recall that I once acted favorably toward you?