Mishnah 1
Hear the Mishnah

1)

(a)On what grounds is one permitted to blow Shofar on Shabbos min ha'Torah?

(b)Why did the Chachamim ...

1. ... forbid it?

2. ... not extend the prohibition to the Beis-Hamikdash?

1)

(a)One is permitted to blow Shofar on Shabbos min ha'Torah - since it is considered a Chochmah rather than a Melachah.

(b)The Chachamim ...

1. ... forbade it - in case one comes to carry the Shofar in the street (to ask a Chacham how to blow it).

2. ... not extend the prohibition to the Beis-Hamikdash - on account of the principle 'Ein Sh'vus ba'Mikdash' (Isurim de'Rabbanan do not generally apply in the Beis Ha'mikdash).

2)

(a)What did Raban Yochanan ben Zakai institute (regarding Teki'as Shofar on Shabbos) after the Churban Beis-ha'Mikdash

(b)What does Rebbi Elazar say? How did he qualify Raban Yochanan ben Zakai's ruling?

(c)According to 'Amru lo', he instituted blowing wherever Beis-Din convene. What does he add to the opinion of the Tana Kama?

2)

(a)After the Churban Beis-ha'Mikdash, Raban Yochanan ben Zakai instituted that, whenever Rosh Ha'Shanah falls on Shabbos - one is allowed to blow Shofar in any city where there is a Beis-Din (See Tos. Yom-Tov & Tiferes Yisrael).

(b)Rebbi Elazar maintains - that Raban Yochanan ben Zakai's ruling was restricted to Yavneh (See Tiferes Yisrael).

(c)According to 'Amru lo', he instituted blowing wherever Beis-Din convene - even if it is only from time to time, whereas the Tana Kama requires a fixed Beis-Din.

Mishnah 2
Hear the Mishnah

3)

(a)What is the problem with the Mishnah, which begins 'And in this point too, Yerushalayim had an advantage over Yavneh'?

(b)To solve the problem, what do we add to the Mishnah for the opening statement to make sense? Which first advantage did Yerushalayim have over Yavneh?

(c)What does the Tana now add, in connection with any town that 'could see, hear was close and was able to come'?

(d)What does the Tana come to preclude when he says ...

1. ... 'See'?

2. ... 'hear'?

3. ... 'is close?

4. ... 'is able to come'?

3)

(a)The problem with the Mishnah, which begins 'And in this point too, Yerushalayim had an advantage over Yavneh' is - that the Tana has not mentioned a first advantage that Yerushalayim had over, so how can it then add a second?

(b)To solve the problem, we begin the Mishnah with - 'In Yerushalayim they used to blow throughout the city as long as Beis-Din would sit in the Beis-Hamikdash (See Tos. Yom-Tov), which was till mid-day, whereas in Yavneh they did not blow throughout the city, only in front of Beis-Din' (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

(c)The Tana now adds that - they also used to blow in any town that 'could see - Yerushalayim, hear it, was close to it and was able to come to it', but in the time of Yavneh they blew in Yavneh alone.

(d)When the Tana says ...

1. ... 'See' - he is coming to preclude - a town that is situated in a valley ...

2. ... 'hear' - ... a town that is situated on top of a mountain ...

3. ... 'is close - ... one that is situated outside T'chum Shabbos ...

4. ... 'is able to come' ... one that is prevented from reaching Yerushalayim directly by a deep river.

Mishnah 3
Hear the Mishnah

4)

(a)How many days was the Lulav taken in the Beis-Hamikdash, and how many days outside it?

(b)How do we learn this fom the Pasuk in Emor "u'Semachtem Lifnei Hash-m Shiv'as Yamim"?

(c)What did Raban Yochanan ben Zakai institute after the Churban Beis-Hamikdash?

(d)Why did he do that?

4)

(a)Initially, the Lulav was taken - seven days (See Tos. Yom-Tov) in the Beis-Hamikdash, but only one day outside it.

(b)We learn this from the Pasuk in Emor - "u'Semachtem Lifnei Hash-m Shiv'as Yamim" - which is written in connection with Netila Lulav, and which implies that before Hash-m one takes the Lulav seven days, but outside the Beis-Hamikdash, only one.

(c)After the Churban Beis-Hamikdash, Raban Yochanan ben Zakai institute - that one should take the Lulav seven days ...

(d)'Zeicher le'Mikdash' (to commemorate the Beis-Hamikdash).

5)

(a)He also instituted that 'Yom Henef' should be entirely forbidden'. What exactly is 'Yom Henef'?

(b)Which Isur is he referring to?

(c)When the Beis-Hamikdash stood, Chadash was permitted as soon as they brought the Omer. What would they have done after the Churban had Raban Yochanan not introduced the above institution?

5)

(a)He also instituted that 'Yom Henef' - the sixteenth of Nisan- should be entirely forbidden' ...

(b)... to eat Chadash.

(c)After the Churban, had Raban Yochanan not introduced the above institution - they would have been permitted to eat Chadash from the morning of the sixteenth.

Mishnah 4
Hear the Mishnah

6)

(a)At first, Beis-Din would accept the witnesses who saw the new moon all day. Which day is the Mishnah talking about?

(b)Until a problem occurred with the Shir shel Yom that the Levi'im sang twice daily. Which Shir did the Chachamim institute on the thirtieth of Ellul for ...

1. ... the Tamid shel Shachar?

2. ... the Tamid shel Bein ha'Arbayim?

(c)What is the reason for that?

6)

(a)At first, Beis-Din would accept the witnesses who saw the new moon all day - (the thirtieth of Ellul).

(b)Until a problem occurred with the Shir shel Yom that the Levi'im sang twice daily. The Shir that the Chachamim instituted on the thirtieth of Ellul for ...

1. ... the Tamid shel Shachar was - the regular one.

2. ... the Tamid shel Bein ha'Arbayim was - the one for Rosh ha'Shanah.

(c)The reason for that is - because the witnesses would usually arrive after the Tamid shel Shachar but before the Tamid shel Beis ha'Arbayim.

7)

(a)What happened one year out of the ordinary?

(b)What problem did that cause?

(c)So what did the Chachamim institute, to avoid it from recurring?

(d)Seeing as, in the event that witnesses did not arrive before 'Minchah-time', they fixed Rosh-Ha'Shanah for the following day, what does the Tana mean when he says 'Nohagin Oso ha'Yom Kodesh'?

(e)Why did they continue to do that even after they had brought the Tamid shel Bein-ha'Arbayim?

7)

(a)One year - they brought the Tamid shel bein ha'Arbayim and the witnesses had not yet arrived ...

(b)... with the result that the Levi'im did not know which Shir to sing (so they did not sing Shirah at all [See Tos. Yom-Tov]).

(c)So, to avoid it from recurring, the Chachamim instituted - that they would only accept the witnesses if they arrived before the time of the Tamid shel bein ha'Arbayim, (which is synonymous with Minchah Gedolah), in which case the Levi'im would sing the regular Shir shel Yom then as well).

(d)Despite the fact that, in the event that witnesses did not arrive before 'Minchah-time', they fixed Rosh-Ha'Shanah for the following day, the Tana says 'Nohagin Oso ha'Yom Kodesh' - by which he means that they treated that day as a Yom-Tov (vis-a-vis not doing Melachah) .

(e)They continued to do that even after they had brought the Tamid shel Bein-ha'Arbayim - so that people would not denigrate Yom-Tov (if they saw that in the middle of the day that they thought was Yom-Tov, everbody began working.

8)

(a)What did Raban Yochanan ben Zakai institute after the Churban Beis-Hamikdash?

(b)Rebbi Yehoshua ben Korchah adds another Takanah of Raban Yochanan ben Zakai. Who was normally responsible for declaring Rosh Chodesh?

(c)What ought the Din therefore to have been if the witnesses arrived in Beis-Din ha'Gadol in Yerushalayim and discovered that he was not there?

(d)What did Raban Yochanan ben Zakai institute?

8)

(a)After the Churban Beis-Hamikdash, Raban Yochanan ben Zakai institute - that they should once again accept the wirnesses all day, like they did initially.

(b)Rebbi Yehoshua ben Korchah adds another Takanah of Raban Yochanan ben Zakai. The person who was normally responsible for declaring Rosh Chodesh was - the head of Beis-Din (the Nasi).

(c)Consequently, if the witnesses arrived in Beis-Din ha'Gadol in Yerushalayim and discovered that he was not there - they ought to have been obligated to follow him wherever he was and to testify before him.

(d)Raban Yochanan ben Zakai instituted - that they should go to the designated meeting-place in Yerushalayim, and that Beis-Din would announce Rosh Chodesh without the Nasi.

Mishnah 5
Hear the Mishnah

9)

(a)In the Pasuk in Emor (in connection with Rosh-ha'Shanah) "Zichron T'ru'ah Mikra Kodesh", what do we learn from the word ...

1. ... "Zichron"?

2. ... "T'ru'ah"

(b)And what do we learn from the words "Ani Hash-m Elokeichem" (in the Pasuk in Beha'aloscha, in connection with the trumpets) "Vehayu lachem le'Zikaron, Ani Hash-m Elokeichem")?

(c)According to Rebbi Yochanan ben Nuri, in the Amidos of Rosh ha'Shanah, one inserts 'Malchiyos' in the B'rachah of 'ha'Keil ha'Kadosh' (See Tos. Yom-Tov). Where does one then blow the first set of Teki'os?

9)

(a)In the Pasuk in Emor (in connection with Rosh-ha'Shanah) "Zichron T'ru'ah Mikra Kodesh", we learn from the word ...

1. ... "Zichron" - the obligation to say 'Zichronos'.

2. ... "T'ru'ah" - the obligation to say 'Shofros'.

(b)And from the words "Ani Hash-m Elokeichem" (in the Pasuk in Beha'aloscha, in connection with the trumpets) "Vehayu lachem le'Zikaron, Ani Hash-m Elokeichem") we learn - the obligation to say 'Malchiyos'.

(c)According to Rebbi Yochanan ben Nuri, in the Amidos of Rosh ha'Shanah, one inserts 'Malchiyos' in the B'rachah of 'ha'Keil ha'Kadosh' (See Tos. Yom-Tov). One then blows the first set of Teki'os - after the B'rachah of Kedushas ha'Yom ('Atah Bechartanu') See Tos. Yom-Tov.

10)

(a)On what grounds does Rebbi Akiva disagree with Rebbi Yochanan ben Nuri?

(b)What does he therefore say?

(c)Like whom is the Halachah?

(d)According to both Tana'im, where does one blow the second and third set of T'kiyos'?

10)

(a)Rebbi Akiva disagrees with Rebbi Yochanan ben Nuri - because, he argues, if one does not blow Shofar when reciting Malchiyos, what is the point of mentioning them (See Tos. Yom-Tov)?

(b)He therefore says - that one should insert Malchiyos in 'Kedushas ha'Yom' (there where one blows).

(c)The Halachah is - like Rebbi Akiva.

(d)According to both Tana'im, one blows the second set of T'kiyos - after 'Zichronos' and the third set - after 'Shofros'.

Mishnah 6
Hear the Mishnah

11)

(a)According to the Tana Kama, the minimum number of P'sukim that one mentions in the Amidah is ten Malchuyos, ten Zichronos and ten Shofros. How are the ten made up?

(b)What does Rebbi Yochanan ben Nuri say?

(c)How are the P'sukim made up, according to him?

(d)Like whom is the Halachah?

11)

(a)According to the Tana Kama, the minimum number of P'sukim that one mentions in the Amidah is ten Malchuyos, ten Zichronos and ten Shofros (See Tos. Yom-Tov) - three P'sukim from Torah, three from Kesuvim (See Tos. Yom-Tov) and three from Nevi'im, and one final Pasuk from Torah.

(b)According to Rebbi Yochanan ben Nuri - one is Yotzei if one says a total of three P'sukim ...

(c)... one from Torah, one from Kesuvim and one from Nevi'im (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

(d)The Halachah is - like Rebbi Yochanan ben Nuri.

12)

(a)What, besides 'Zickaron' of punishment (such as the Pasuk in Yechezkel " ... Im Lo be'Yad Chazakah u'vi'Zero'a Shefuchah Emloch aleichem"), does one not include?

(b)According to the Tana Kama, one begins with Torah and ends with Navi. What does Rebbi Yossi says 'Im Hishlim ba'Torah, Yotzei'. What did he really say?

(c)Like whom is the Halachah?

12)

(a)Besides 'Zickaron' of punishment (such as the Pasuk in Yechezkel " ... Im Lo be'Yad Chazakah u'vi'Zero'a Shefuchah Emloch aleichem"), one does not include - 'Zikaron' of an individual (such as the Pasuk in Ezra "Zachrah li Elokai le'Tovah!").

(b)According to the Tana Kama, one begins with Torah and ends with Navi. When Rebbi Yossi says 'Im Hishlim ba'Torah, Yotzei'. What he really said was - 'Mashlom ba'Torah; ve'im Hishlim be'Navi, Yatza'.

(c)The Halachah is - like Rebbi Yossi.

Mishnah 7
Hear the Mishnah

13)

(a)What distinction does the Mishnah draw between when one blows Shofar and when one recites Hallel?

(b)When did they originally used to blow the Shofar?

(c)Then why did the Chachamim change it to Musaf?

(d)Why does the Tana insert the words 'u've'Sha'as ha'Hallel' in the Seifa?

13)

(a)The Mishnah rules that - one blows Shofar during Musaf (See Tiferes Yisrael), but recites Hallel during Shachris.

(b)Originally, they used to blow the Shofar - too during Shachris ...

(c)... and the reason that the Chachamim changed it to Musaf was - because, at one stage, the Nochrim issued a decree forbidding Teki'as Shofar, and they would lie in wait the entire morning waiting for them to blow, so as to catch them in the act.

(d)The Tana inserts the words 'u've'Sha'as ha'Hallel' in the Seifa - because (bearing in mind that one does not blow the Shofar on Rosh ha'Shanah (or on Yom Kipur) - Hallel is never recited on the same day as the Shofar is blown.

Mishnah 8
Hear the Mishnah

14)

(a)What does the Mishnah say about going beyond T'chum Shabbos on Rosh ha'Shanah to fetch a Shofar?

(b)What about going to hear the Shofar?

(c)Likewise, it forbids removing a pile of rubble to obtain a Shofar that is buried beneath it, to climb a tree or to ride on a horse to fetch it. Which other similar act does the Tana add to the list?

14)

(a)The Mishnah forbids going beyond T'chum Shabbos on Rosh ha'Shanah to fetch a Shofar or ...

(b)... to hear iting blown.

(c)Likewise, it forbids removing a pile of rubble to obtain a Shofar that is buried beneath it, to climb a tree or to ride on a horse - or to swim across a river to fetch it.

15)

(a)What does the Tana say about cutting a Shofar from scratch?

(b)'Mishum Sh'vus' might refer to a knife and 'Mishum Lo Sa'aseh', a saw. How else might we define them?

(c)If the reason for the first explanation is because one a saw is what is commonly used for cutting wood, and not a knife, what is the reason for the second explanation?

15)

(a)The Tana also forbids cutting a Shofar from scratch - irrespective of whether one uses an implement that entails only a Sh'vus (mi'de'Rabbanan) or whether it entails a Lo Sa'aseh (mi'd'Oraysa [See Tos. Yom-Tov]).

(b)'Mishum Sh'vus' either refers to a knife and 'Mishum Lo Sa'aseh', a saw, or - the former, to a scythe, the latter, to a knife.

(c)The reason for the first explanation is because one a saw is what is commonly used for cutting wood, and not a knife, whereas the second explanation maintains - that a knife is often used too, but not a scythe.

16)

(a)And what is the Din regarding pouring into it ...

1. ... water?

2. ... wine?

(b)Why does one do that?

(c)And why might we have thought that it is forbidden?

16)

(a)One is however permitted to pour into it ...

1. ... water or ...

2. ... wine ...

(b)... in order to clean it out.

(c)We might otherwise have thought that it is forbidden - because of 'Mesaken Mana' (effecting repairs to a vessel).

17)

(a)What does the Mishnah say about allowing young children to blow Shofar on Rosh ha'Shanah?

(b)What category of young children is the Tana talking about?

(c)He even permits a grown-up to help him blow. What might we have thought that this is forbidden?

(d)Then why isn't it?

17)

(a)The Mishnah rules - that one does not stop young children from blowing Shofar on Rosh ha'Shanah (to learn how do blow) ...

(b)The Tana is talking about young children - who have reached the age of Chinuch (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

(c)He even permits a grown-up to help him blow (See Tos. Yom-Tov) - and we are not worried that he may come to carry it four Amos in the street to ask an expert to teach him how to blow ...

(d)... because that only applies to someone who is busy with the Mitzvah, which is not the case here.

18)

(a)The Mishnah finally rules that a Mis'asek is not Yotzei. What is a 'Mis'asek'?

(b)What about someone who hears from a Mis'asek, but who himself has Kavanah to be Yotzei?

18)

(a)The Mishnah finally rules that a 'Mis'asek' - someone who blows but who does not have the intention of being Yotzei, as well as ...

(b)... someone who hears from a Mis'asek, even if himself does have Kavanah to be Yotzei - is not Yotzei (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

Mishnah 9
Hear the Mishnah

19)

(a)If the first 'Shalosh' in the Mishnah's statement that Teki'as Shofar on Rosh ha'Shanah comprises 'Shalosh shel Shalosh Shalosh' refers to 'Malchiyos, Zichronos and 'Sh hofros', what does 'shel Shalosh Shalosh' mean?

(b)Seeing as the Torah writes Teru'ah twice in connection with Rosh ha'Shanah and once in connection with Yovel, from where do we learn that whatever applies to one applies to the other?

(c)What do we then learn from the Pasuk in Emor ...

1. ... "Veha'avartem Shofar Teru'ah"?

2. ... "Ta'aviru Shofar"?

(d)And what does the Tana mean when he says that 'the length of the Teki'os is equivalent to the length of three Teru'os'?

(e)And the Tana gives the Shi'ur of a Teru'ah as three Yevavos. What are three Yebavos, according to ...

1. ... the first explanation?

2. ... the second explanation?

19)

(a)The first 'Shalosh' in the Mishnah's statement that Teki'as Shofar on Rosh ha'Shanah comprises 'Shalosh shel Shalosh Shalosh' refers to 'Malchiyos, Zichronos and 'Sh hofros'; whereas 'shel Shalosh Shalosh' means - each consisting of Teki'ah, Teru'ah and Teki'ah.

(b)Despite the fact that the Torah writes Teru'ah twice in connection with Rosh ha'Shanah and once in connection with Yovel, from where do we learn that whatever applies to one applies to the other - from the Gezeirah-Shavah of "Shevi'i" (Parshas Emor) "Shevi'i" (Parshas B'har).

(c)And we learn from the Pasuk in Emor ...

1. ... "Veha'avartem Shofar Teru'ah" - that a Teki'ah must precede each Teru'ah, and from ...

2. ... "Ta'aviru Shofar" - that a Teki'ah must follow each Teki'ah (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

(d)When the Tana says that 'the length of the Teki'os is equivalent to the length of three Teru'os', he mean that the total length of the six Teki'os combined is equivalent to the length of - the the three Teru'os (in other words each Teki'ah is equivalent to half the length of a Teru'ah

(e)And the Tana gives the Shi'ur of a Teru'ah as three Yevavos, which according to ...

1. ... the first explanation - equals three brief notes (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

2. ... the second explanation equals - nine brief notes (a Yebavah comprises three brief notes [See Tos. Yom-Tov]).

20)

(a)And what does the Mishnah say about someone who blows the Teki'ah following Malchiyos double the regular length so as to cover the first Teki'ah of Zichronos too?

(b)Why is that?

(c)What does the Tana say about somebody who obtains a Shofar only after already having Davened Musaf?

20)

(a)The Mishnah rules that someone who blows the Teki'ah following Malchiyos double the regular length so as to cover the first Teki'ah of Zichronos too - only one (the first) Teki'ah to his credit ...

(b)... because one cannot break a Teki'ah into two (See also Tos. Yom-Tov).

(c)The Tana says that somebody who obtains a Shofar only after already having Davened Musaf - blows all nine notes there and then (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

21)

(a)What is the Tana referring to when he says that 'just as the Shali'ah Tzibur is Chayav, so too, is each individual Chayav?

(b)If each individual is Chayav, then why does the Shali'ach Tzibur repeat the Amidah?

(c)What does Raban Gamliel say?

(d)According to Raban Gamliel, why is it necessary for him to Daven the silent Amidah?

21)

(a)When the Tana says that 'just as the Shali'ah Tzibur is Chayav, so too, is each individual Chayav (to Daven for himself' [See Tos. Yom-Tov]), he is referring to - both the Amidah of Rosh ha'Shanah and that of all the year round.

(b)Even though each individual is Chayav to recite the Amidah, the Shali'ach Tzibur nevertheless repeats the Amidah - in order to render Yotzei those who are not conversant with the text.

(c)According to Raban Gamliel - the individuals are not obligated to Daven themselves, since the Shali'ach Tzibur is Motzi them ...

(d)... and the reason that he has to Daven the silent Amidah is - in order to prepare the text.

22)

(a)Like whom is the Halachah with regard to Amidos ...

1. ... during the year?

2. ... on Rosh ha'Shanah?

(b)When else is the Halachah like Raban Gamliel?

(c)Why the difference?

22)

(a)The Halachah with regard to Amidos ...

1. ... during the year is - like the Chachamim.

2. ... on Rosh ha'Shanah and ...

(b)... on Yom Kipur of Yovel (when one also recites 'Malchuyos, Zichronos and Shofros') is - like Raban Gamliel ...

(c)... since most people are conversant with the text of the Amidah during the year, but not on Rosh ha'Shanah or on Yos Kipur of Yovel.

NISHLEMAH MASECHES ROSH HA'SHANAH

D.A.F. TALMUD RESOURCES
FOR MASECHES ROSH HASHANAH