Mishnah 1
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1)

(a)The first of the four Roshei Shanim listed by the Mishnah is Rosh Chodesh Nisan, which is Rosh ha'Shanah for kings. Which kings?

(b)When is then Rosh ha'Shanah for Nochri kings?

(c)How does the Tana learn the current ruling from the Pasuk in Melachim which refers in one and the same Pasuk to the four hundred and eightieth year after Yetzi'as Mitzrayim, and the month of Ziv (Iyar) in the fourth year of King Shlomoh's reign?

1)

(a)The first of the four Roshei Shanim listed by the Mishnah is Rosh Chodesh Nisan, which is Rosh ha'Shanah for - Jewish kings.

(b)Rosh ha'Shanah for Nochri kings is - the first of Tishri.

(c)The Tana learns the current ruling from the Pasuk in Melachim, which refers in one and the same Pasuk to the four hundred and eightieth year after Yetzi'as Mitzrayim, and the month of Ziv (Iyar) in the fourth year of King Shlomoh's reign - indicating that the years of a king begin in Nisan, the month they left Egypt.

2)

(a)The significance of that statement concerns Sh'taros (documents). Why did they date Sh'taros according to the year of the king's ascension to the throne?

(b)Assuming that a king ascended the throne on the twenty-ninth of Adar, when would his second year therefore begin?

(c)What problem would it cause if the Sofer were to date a Sh'tar that was written on the following Nisan (See Tos. Yom-Tov) as the second year of the respective king's reign?

(d)Why is that?

(e)Why can the creditor not at least claim from property that was purchased after the date of the loan?

2)

(a)The significance of that statement concerns Sh'taros (documents),which they dated according to the year of the king's ascension to the throne - in deference to the king ('peace of the realm').

(b)Assuming that a king ascended the throne on the twenty-ninth of Adar, his second year would therefore begin -on the following day (Rosh Chodesh Nisan).

(c)If the Sofer were to date a Sh'tar that was written on the following Nisan (See Tos. Yom-Tov) as the second year of the respective king's reign - it would be a Sh'tar Mukdam (pre-dated) Sh'tar, which is Pasul ...

(d)... because it would then enable the claimant to claim from anybody who purchased property from the defendant before the loan (say) took place, on which he (claimant) therefore has no right to claim.

(e)He cannot even claim from property that was purchased after the date of the loan - due to a K'nas (a penalty) that the Chachamim imposed upon anybody who writes a Sh'tar Mukdam.

3)

(a)What else is the first of Nisan Rosh ha'Shanah for?

(b)Which day in Nisan is the Tana referring to?

(c)Then why does he say 'the first of Nisan'?

3)

(a)The first of Nisan is also Rosh ha'Shanah for Regalim.

(b)The Tana is referring to the fifteenth of Nisan (te first day of Pesach).

(c)When he says 'the first of Nisan', what he really means is - that the first of Nisan begins the month in which Rosh Chodesh li'Regalim occurs.

4)

(a)What are the ramifications of this ruling?

(b)From which Pasuk in Re'ei does Rebbi Shimon learn the order of the Regalim?

(c)The author of the Mishnah is Rebbi Shimon. What do the Chachamim say?

(d)Like whom is the Halachah?

(e)What is the significance in this regard of the Pasuk in Re'ei "u'Va'sa Shamah va'Haveisem Shamah"?

4)

(a)The ramifications of this ruling are - that the three Regalim after which one transgresses the La'av of Bal Te'acher (for not fulfilling one's Neder (See Tiferes Yisrael) begin with Pesach (i.e. one transgresses when the three Regalim have passed in the right order) ...

(b)... as the Pasuk writes in Re'ei ... "be'Chag ha'Matzos, u've'Chag ha'Shavu'os u've'Chag ha'Succos" (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

(c)The author of the Mishnah is Rebbi Shimon. According to the Chachamim - one transgresses 'Bal Te'acher atter three Regalim have passed, irrespective in which order ...

(d)... and that is the Halachah.

(e)The significance in this regard of the Pasuk in Re'ei "u'Va'sa Shamah va'Haveisem Shamah" is - that even though one only transgresses 'Bal Te'acher' after *three* Regalim, one contravenes an Asei after one, according to both of the above opinions.

5)

(a)According to the Tana Kama, the first of Ellul is Rosh ha'Shanah for Ma'aser Beheimah. What are the ramifications of this ruling?

(b)What do Rebbi Elazar and Rebbi Shimon say?

(c)Their source for this ruling is a Hekesh Ma'aser Beheimah to Ma'aser Dagan. Which Pasuk in Re'ei is this referring to?

(d)How do they learn it from there?

5)

(a)According to the Tana Kama, the first of Ellul is Rosh ha'Shanah for Ma'aser Beheimah - which means that all the anImals that are born in one's flock between one Ellul and the next must be placed into one penn and Maasered.

(b)Rebbi Elazar and Rebbi Shimon maintain - that Rosh ha'Shanah for Ma'aser Beheimah is on the first of Tishri (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

(c)Their source for this ruling is a Hekesh Ma'aser Beheimah to Ma'aser Dagan, the Pasuk in Re'ei - "Aser Te'aser es Kol Tevu'as Zar'echa ... ".

(d)They learn it from there, in that - just as Ma'aser Dagan takes place on the first of Tishri, so too, does Ma'aser Beheimah.

6)

(a)The Tana Kama learns his opinion from the same Hekesh as Rebbi Elazar and Rebbi Shimon. How does he learn it?

(b)And what do both opinions learn from the conclusion of the Pasuk "Shanah Shanah"?

6)

(a)The Tana Kama learns his opinion from the same Hekesh as Rebbi Elazar and Rebbi Shimon - in that just as the date of Ma'aser Dagan falls due close to its completion 'Samuch le'Gamro' (See Tos.Yom-Tov), so too Ma'aser Beheimah.

(b)Both opinions learn from the conclusion of the Pasuk "Shanah Shanah" - that one is not permitted to Ma'aser the animals that are born in one year to cover the animals that are born another year.

7)

(a)If, according to the Tana Kama, 'Samuch le'Gamro' regarding produce (which has been lying in the granary throughout the summer to dry) means Tishri, what makes 'Samuch le'Gamro' regarding animals, Elul?

(b)And we learn this in turn, from the Pasuk in Tehilim "Lavshu Karim ha'Tzon, va'Amakim Ya'atfu Bar (and the valleys are full of corn) ... ". How do we interpret "Lavshu Karim ha'Tzon"?

(c)What does the Pasuk then teach us?

(d)What does this prove?

(e)Like whom is the Halachah?

7)

(a)If, according to the Tana Kama, 'Samuch le'Gamro' regarding produce (which has been lying in the granary throughout the summer to dry) means Tishri, what makes 'Samuch le'Gamro' regarding animals, Elul is - the fact that animals give bive birth in the month of Av.

(b)And we learn this in turn, from the Pasuk in Tehilim "Lavshu Karim ha'Tzon, va'Amakim Ya'atfu Bar (and the valleys are full of corn) ... ". We interpret "Lavshu Karim ha'Tzon" to mean - that the female sheep are enveloped by the males (the mating takes place ...

(c)... simultaneous to the valleys being full of corn ...

(d)... which occurs in the month of Adar - and the pregnancy period of sheep is five months (See Tos.Yom-Tov DH be'Echad be'Tishri')).

(e)The Halachah is - like the Tana Kama.

8)

(a)The first ofTishri (the third Rosh ha'Shanah) is Rosh ha'Shanah for five things: for years, for Sh'mitin, for Yovlos. What are the last two?

(b)What does 'years' mean?

(c)What is the significance of 'Rosh ha'Shanah for ...

1. ... Sh'mitin and Yovlos'?

2. ... li'Netiyah?'

(d)How many days before the first of Tishri must one plant a tree for the second year of Orlah to begin when it arrives?

(e)If fifteen days out of those forty-five are required because that is how long it takes for the seeds to take root, what purpose do the other thirty days serve?

8)

(a)The first of Tishri (the third Rosh ha'Shanah) is Rosh ha'Shanah for five things: for years, for Sh'mitin, for Yovlos - for Netiyah and Yerakos (which will be explained shortly).

(b)'Years' means - the new year for Nochri kings regarding Sh'taros (like Melachim (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

(c)'Rosh ha'Shanah for ...

1. ... Sh'mitin and Yovlos' -concerns the prohibition of plowing and sowing the fields min ha'Torah, which begins on the first of Tishri (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

2. ... li'Netiyah - concerns Orlah (i.e. the second and third years begin on the first of Tishri following the planting of the tree (See Tos. Yom-Tov) ...

(d)...provided it is planted at least forty-five days earlier.

(e)Fifteen days out of those forty-five are required because it takes fourteen days for the seeds to take root (See Tos. Yom-Tov), the other thirty - because thirty days in a year is considered a year (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

9)

(a)Why is the fruit still considered Orlah after the fourth first of Tishri has passed?

(b)Then when does it leave the realm of Orlah?

(c)What status do they then acquire?

(d)What does one do with fruit of R'vai?

9)

(a)The fruit is still considered Orlah after the fourth first of Tishri has passed - because that is when it becomes a tree, and Rosh ha'Shanah of a tree is Sh'vat (as we shall see shortly).

(b)Consequently, it only leaves the realm of Orlah - the following Sh'vat ...

(c)... at which point - it becomes 'Neta R'vai' ...

(d)... which must be eaten in Yerushalayim (or redeemed, like Ma'aser Sheini

10)

(a)What is the significance of 'Rosh ha'Shanah li'Yerakos'?

(b)What are the ramifications of this ruling?

10)

(a)'Rosh ha'Shanah li'Yerakos' - concerns Ma'asering vegetables (mi'de'Rabbanan) ...

(b)... inasmuch as one is not permitted to Ma;aser vegetables that have been picked after the first of Tishri together with vegetables that were picked before that (as well as determining whether it is a year of Ma'aser Sheini or Ma'aser Ani [See also Tos. Yom-Tov]).

11)

(a)What is the significance of the ruling that Sh'vat is Rosh ha'Shanah for trees?

(b)According to Beis Shamai, Rosh ha'Shanah for trees falls on the first of Sh'vat. What do Beis Hillel say?

(c)Besides the prohibition of Ma'asering the fruit of one year on another, what other ramifications does this date have?

11)

(a)The significance of the ruling that Sh'vat is Rosh ha'Shanah for trees - concerns Ma'asros, in that one is not permitted to Ma'aser fruit that budded after Sh'vat together with fruit that budded before Sh'vat.

(b)According to Beis Shamai, Rosh ha'Shanah for trees falls on the first of Sh'vat. Beis Hillel holds - on the fifteenth (See Tos. Yom).

(c)Besides the prohibition of Ma'asering the fruit of one year on another - this date also fixes the year regarding Ma'aser Sheini and Ma'aser Ani (as we learned a little earlier with regard to Ma'aser Yerek).

Mishnah 2
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12)

(a)How many times each year is the world judged?

(b)From where do we know that it is judged ...

1. ... on Pesach for produce?

2. ... on Shavu'os for fruit?

(c)Since when is wheat considered a tree?

(d)With which opinion (cincerning the sin of Adam ha'Rishon) does this Tana concur?

12)

(a)The world is judged - four times each year.

(b)We know that it is judged ...

1. ... on Pesach for produce - from the fact that the Torah commands us to bring the Omer, so that Hash-m should bless the produce in the fields.

2. ... on Shavu'os for fruit - from the fact that the Torah commands us to bring the Two Loaves (of wheat) on Shavu'os so that He should bless the fruit of the trees.

(c)Wheat is considered a tree - based on the Pasuk in Bereishis "And from the Tree of Knowledge of good and evil ... " [See Tos. Yom-Tov]) ...

(d)... according to the opinion which holds that the tree from which Adam ha'Rishon ate was wheat.

13)

(a)On Rosh ha'Shanah, we are all judged (See Tos. Yom-Tov). How does the Mishnah describe the judgement on Rosh ha'Shanah?

(b)What is the significance of the comparison to sheep?

(c)How does the Tana explain the Pasuk in Tehilim "ha'Yotzer Yachad Libam, ha'Meivin el Kol Ma'aseihem"?

(d)From where do we know that on Succos, the world is judged for water?

(e)What name does the Tana give to Succos?

13)

(a)On Rosh ha'Shanah, we are all judged (See Tos. Yom-Tov). The Mishnah describing the judgement on Rosh ha'Shanah, writes - that all the residents of the world pass before Hash-m like sheep ...

(b)... that pass from one pen to another through a narrow passageway - one by one, to be Ma'asered.

(c)The Tana explains the Pasuk in Tehilim "ha'Yotzer Yachad Libam, ha'Meivin el Kol Ma'aseihem" to mean - that 'the One who created them examines their hearts at one and the same time, and knows all their deeds.

(d)And we know that on Succos, the world is judged for water - from the fact that the Torah commands us to pour water before Him on Succos, so that He send the rain in its time.

(e)The Tana calls Succos by the name- 'Chag' (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

Mishnah 3
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14)

(a)What is the Tana referring to when he lists six months on which the Sh'luchim go out? Who are the Sh'luchim and where are they going?

(b)The first two months on which they go out are Nisan because of Pesach, and on Av because Tish'ah be'Av. Why did they go out for Tish'ah be'Av more than for the other fast days?

(c)What reason does the Mishnah give to explain why they go out in the month of ...

1. ... Ellul?

2. ... Tishri?

(d)What is the point of going out in Ellul, seeing as there is no way of knowing whether Ellul will consist of thirty days or twenty-nine?

(e)In that case, what is the point of going out on the second of Tishri?

14)

(a)When the Tana lists six months on which the Sh'luchim go out, he is referring to - the Sh'luchei Beis-Din go to inform the Golah as to when Beis-Din fixed Rosh Chodesh.

(b)The first two months on which they go out are Nisan because of Pesach, and on Av because Tish'ah be'Av (See Tos.Yom-Tov). They went out for Tish'ah be'Av more than for the other fast days - because of the many Tzaros that occurred then (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

(c)The reason the Mishnah gives to explain why they go out in the month of ...

1. ... Ellul is - so that the Golah should know when Rosh ha'Shanah will take place.

2. ... Tishri is - because of - 'Takanas ha'Mo'ados', so that they should know when Yom-Kipur and Succos fall.

(d)Even though there is no way of knowing whether Ellul will consist of thirty days or twenty-nine, they nevertheless went out in Ellul, since the vast majority of years, Ellul was a short month, and so the B'nei Golah would fix Rosh ha'Shanah on the thirtieth of Ellul (See Tos.Yom-Tov).

(e)And the reason that they then went out on the second of Tishri was - to inform as many people as they could by the time Succos arrived whether Beis-Din had extended Ellulor not, soas to put their minds at ease.

15)

(a)Which is the last of the six months listed by the Mishnah on which the Sheluchim go out?

(b)On which month did they also used to go out when the Beis-ha'Mikdash stood?

15)

(a)The last of the six months listed by the Mishnah on which the Sh'luchim go out is - Adar, because of Purim (See Tos.Yom-Tov).

(b)When the Beis-ha'Mikdash stood, they also used to go out - in Iyar, because of Pesach Katan (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

Mishnah 4
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16)

(a)For which two months are the witnesses obligated to break Shabbos in order to testify that they saw the new moon?

(b)What is meant by breaking Shabbos in this regard?

(c)What reason does the Mishnah give other than that they are two of the months on which the Sh'luchim go out to 'Syria' (See Tos. Yom-Tov) to inform the Golah?

(d)What is the basis for this distinction? What does the Torah say about it?

(e)How did the Din differ when the Beis-ha'Mikdash stood?

16)

(a)The two months the witnesses obligated to break Shabbos in order to testify that they saw the new moon are Nisan and Tishri.

(b)Breaking Shabbos in this regard entails - going outside the T'chum.

(c)The reason the Mishnah give other than that they are two of the months on which the Sh'luchim go out to 'Syria' (See Tos. Yom-Tov) to inform the Golah is - because on these two months -Beis-Din arrange the respective Yamim-Tovim that take place on them (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

(d)The basis for this distinction is -mi'de'Rabanan, since min ha'Torah, one is obligated to break Shabbos for all the months.

(e)When the Beis-ha'Mikdash stood however - they used to break Shabbos for all twelve months, due to the Korban Musaf of Rosh Chodesh, which needed to be brought in its right time.

Mishnah 5
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17)

(a)What does the Mishnah mean when it refers to the new moon as 'Nir'eh ba'Alil'?

(b)The Tana Kama obligates the witnesses who saw the new moon to report the sighting even if it means breaking Shabbos even if the witnesses saw the new moon ba'Alil. On what grounds does Rebbi Yossi disagree?

(c)Like whom is the Halachah?

17)

(a)When the Mishnah refers to the new moon as 'Nir'eh ba'Alil, it means - that it appeared in the middle of the sky (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

(b)The Tana Kama obligates the witnesses who saw the new moon to report the sighting even if it means breaking Shabbos, even if the witnesses saw the new moon ba'Al il. Rebbi Yossi disagrees - because, he maintains, if the new moon appeared in the middle of the sky, it was visible to everyone in Yerushalayim as well so what was the point of being Mechalel Shabbos?

(c)The Halachah is - like the Tana Kama.

Mishnah 6
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18)

(a)How many pairs of witnesses did Rebbi Akiva (See Tos. Yom-Tov) once hold back in Lud?

(b)Why did he do that?

(c)What objection did Raban Gamleil raise to that?

18)

(a)Rebbi Akiva (See Tos. Yom-Tov) once held back - forty pairs of witnesses in Lud ...

(b)... to prevent them from desecrating Shabbos, seeing as they were no longer needed.

(c)Raban Gamleil objected to that - in that by doing so, Rebbi Akiva was discouraging them from coming in the fufure, at a time when their testimony might be needed.

Mishnah 7
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19)

(a)Seeing as the Tana Kama disqualifies a father and son from testifying on the new moon together, why does he require them both to go (See Meleches Shlomoh)?

(b)From which Pasuk in Bo Rebbi Shimon authorise a father and son to testify (by Eidus ha'Chodesh)?

(c)How does the Tana Kama then interpret the Pasuk?

(d)Like whom is the Halachah?

19)

(a)Despite the fact that the Tana Kama disqualifies a father and son from testifying on the new moon together, he nevertheless requires them both to go (See Meleches Shlomoh) - so that in case one of them is found to be Pasul (See Tos. Yom-Tov), the other one can combine with someone else to tesiify before the Beis-Din.

(b)Rebbi Shimon authorises a father and son to testify (by Eidus ha'Chodesh), based on the Pasuk in Bo (said by Hash-m toMoshe and Aharon) "ha'Chodeh ha'Zeh lachem Rosh Chodashim" (implying that two brothers are eligible to testify).

(c)According to the Tana Kama, what the Pasuk means is - that Kidush ha'Chodesh must be performed by people of the caliber of Moshe and Aharon (but not that they themselves can combine to testify, or to declare Rosh Chodesh,which has the same Din as testifying).

(d)The Halachah is like - the Tana Kama.

20)

(a)Rebbi Yossi tells what happens when Tuvyah ha'Rofei went with his son and a third person to testify that they had seen tjhe new moon. Who was the third person?

(b)The Beis Din-of Kohanim accepted him and his son (like Rebbi Shimon [See Tos.Yom-Tov]), but disqualified his slave. What did the Beis-Din ha'Gadol say?

20)

(a)Rebbi Yossi tells what happens when Tuvyah ha'Rofei went with his son and a third person to testify that they had seen tjhe new moon. The third person was - his slave.

(b)The Beis Din-of Kohanim accepted him and his son, but disqualified his slave (like Rebbi Shimon [See Tos.Yom-Tov]); but the Beis-Din ha'Gadol -accepted him and his slave, and disqualified his son.

Mishnah 8
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21)

(a)The first of the things that disqualify witnesses from testifying is 'ha'Mesachek be'Kuvya'. What does this mean?

(b)Why is he Pasul?

(c)The next three P'sulim are people who lend on interest, who indulge in pigeon racing and who do business with Sh'mitah produce. Why is somebody who ...

1. ... indulges in pigeon racing, Pasul?

2. ... lends on interest not considered a Gazlan d'Oraysa?

(d)What is wrong with doing business with Sh'mitah produce?

(e)Why did the Chachamim disqualify all of the above from testifying?

21)

(a)The first of the things that disqualify witnesses from testifying is 'ha'Mesachek be'Kuvya' - someone who plays dice (i.e. gambles) ...

(b)... who is Pasul - because, due to the principle 'Asmachta Lo Kanya', he does not acquire his winnings, making him a Gazlan de'Rabbanan (See Tos. Yom-Tov DH 'Eilu Hein ... ' and 'ha'Mesachek ... ').

(c)The next three P'sulim are people who lend on interest, who indulge in pigeon racing and who do business with Sh'mitah produce. Somebody who ...

1. ... indulges in pigeon racing, Pasul - f0r exactly the same reason as a gambler (based on the principle 'Asmachta Lo Kanya'.

2. ... lends on interest is not considered a Gazlan d'Oraysa - since the borrower gives the lender the money of his own free-will.

(d)It is forbidden to do business with Sh'mitah produce - because the Torah writes in Parshas B'har "le'Ochlah", from which the Chachamim deduce "le'Ochlah", 've'Lo li'Sechorah' (See also Tos. Yom-Tov).

(e)The Chachamim disqualify all of the above from testifying - because, seeing as they are all suspect of transgressing the law due to monetary gain, they cannot be trusted.

22)

(a)The last item on the list is 'Avadim'. What makes an Eved different than all the previous P'sulim?

(b)What is the source for that?

(c)In what way does the Tana finally compare all of the above to a woman?

(d)Where do we find, besides testifying that a man died to allow his wife to remarry, that a woman's evidence is acceptable?

(e)Which category of P'sul is not permitted to testify even in those cases where a woman and all the above-mentioned P'sulim are?

22)

(a)The last item on the list is 'Avadim'. An Eved is different than all the previous P'sulim - since he is Pasul mi'd'Oraysa ...

(b)... Kal va'Chomer from a woman (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

(c)The Tana finally compares all of the above to a woman - by disqualifying them from any testimony fromwhich a woman is not eligible.

(d)Besides testifying that a man died to allow his wife to remarry, a woman's evidence is acceptable - if she testifies that a Sotah committed adultery, to stop her from drinking the holy water.

(e)Whoever is Pasul on account of an Aveirah d'Oraysa that he committed - is not permitted to testify even in those cases where a woman and all the above-mentioned P'sulim are (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

Mishnah 9
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23)

(a)What does the Mishnah say about someone who has seen the new moon (on Shabbos) but who is unable to walk to Yerushalayim?

(b)What if ...

1. ... he is bed-ridden?

2. ... they know that the Tzedokim are waiting in ambush to prevent him from going?

23)

(a)The Mishnah rules that someone who has seen the new moon (on Shabbos) but who is unable to walk to Yerushalayim - may ride there on a donkey (See Tiferes Yisrael).

(b)If ...

1. ... he is bed-ridden -then one may even take him together with his bed (See Tos. Yom-Tov DH 'Oso' & 'DH 'Afilu ba'Mitah').

2. ... they know that the Baytusim and the Kutim (See Tos.Yom-Tov) are lying in wait to prevent him from going -then they may take sticks with them to defend themselves.

24)

(a)What do the witnesses do for food on Shabbos if it is a long distance to Yerushalayim?

(b)Up to what distance are the witnesses obligated togo even if it entails Chilul Shabbos?

(c)From which Pasuk in Emor do we learn the obligation of the witnesses to be Mechalel Shabbos if necessary?

24)

(a)If it is a long distance to Yerushalayim - the witnesses are even permitted to take food with them on Shabbos.

(b)The witnesses are obligated to go even if it entails Chilul Shabbos - upto a distance of a night and a day (See Tos.Yom-Tov).

(c)We learn the obligation of the witnesses to be Mechalel Shabbos if necessary from th Pasuk in Emor - 'Eileh Mo'adei Hash-m (See Tos.Yom-Tov) asher Tikre 'u osam be'Mo'adam".

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