ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler of Kollel Iyun Hadaf
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
(a) The Mishnah forbids a person to eat on Erev Pesach close to Minchah time (Samuch le'Minchah) until nightfall. The definition of ...
1. ... 'Samuch le'Minchah' is - half an hour before Minchah-time falls due.
2. ... 'Minchah' in this context - at nine and a half (seasonal) hours.
(b) It is called 'Minchah' - because that is when the Tamid shel bein ha'Arbayim is brought.
(c) The reason for the prohibition is - to ensure that one eats Matzah with an appetite (which is a Hidur Mitzvah [See Tos. Yom-Tov]).
(d) The significance of 'until nightfall' is - the fact that that is when the Mitzvah of eating Matzah falls due (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) The Tana cannot be referring to eating ...
1. ... bread - which is prohibited already from midday.
2. ... Matzah - because of the Yerushalmi, which compares someone who eats Matzah on Erev Pesach to a man who is intimate with his Kalah whilst she is still at home (i.e. before the Chupah).
(b) He must therefore be referring to - filling himself with other food.
(c) The Tana forbids even a poor man to eat - until he is leans (just like a rich man [See Tos. Yom-Tov]) .
(a) The Gabai Tzedakah must be sure to give a poor man on Erev Pesach - no less than four cups of wine.
(b) The reason for the four cups of wine is - corresponding to the four expressions of redemption (in Parshas Va'eira) "Vehotzeisi ... Vehitzalti ... Vega'alti ... Velakachti" (See Tiferes Yisrael).
(c) The Tana concludes 'va'Afilu min ha'Tamchuy' (soup-kitchen) - with reference to a poor man who does not even possess enough for two meals.
(d) The Mishnah mentions it - to teach us that even according to Rebbi Akiva, who maintains that it is better to make one's Shabbos like a weekday rather than to rely on Tzedakah, on Seider night one is obligated to accept four cups of wine (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) We know that the cup of wine that is used for Kidush is counted in the four cups - because the Mishnah refers to it as the first cup.
(b) According to Beis Shamai, the B'rachah of Kidush precedes the B'rachah over the wine - because Shabbos generally arrives before one brings wine to the table.
(c) Beis Hillel give precedence to the B'rachah over the wine - because if not for the wine, one would not be able to recite Kidush.
(d) And the same applies - if one is reciting Kidush over bread (not on Pesach of course)?
(a) The Mishnah states 'Hevi'u Lefanav, Metabel ba'Chazares(in lettuce)' - with reference to the vegetables that they bring before him (the Balabos) ...
(b) ... specifically before the meal - to encourage the children to ask why they are doing that, even though the meal has not yet begun.
(c) The Tana ...
1. ... use the word 'Metabel' to describe eating , because it was customary in those days to dip one's main food into condiments (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
2. ... mention specifically lettuce (even though all vegetables are eligible) - to teach us that one may even use lettuce if necessary.
(d) We know that this dipping is not necessarily in Charoses - since the Mishnah only mentions Charoses together with the other items on the Seider-Plate.
(e) And when the Tana writes 'ad she'Magi'a le'Parperes ha'Pas (to eat the Matzah), he means - that one does not eat anything else between the vegetables (Karpas) and the Matzah.
(a) We learn that the eating of Matzah ('Parperes ha'Pas' - See Tos. Yom-Tov) precedes that of eating Maror from the Pasuk in Beha'asloscha - "al Matzos u'Merorim Yochluhu".
(b) Otherwise we would have thought that Maror comes first - since the B'rachah ('Borei P'ri ha'Adamah') that he recited over the vegetables covers the Maror too.
(c) They would then bring before him Matzah, Maror, Charoses - and two cooked items of food.
(a) Besides various kinds of nuts (hazelnuts, pistachio and almonds) and various fruits, the two specific fruits that they used to prepare the Charoses were - figs and apples (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(b) They pounded the above mixture into a thick paste ...
(c) The long, thin sticks of 'Kaneh' and cinnamon that they them added represented - the stubble which the Jewish slaves used to build.
(d) The finished mixture represented - the cement.
(a) According to the Tana Kama, the Charoses was not a Mitzvah. Its purpose was nullify the sharpness of the Maror.
(b) Rebbi Eliezer b'Rebbi Tzadok considers it a Mitzvah (See Tos. Yom-Tov) a. because it commemorates a. the cement - b. the apple-trees underneath which the (righteous) women in Egypt used to give birth without pain (See also Tos. Yom-Tov).
(c) When the Beis-ha'Mikdash stood, they would also bring before the Balabos - the body of the roasted Pesach.
(a) After one has poured out the second cup of wine - the son asks the 'Mah Nishtanah'.
(b) We change the text of the Mishnah 've'Ka'n ha'Ben Sho'el' to 've'Chein ha'Ben Sho'el' - which means - that it is appropriate to ask the questions here (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(c) If the son is not intelligent enough to ask on his own - then the father teaches him what to say.
(d) Besides why we only eat Matzah on this night and why specifically Maror, the Tana lists - why we eat specifically roasted meat (i.e. the Korban Pesach and the Chagigah [See Tos. Yom-Tov]) and why we dip in twice on this night (whereas on other nights we only dip in once (See Tos. Yom-Tov)?
(a) The father's answer depends on - the level of the son's intelligence.
(b) One begins to answer the son's questions - with Yisrael's shame ...
(c) ... both the spiritual degradation ('Initially, our fathers were idolaters) and the physical ('Our fathers were slaves in Egypt).
(d) And one ends with Yisrael's praise 'and now Hash-m has brought us close to His service [See Tiferes Yisrael]).
(a) When the Tana says that whoever does not say these three things on Pesach has not fulfilled his obligation - he means that he has not explained their reasons (See Tos.Yom-Tov).
(b) This means (not that he must repeat the entire Seider, but) - that he has not fulfilled th Mitzvah of Hagadah properly.
(c) The three things are - Pesach, Matzah and Maror.
(d) The reason for ...
1. ... the Korban Pesach is - to remind us that Hash-m passed over (Pasach) the houses of our ancestors in Egypt when He went round Egypt killing all the Egyptian firstborn.
2. ... Matzah is - to remind us how Yisrael were driven out of Egypt in a hurry, and the dough that they were baking did not have time to rise (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
3. ... Maror - to remind us of the bitter times that our ancestors in Egypt lived through.
(a) The Mishnah learns from the word "Li" (in the Pasuk in Bo "Ba'avur Zeh Asah Hash-m Li be'Tzeisi mi'Mitzrayim") - that we must consider ourselves as having gone out of Egypt.
(b) We are therefore obligated ... to praise the One who performed miracles to us and to our ancestors.
(c) The Tana lists - nine expressions of praise (to thank, to praise, to laud, to glorify, to exalt, to honor, to bless, to uplift and to applaud).
(d) And he concludes with five phases of redemption and 'Halelukah': 'from slavery to freedom, from grief to joy and from mourning to Yom-Tov' - from darkness to a great light and from slavery to redemption.
(a) According to Beis Shamai, we then recite Hallel up to "Eim ha'Banim S'meichah". Beis Hillel say - up to "Chalamish le'Ma'yno Mayim" (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(b) The Tana describes the B'rachah that concludes this part of the Seider (Maggid) as - Ge'ulah'.
(a) Rebbi Tarfon maintains that the B'rachah reads ' ... asher Ge'alanu ve'Ga'al es Avoseinu mi'Mitzrayim' (See Tos. Yom-Tov) - which is the conclusion of the B'rachah.
(b) According to Rebbi Akiva - one continues with a request that we experience other Yamim-Tovim, that the Beis-ha'Mikdash is rebuilt, that we rejoice in the Avodah and that we eat there from 'the Zevachim and the Pesachim'.
(c) By 'Zevachim', the Tana means - the Korban Chagigah.
(d) And one then concludes - 'Baruch ... Ga'al Yisrael'.
(a) After pouring out of the third cup of wine - one recites Birchas ha'Mazon.
(b) Next - one pours out the fourth up ...
(c) ... over which one recites 'Birchas ha'Shir'.
(d) (d) According to some, 'Birchas ha'Shir' refers to 'Nishmas'; according to others - it is 'Yehalelucha' (after Hallel [See Tos. Yom Tov]).
(e) We have the Minhag to say both.
(a) The Tana - permits drinking wine between the first cups of wine (See Tos. Yom-Tov DH 'Bein ha'Kosos' & 'Bein Shelishi la'Revi'i').
(b) He prohibits drinking between the third and fourth cups however - to avoid becoming inebriated, thereby omitting Hallel.
(c) Granted, one has already drunk as much as one wants during the meal - but wine that one drinks during the meal does not inebriate (See Tiferes Yisrael), wine that one drinks after the meal does.
(a) The Mishnah states 've'Ein Maftirin Achar ha'Pesach Afikoman'. Besides 'One does not open one's mouth to say', 'Ein Maftirin' might mean - 'One does not take leave (of the meal)'.
(b) According to one interpretation, the word 'Afikoman' is the acronym for 'Afiku Manaichu', and the Mishnah is coming to teach us - that one is not permitted to take all one's eating vessels and to continue eating somewhere else (neither Matzah nor anything else) ...
(c) ... in case one comes to eat the Korban Pesach in two places.
(a) Others say that 'Afikoman' is the acronym of 'Afiku Minei (Mesikah) - meaning 'Take out sweet dishes [dessert]) ...
(b) Which the Chachamim forbade - so that the taste of the Pesach remains in one's mouth.
(c) The ramifications of this ruling are - that nowadays, one may not eat anything after the Afikoman).
(d) According to the first explanation - one is permitted to eat after the Afikoman, provided one eats it in the same location as the meal; whereas according to the second explanation, it is forbidden.
(a) The Tana Kama rules that if some of the group fall asleep whilst eating the Korban Pesach - they may continue eating the Korban Pesach, but not if they all do ...
(b) ... because it looks as if they are eating the Korban Pesach in two locations, which is forbidden.
(c) This ruling is merely a Chumra mi'de'Rabbanan.
(d) Nowadays - the same will apply to the Mitzvah of Afikoman.
(a) When Rebbi Yossi differentiates between whether they merely dozed of or whether they fell asleep (See Tos. Yom-Tov) - he is qualifying the Reisha of the Tana Kama, forbidding anybody who falls asleep from continuing eating when he wakes up.
(b) The Halachah is - like Rebbi Yossi.
(a) We learn from the Gezeirah-Shavah "ba'Laylah ha'Zeh" ("ve'Achlu es ha'Basar ba'Laylah ha'Zeh") "ba'Laylah ha'Zeh" ("ve'Avarti be'Eretz Mitzrayim ba'Laylah ha'Zeh" [both in Bo]) - that the Pesach after midnight becomes 'Nosar' (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(b) To the Din Torah of Nosar, the Mishnah adds - that it is also Metamei the hands.
(c) Chazal saw fit to initiate it - so that people would be careful to eat one's Pesach before midnight.
(d) Besides Nosar, they added the same Din Tum'ah - to Pigul (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) The B'rachah that one recites over eating the Korban ...
1. ... Pesach is - ' ... Le'echol ha'Pesach'.
2. ... Zevach (the Chagigah of the fourteenth) - 'Le'echol ha'Zevach'.
(b) Rebbi Yishmael rules that - whereas the B'rachah over the Pesach covers the B'rachah of the Zevach, the B'rachah over the Zevach does not cover that of the Pesach.
(c) According to Rebbi Akiva - neither B'rachah covers the other.
(a) The Machlokes between Rebbi Yishmael and Rebbi Akiva is connected with the Zerikas or the Shefichas ha'Dam (See Tos. Yom-Tov). What does one do with the blood of ...
1. ... the Pesach?
2. ... the Zevach?
(b) Rebbi Yishmael holds 'Zerikah bi'Chelal Shefichah, ve'Ein Shefichah bi'Chelal Zevichah'. What does this mean?
(c) What does Rebbi Akiva then hold?
(d) Like whom is the Halachah?
Nishlemah Maseches Pesachim