ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler of Kollel Iyun Hadaf
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
(a) The Mishnah require specifically pomegranate wood to be used to fashion spit-rods to roast the Korban Pesach - because it is the only wood that does not exude water when it is heated.
(b) One fixes the lamb on the spit-rod - by pushing the sharpened end via the mouth through the body to the hole in the back passage.
(c) According to Rebbi Yossi ha'Gelili - one places the legs and the intestines (which were removed for washing) into the lamb's body cavity, before roasting it.
(d) Rebbi Akiva objects to that - on the grounds that it resembles cooking.
(e) According to him, one therefore - skewers them on the spit-rod above the lamb's mouth (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) When does the Mishnah forbids roasting the Pesach on a 'Shapud' - it is referring to one made of metal.
(b) The Tana incorporates - a metal grill in this prohibition.
(c) In the episode cited by Rebbi Tzadok, Raban Gamliel instructed his slave Tavi to go and - roast a Pesach on their behalf on a metal grill.
(d) To prevent Rebbi Tzadok's testimony from clashing with the previous statement, we add to it - that if the grill has holes, it is permitted (See Tos. Yom-Tov), and that is what Raban Gamliel was referring to as well.
(e) The Halachah is - like Rebbi Tzadok.
(a) The Tana rules that if ...
1. ... the Pesach touched the side of the oven - one peels off a layer of meat from the spot where it touched.
2. ... some gravy splashed from the Pesach on to the oven and back on to the Basar of the Pesach - one removes one fingers-breadth (K'dei Netilah) of meat ...
(b) ... since gravy penetrates deeper into the meat than the dry oven (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) And in a case where some of the gravy dripped on to hot flour - one removes a Kemitzah (a hand-breadth) ...
(b) ... because it renders the gravy roasted via other means (which is therefore Pasul), which in turns, renders the flour Pasul.
(c) The flour must then be burned - like other Kodshim that becomes Pasul (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) A Pesach that the owner smears it with Terumah oil - is Kasher.
(b) Assuming the entire group consists of Kohanim - they are permitted to eat it.
(c) If some of them are Yisre'eilim, assuming the lamb is ...
1. ... still raw - they wash it (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
2. ... already roasted - they peel off one layer of flesh and eat the rest (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(d) The Tana rules that a Korban Pesach that has been smeared with Ma'aser Sheini oil - it (the oil) cannot subsequently be charged to the members of the group (as other Pesachim are) ...
(e) ... since it is forbidden to redeem Ma'aser Sheini in Yerushalayim (See Tiferes Yisrael).
(a) The Mishnah now discusses the Omer, the Sh'tei ha'Lechem, the Lechem ha'Panim, Zivchei Shalmei Tzibur - (the two lambs that are brought on Shavu'os together with the Sh'tei ha'Lechem) and the goats of Rosh Chodesh that are brought be'Tum'ah.
(b) They they brought be'Tum'ah - if the majority of the Tzibur are Tamei.
(c) The Tana now rules - that even though they are all brought be'Tum'ah, they may not be eaten be'Tum'ah.
(a) We learn from the Pasuk in Beha'aloscha ...
1. ... "Ta'asu oso be'Mo'ado" - that the Korban Pesach is sometimes brought be'Tum'ah.
2. ... "Ish Ish ki Yih'yeh Tamei la'Nefesh" - that it is only a Yachid who must bring a Pesach sheini be'Tum'ah, but that a Tzibur brings the Pesach Rishon even be'Tum'ah.
(b) And we learn from the Pasuk in Pinchas (in connection with the Korb'nos Tzibur) "be'Mo'adeichem" - that the same applies to all Korb'nos Tzibur (See also Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) The Mishnah see fit to say 'Five things', rather than just 'Korb'nos Tzibur - to preclude the Chagigas ha'Regalim, which does not override Tum'ah.
(b) We would otherwise have thought that it does - because it comes 'bi'Chenufyah' (i.e. all members of the community bring it, so that it resembles a Korban Tzibur).
(c) The Tana omits Se'irei ha'Regalim from the list - because they are included in Zivchei Shalmei Tzibur.
(d) And the reason that he includes Se'irei Roshei Chodashim is - because the Torah does not use the term "Mo'ed" with regard to Rosh Chodesh (See Tos. Yom-Tov), and the source for all the Korb'nos Tzibur is the Pasuk in Pinchas "Eileh Ta'asu la'Hashem be'Mo'adeichem", as we explained earlier.
(a) The sole exception to the above rule is 'the Korban Pesach, which, if brought be'Tum'ah, is also eaten be'Tum'ah ...
(b) ... because, unlike other Korbanos, is initially brought in order to be eaten ...
(c) ... as we learned in the Pasuk in Bo "Ish L'fi Ochlo Tochosu al ha'Seh".
(a) The Mishnah rules, in a case where ...
1. ... the Basar of the Pesach became Tamei and the Cheilev did not - that one may not sprinkle the blood.
2. ... the Cheilev became Tamei and the Basar did not - that one may.
(b) The Din regarding other Korbanos is - that either way, one can sprinkle the blood.
(c) The reason for the difference is - because whereas the Pesach is initially brought with the intention of eating it, other Korbanos are not, as we just explained.
(a) The Mishnah cites two cases where the Pesach is brought be'Tum'ah. One is where the Kahal or the majority of the Kahal are Tamei, the other - where the Kohanim are Tamei (even if the Kahal is Tahor).
(b) The Tana is talking about - Tum'as Meis (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(c) In the latter case, the minority of people who are Tamei - also bring the Pesach be'Tum'ah ...
(d) ... due to the principle 'Ein Korban Tzibur Chaluk' (since most of the Tzibur are bringing it be'Tum'ah, everybody does [See He'aros in Mishnayos 'Zeicher Chanoch' & Tos. Yom-Tov]).
(e) If only the minority of the Kahal are Tamei - they bring a Pesach Sheini, whilst the majority bring the Pesach Rishon.
(a) The Mishnah declares Kasher a Tamei Pesach whose Tum'ah is discovered only after the blood has already been sprinkled - because the Tzitz atones for the Tum'ah ...
(b) ... irrespective of whether it is the Basar or the Dam that is discovered to be Tamei.
(c) If it is the owner who discovers that he is Tamei - he is Chayav to bring a Pesach Sheini ...
(d) ... because Chazal have said - that the Tzitz atones for Tum'as Dam but not Tum'as ha'Guf.
(a) Besides the case of Korban Pesach, we say 'Tzitz Meratzeh' - with regard to a Nazir whose Korban became Tamei through a Meis.
(b) Consequently - his shaving is Kasher, and permits him to drink wine and to become Tamei Meis.
(c) A Nazir who becomes Tamei Meis before having brought his Korbanos - must begin his Nezirus all over again (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) The Tzitz also atones for Tum'as ha'Tehom - (Tum'as Meis that was not previously known to be there).
(b) Tum'as ha'Tehom applies - both to Pesach and to Nazir.
(c) Consequently - if a Nazir or somebody who is bringing a Korban Pesach, discover after having brought their respective Korbanos, that they had become Tamei by means of a Meis that was not previously known to have been there - the Tzitz atones for the Tum'ah, and they are Patur from Pesach Sheini.
(d) The source of Tum'as ha'Tehom is 'Halachah le'Moshe mi"Sinai.
(a) A Pesach that became Tamei - must be burnt.
(b) The Mishnah rules that if the entire lamb or most of it became Tamei - one burns it in front of the Beis-Hamikdash, whereas if only the minority became Tamei - it can be burnt in their courtyards or on their roofs (wherever they want).
(c) The reason for the former ruling is - in order to shame them, to discourage them from letting it happen again.
(d) The reason for the concession allowing them to use wood from the Ma'arachah to burn it (See Tos. Yom-Tov) is - in order not shame the poor people who could not afford to buy wood of his own (See Tiferes Yisrael).
(a) The Tana adds - Nosar to the case of 'Nitma Mi'uto'
(b) Where does one burn it?
(c) The Mishnah cites the Tzaikanin - (miserly people) ...
(d) ... who used to burn the minority of their Korban Pesach in front of the Beis-Hamikdash, in order to take advantage of the free wood that was available (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) The Mishnah discusses a Korban Pesach that is either Yotzei - (that has been taken outside the walls of Yerushalayim) or Tamei.
(b) The Tana rules that ...
1. ... it must be burned immediately.
2. ... a Pesach whose owner became Tamei or died- must be left overnight (to become Nosar [Te'ubar Tzuraso]), and then burned.
(a) Rebbi Yochanan ben B'rokah holds that, in the previous case too, the Pesach is burnt immediately - since there is nobody to eat it (in which case it is considered a real P'sul ha'Guf).
(b) He concede to the Tana Kama that it requires Ibur Tzurah however - there where the owner became Tamei or died after the blood has been sprinkled.
(c) The Halachah is - like the Tana Kama.
(a) The bones, the Gidin (sinews) and the remains of the Basar (Nosar) - are burned on the sixteenth of Nisan (on Chol ha'Mo'ed).
(b) The bones the Mishnah is referring to - are bones that contain marrow, which is considered Basar.
(c) The problem with the Gidin is - why they need to be burned? Why can they not be eaten?
(d) The answer is - that the Tana is talking about Gidin that one is not permitted to eat, such as the Gid ha'Nasheh.
(e) And the reason that they need to be burned is because he is referring specifically to the fat of the Gid ha'Nasheh, which is merely a Chumra, or the outer Gid, which is only Asur mi'de'Rabbanan.
(a) If the sixteenth of Nisan falls on Shabbos, then - one burns them on the seventeenth.
(b) It is obvious that the Mitzvah to burn the above cannot be performed on Shabbos (See Tos. Yom-Tov). It cannot be burned on Yom-Tov either however - since burning Kodshim overrides neither Shabbos nor Yom-Tov.
(c) The reason that the Asei to burn them doe not override the Lo Sa'aseh of Yom-Tov - is due to the fact that Yom-Yov is an Asei as well as a Lo Sa'aseh (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) The sort of Basar that the Tana considers not fit to eat on a tender kid-goat is - Basar that would be too hard to eat on a fully-grown ox even when it is fully-cooked.
(b) The ramifications of this statement are - that one cannot fulfil one's obligation by eating a k'Zayis of just that Basar.
(c) And he gives examples of Basar that one can eat as ...
1. ... 'Rashei Kenafayim' - (the grizzle on the tip of the spoon of the shoulder-bone).
2. ... 've'ha'Sechusim' - (the grizzle on the middle section of the ear, the chest and the small ribs that are found at the end of the spinal-cord).
(a) The Mishnah rules that someone who ...
1. ... breaks the bone of a Tahor Pesach - is subject to Malkos, but not someone who ...
2. ... leaves over part of a Tahor Pesach or who ...
3. ... breaks the bone of a Tamei Pesach.
(b) One reason for the second of the previous rulings is because it is a La'av she'Ein bo Ma'aseh'; the other reason is because, based on the Pasuk in Bo "ve'Lo Sosiru ... ve'ha'Nosar mimenu ... ba'Eish Tisrofu" - it is a 'La'av ha'Nitak la'Asei' (if one has transgressed the La'av, then one fulfils the Asei), on which there is no further punishment.
(c) And we extrapolate the third ruling from the Pasuk there "ve'Etzem Lo Sishb'ru Bo" - by darshening "Bo" 'be'Tahor', ve'Lo be'Tamei'.
(a) We learn that Kodshim which leave their precincts may not be eaten from the Pasuk in Mishpatim - "u'Basar ba'Sadeh T'reifah Lo socheilu".
(b) The ramifications of this Halachah regarding ...
1. ... Kodshei Kodshim are - that they may not leave the precincts of the Azarah.
2. ... Kodshim Kalim are - that they may not leave the precincts of Yerushalayim.
(c) Consequently, if ...
1. ... a limb of one's (Shechted) Korban Pesach leaves the precincts of Yerushalayim - one severs it and eats the rest.
2. ... part of a limb of one's Korban Pesach leaves the precincts of Yerushalayim - one cuts the flesh at the point where it left to the bone, before peeling the flesh from the part of the bone that is still inside, upon which one removes the entire bone and throws it out (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(d) If part of a limb of other Kodshim Kalim leave the precincts of Yerushalayim - one simply cuts the bone at that point and throws it out.
(e) One cannot do the same with the Korban Pesach however - since one is not allowed to break any bones of a Korban Pesach.
(a) To define exactly where the precincts of Yerushalayim begin, the Mishnah writes 'min ha'Agaf ve'Lifenim, ke'Lifenim ... '. The 'Agaf' is - the point on the lintel against which the door bangs (See Tos. Yov).
(b) The Tana considers ...
1. ... the windows as well as ...
2. ... the thickness of the walls - inside Yerushalayim.
(c) The practical application of the latter ruling is - that one is allowed to take one's Pesach on to the top of the wall of Yerushalayim.
(a) The Mishnah permits a group that have split into two and that are eating their Korban Pesach in two locations in the same room - to turn their faces in different direction (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(b) There no problem with the Korban Pesach being eaten in two different locations - since it is permitted to divide into two for it to be eaten in two different locations.
(c) We learn from the Pasuk in Bo ...
1. ... "al ha'Batim asher Yochlu oso" - what we just said (that the Korban Pesach may be divided into two and eaten in two different locations.
2. ... "ba'Bayis Eched Ye'achel" - that a person cannot eat his piece of Korban Pesach in two different locations.
(a) The Tana permits placing the hot kettle - (used for diluting wine [in the day before tea and coffee were discovered]) in between the two groups.
(b) The Chidush is - that we not even mind if something divides between the two groups (See also Tiferes Yisrael).
(a) Whenever the Shamash who is serving both groups goes to dilute wine (during the meal, for the group to which he does not belong) - he must close his mouth and turn his face towards his own group ...
(b) ... so that they do not suspect him of eating with the group that he currently serving.
(c) The Mishnah - permits a Kalah to turn her face away whilst eating ...
(d) ... because she is shy to eat in front of other people (and one is permitted to eat the Pesach in two locations, as we learned earlier). See also Tiferes Yisrael and Tos. Yom Tov.