[108a - 43 lines; 108b - 21 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Gemara 108b [line 5]:
"Shesa'an Chai Yatza: Amar Rava, Yedei Yayin Yatza, Yedei Cheirus Lo Yatza; Shesa'an Bevas Achas: Rav Amar, Yedei Yayin Yatza, Yedei Arba'ah Kosos Lo Yatza" שתאן חי יצא אמר רבא ידי יין יצא ידי חירות לא יצא שתאן בבת אחת רב אמר ידי יין יצא ידי ארבעה כוסות לא יצא
The Girsa of the Rif and the Rambam is "Shesa'an Chai Yatza: Amar Rava, Yedei Arba'ah Kosos Yatza, Yedei Cheirus Lo Yatza; Shesa'an Bevas Achas: Rav Amar, Yedei Cheirus Yatza, Yedei Arba'ah Kosos Lo Yatza" שתאן חי יצא אמר רבא ידי ארבעה כוסות יצא ידי חירות לא יצא שתאן בבת אחת רב אמר ידי חירות יצא ידי ארבעה כוסות לא יצא
 Gemara 108b [line 13]:
The words "v'At Amrat Kos Yafeh" ואת אמרת כוס יפה
should be "v'At Amrat Kedei Mezigas Kos Yafeh" ואת אמרת כדי מזיגת כוס יפה
(This is the Girsa in the manuscripts and in the Rashbam and Tosfos. -Dikdukei Sofrim #7)
 RASHBAM 108b DH Amar Rebbi Yehudah Amar Shmuel 4 Kosos ד"ה אמר רבי יהודה אמר שמואל ד' כוסות:
The words "v'Hashta Ka Salka Daitach d'Mezigas Kos Yafeh v'Rova Revi'is Lav Chad Shi'ur Hu" והשתא קא סלקא דעתך דמזיגת כוס יפה ורובע רביעית לאו חד שיעור הוא
should be "v'Hashta Ka Salka Daitach d'Mezigas Kos Yafeh u'Revi'is Lav Chad Shi'ur Hu" והשתא קא סלקא דעתך דמזיגת כוס יפה ורביעית לאו חד שיעור (M. KORNFELD)
1)[line 1]בין הכוסות הללוBEIN HA'KOSOS HALALU- between the first and second or second and third [of the four] cups [of wine one must drink on Seder night]
2)[line 2]לא ישתהLO YISHTEH- one should not drink (a) since once there is no longer a reason to build up an appetite, it appears as if one is adding to the total of four cups (RASHBAM); (b) since wine drunk after one is finished eating causes one to become inebriated (YERUSHALMI)
3)[line 3]מסעד סעידMIS'AD SA'ID- [that wine] is satiating
4)[line 11]מצפראMI'TZAFRA- from the morning
5)[line 14]איסתניסISTENIS- finicky
6)[line 15]לא הוה מהני ליה מיכלאLO HAVAH MEHANI LEI MICHLA- food would not give him enjoyment; i.e., he would have no appetite
7)[line 17]מצהMATZAH- [the k'Zayis of] Matzah [eaten for the Mitzvah on Seder night]
8)[line 24]השתא הוא דקא מתחלא לה חירותHASHTA HU D'KA MASCHELA LAH CHEIRUS- now [when one is reciting the story of the Exodus,] the [process that led to] freedom is beginning
9)[line 27]דקא הויא חירותD'KA HAVYA CHEIRUS- that freedom has [already been attained]
10)[line 30]פרקדןPERAKDAN- lying in a supine position
11)[line 34]אשה חשובהISHAH CHASHUVAH- (a) a woman whose husband is not critical of her behavior (CHOK YAKOV 472:8, citing the ROKE'ACH #283; also implicit in the RASHBAM); (b) a widow who is the head of her household; (c) a true Eishes Chayil exceptional in her piety (d) a woman who has servants to prepare and serve the meal and therefore has the time to lean while drinking (b, c, and d - RABEINU MANO'ACH Hilchos Chametz u'Matzah 7:8)
12)[line 32]שמא יקדים קנה לוושטSHEMA YAKDIM KANEH LA'VESHET- [if one (a) lies on his back (RASHI) or (b) lies on his right side (RASHBAM quoting his teachers) while eating,] perhaps the trachea will precede the esophagus; i.e., perhaps the food will enter his windpipe, causing him to choke
13)[line 37]בי מרBEI MAR- the house of Rabah (who was the Rebbi of Abaye)
14a)[line 37]זגינןZAGINAN- we would lean
b)[line 37]אבירכי דהדדיA'BIRKEI D'HADADI- on each other's knees
15)[line 41]שוליא דנגריSHEVALYA D'NAGAREI- a carpenter's apprentice [who joins his master for the Seder]
16)[line 1]שאף הן היו באותו הנסSHE'AF HEN HAYU B'OSO HA'NES- for they were the cause of the miracle of the Exodus, as the Gemara (Sotah 11b) teaches that Klal Yisrael left Egypt due to the merit of their righteous woman (see Insights).
17)[line 3]כדי מזיגת כוס יפהKEDEI MEZIGAS KOS YAFEH- enough undiluted wine to result in one quarter of a Log - a Revi'is - of wine following a proper dilution. The wine in the times of the Gemara was all but undrinkable before it was diluted at a ratio of one part wine to three parts water; therefore, the amount of wine under discussion is one quarter of a Revi'is.
18)[line 3]שתאן חיSHESA'AN CHAI- if he drank undiluted wine [for] the four cups
19)[line 4]בבת אחתB'VAS ACHAS- (a) [enough wine for all four cups] at once [from one large utensil] (RASHI); (b) [one cup after another] at one time (RASHBAM)
20)[line 4]השקה מהןHISHKEH ME'HEN- if he gave to drink from them
21a)[line 5]ידי יין יצאYEDEI YAYIN YATZA- he has fulfilled his obligation to drink the four cups
b)[line 5]ידי חירות לא יצאYEDEI CHEIRUS LO YATZA- but he has not done so optimally
22a)[line 7]ידי יין יצאYEDEI YAYIN YATZA- he has fulfilled his obligation to drink wine on Yom Tov (see 109a)
b)[line 7]ידי ארבעה כוסות לא יצאYEDEI ARBA'AH KOSOS LO YATZA- he has not fulfilled his obligation to drink the four cups [for he has downed only one]
23)[line 11]אחד חי ואחד מזוגECHAD CHAI V'ECHAD MAZUG- whether undiluted or diluted
24a)[line 12]טעםTA'AM- the taste of wine, as opposed to that which is (a) too new (RASHI); (b) overly concentrated (Tiklin Chadtin to Shekalim 8b)
b)[line 12]מראהMAR'EH- the appearance of wine, as opposed to that which is (a) too old (RASHI); (b) overly diluted (Tiklin Chadtin to Shekalim 8b)
25)[line 13]ואת אמרת כוס יפה?V'AT AMRAT KOS YAFEH?- (a) How could Shmuel rule that each cup requires "Kedei Mezigas Kos Yafeh" when the Beraisa clearly states that each cup must contain a Revi'is? (The Gemara at this point understands that these are two different Shi'urim; RASHBAM); (b) How could Shmuel rule that all four cups together must contain a total of one Revi'is when the Beraisa states that each cup must contain a Revi'is (RASHI as quoted by the Rashbam)?; (c) How could Shmuel rule that all four cups together must contain a total of one quarter of a Revi'is when the Beraisa states that all four cups together must contain a total of one whole Revi'is (RASHI as his commentary appears on the Daf)?
26)[line 14]אמרי אידי ואידי חד שיעורא הוא ...AMRI IDI V'IDI CHAD SHI'URA HU ...- (a) When Shmuel said "Kedei Mezigas Kos Yafeh," he meant that there must be enough undiluted wine so that one ends up with a full Revi'is for each cup (RASHBAM); (b) Shmuel indeed intended that each cup must contain a Revi'is (RASHI as quoted by the Rashbam); (c) Shmuel indeed intended that all four cups together must contain a total of one Revi'is (RASHI as his commentary appears on the Daf).
27)[line 18]"אל תרא יין כי יתאדם, [כי יתן בכוס עינו, יתהלך במשרים.]""AL TEIREH YAYIN KI YIS'ADAM, [KI YITEN BA'KOS EINO, YIS'HALECH B'MEISHARIM.]"- "Do not look upon wine when it is red, [for when a person eyes a cup, he acts with propriety]" (Mishlei 23:31). In this verse, King Shlomo warns one not to allow himself to be enticed by wine, for when one is intoxicated he feels that he can do no wrong. Rebbi Yehudah inferred from this verse that for Halachic purposes, wine must have (a) a red appearance, and (b) the ability to intoxicate.
28)[last line]תועלתTO'ELES- benefit