1)

(a)In the same vein as we just asked on the previous Mishnah, we ask why the Tana sees fit to insert Sandal in the Mishnah in Bechoros ('ha'Mapeles Sandal, ha'Ba Acharav B'chor le'Nachalah ve'Ein B'chor le'Kohen'). What is the problem?

(b)How do we solve the problem?

(c)And why does the Tana then find it necessary to insert Sandal in the Mishnah regarding K'risus (with reference to the Chiyuv to bring a Korban Yoledes) ...

1. ... according to the Tana Kama? How would the V'lad and the Sandal have had to have been born, for the one to be Patur and the other, Chayav?

2. ... according to Rebbi Shimon, who holds that she would be Chayav anyway? What sort of woman does Rebbi Yirmiyah ascribe this Halachah to? When did she give birth to the V'lad, and when, to the Sandal?

(d)The Rabbanan query Rebbi Yirmiyah however, from a Beraisa. How does the Tana describe the emergence of a baby and a Sandal?

(e)What is then the problem?

1)

(a)In the same vein as we just asked on the previous Mishnah, we ask why the Tana sees fit to insert Sandal in the Mishnah in Bechoros ('ha'Mapeles Sandal, ha'Ba Acharav B'chor le'Nachalah ve'Ein B'chor le'Kohen'). The problem is - that this is obvious, since, in any event, the baby that is born together with the Sandal is the B'chor for the Kohen.

(b)And we answer - that the baby that is born after it refers to the baby that is born (not a year or two later, but) immediately after the Sandal, to teach that even he is not the firstborn for the Kohen.

(c)And the Tana finds it necessary to insert Sandal in the Mishnah regarding Kerisus (with reference to the Chiyuv to bring a Korban Yoledes) ...

1. ... according to the Tana Kama, in a case where the V'lad was a Yotzei Dofen (which he does not consider a V'lad in this regard) - whereas the Sandal was miscarried by means of a regular birth.

2. ... according to Rebbi Shimon (who does consider a Sandal a V'lad in this regard), in the case of - a Giyores, who gave birth to the V'lad before the conversion (when she was not yet Chayav a Korban Yoledes, and the Sandal after it.

(d)The Rabbanan query Rebbi Yirmiyah however, from a Beraisa, which explains - that the V'lad and the Sandal came out intertwined ('Yatz'u Keruchin') ...

(e)... so how can a woman possibly convert between one and the other, and how can the Sandal exempt the V'lad that follows it from the Bechorah?

2)

(a)To solve the problem, how does Rav Papa explain 'Yatz'u Keruchin',?

(b)What happened then in the case of ...

1. ... Bechoros?

2. ... K'risus?

(c)Rav Tachlifa in the name of Rava, who concurs with the solution regarding Bechoros and K'risus, reverts the sequence, and explains even if the V'lad and the Sandal are joined in the middle. How does he then explain the fact that the Sandal ...

1. ... emerged first by B'chor?

2. ... is considered as having emerged last by K'risus?

2)

(a)To solve the problem, Rav Papa therefore explains 'Yatz'u Keruchin' to mean - that the head is stuck to the navel of the Sandal.

(b)Consequently, in the case of ...

1. ... Bechoros - the V'lad pushed the Sandal out first with its head.

2. ... K'risus - the V'lad emerged first via its feet.

(c)Rav Tachlifa in the name of Rava reverts the sequence. He concurs with the solution regarding Bechoros and K'risus, even if the V'lad and the Sandal are joined in the middle. The reason that the Sandal ...

1. ... emerged first by B'chor is - because, being devoid of life, it slipped out (feet first), whilst the V'lad, which contains life, held on to its mother's stomach with its hands.

2. ...is considered as having emerged last by K'risus is - because even though both emerged simultaneously, head first, the emergence of the head only is considered Leidah vis-a-vis a V'lad, but not vis-a-vis a Sandal (until most of it has emerged).

3)

(a)Based on which principle does our Mishnah rule that a Shilya lying in a room renders the room Tamei?

(b)Rebbi Shimon disagrees. What does he say?

(c)The Tana explains that one end of a Shilya is thin like a thread. How does he describe the other end?

(d)What resembles a Turmus-bean, according to an alternative version?

3)

(a)Our Mishnah rules that a Shilya lying in a room renders the room Tamei - based on the principle 'Ein Shilya be'Lo V'lad'.

(b)Rebbi Shimon disagrees. According to him, if no V'lad is visible, it means that it melted before it emerged, turned into blood, and merged with the blood of the birth.

(c)The Tana explains that one end of a Shilya is thin like a thread the other - as broad as a Turmus-bean.

(d)According to an alternative version - it is the head of the Shilya that resembles a Turmus-bean.

4)

(a)In which regard does the Tana compare a Shilya to a trumpet?

(b)What minimum Shi'ur does he give for a Shilya?

(c)Which part of a chicken does a Shilya resemble, according to Raban Shimon ben Gamliel?

(d)How many items does Rebbi Oshaya Ze'ira de'min Chabarya (see commentaries in Chulin 12b) list, that have a Shi'ur Tefach (besides Shilya)?

4)

(a)The Tana describes a Shilya - as 'hollow as a trumpet'.

(b)The minimum Shi'ur he gives for a Shilya is - a Tefach.

(c)According to Raban Shimon ben Gamliel, the Shilya resembles - the stomach of a chicken (from which the intestines emerge).

(d)Rebbi Oshaya Ze'ira de'min Chabarya (see commentaries in Chulin 12b) lists - four items (besides Shilya) that have a Shi'ur Tefach); Shofar, Lulav, Succah and Eizov).

5)

(a)How does Raban Shimon ben Gamliel in a Beraisa define the Shi'ur of a Shofar?

(b)How do we know that this is equivalent to a Tefach?

(c)What does 'Shedrah' (spine) refer to in the current context?

(d)This is based on a statement by Rebbi Parnach. What does Rebbi Parnach Amar Rebbi Yochanan say about the Shedrah of a Lulav?

(e)The last two items comprise a Beraisa concerning Succah and a Beraisa cited by Rebbi Chiya that the hyssop of the Parah Adumah must measure a Tefach. What does the Tana there say about a Succah?

5)

(a)Raban Shimon ben Gamliel in a Beraisa defines the Shi'ur of a Shofar - as long enough to grasp in one's hand and protrude at both ends (so that everyone can see that it is a Shofar).

(b)We know that this is equivalent to a Tefach - because a Tefach comprises four thumb-breadths (slightly more than a the width of one's hand).

(c)'Shedrah', in the current context, refers to - the spine of a Lulav (the central stem up to where the leaves no longer branch out from it).

(d)This is based on a statement by Rebbi Parnach Amar Rebbi Yochanan, who rules - that the Shedrah of a Lulav should protrude one Tefach above the top of the Hadasim.

(e)The last two items comprise a Beraisa concerning Succah and a Beraisa cited by Rebbi Chiya that the hyssop of the Parah Adumah must measure a Tefach. The Tana there states - that a Succah that comprises two regular walls and the third, a Tefach, is Kasher.

6)

(a)How many of the above are 'Masnita' (Mishnahs or Beraisos), and how many, statements of Amora'im?

(b)How does Abaye reconcile this with Rebbi Chanina bar Papa citing Shilo from the village of Tamarta, who presents them as three 'Masnita' and two statements of Amora'im?

(c)We query Rebbi Oshaya Ze'ira from a Mishnah in Ohalos. What does the Tana in Ohalos say about something that is a cubic Tefach?

(d)Why does Rebbi Oshaya then not include it in his list?

6)

(a)Four of the above are 'Masnita' (Mishnahs or Beraisos), and one (Shedro shel Lulav), the statement of an Amora.

(b)To reconcile this with Rebbi Chanina bar Papa citing Shilo from the village of Tamarta, who presents them as three 'Masnita' and two statements of Amora'im, Abaye - amends Rebbi Chiya's statement ('Eizov Tefach') to a personal one (and not as a Beraisa, as Rebbi Chanina bar Papa originally presented it).

(c)We query Rebbi Oshaya Ze'ira from a Mishnah in Ohalos however, which rules that something that is a cubic Tefach - creates an Ohel to transmit Tum'ah from a Meis that is underneath one end to something that is underneath the other.

(d)Rebbi Oshaya does not include it in his list - because he is talking about a straightforward Shi'ur Tefach (not a cubic one).

7)

(a)The Mishnah in Keilim considers a a piece of stone that juts out three Tefachim from a Kirah, attached. What Shi'ur does it give for a stone that juts out from a Tanur?

(b)What is the difference between a Kirah and a Tanur?

(c)On what grounds does Rebbi Oshaya decline to insert the stone handle of a Tanur in his list?

7)

(a)The Mishnah in Keilim considers a piece of stone that juts out three Tefachim from a Kirah, attached (regarding rendering a food that is on it Tamei). The Shi'ur that it gives for a stone that juts out from a Tanur is - a Tefach (but not more).

(b)The difference between a Kirah and a Tanur is - that the former can hold two pots, whereas the latter can only hold one.

(c)Rebbi Oshaya declines to insert the stone handle of a Tanur in his list - because he only incorporates items whose Shi'ur is exactly a Tefach, not more and not less, whereas if a jutting stone is considered a handle and is therefore Bateil to the oven, how much more so one that is less than a Tefach.

26b----------------------------------------26b

8)

(a)In the Mishnah in Keilim, Rebbi Meir gives the same Shi'ur for an oven Lechatchilah and for the remains of a large broken one. What Shi'ur is that?

(b)The Chachamim however, disagree in the case of a small oven, whose Shi'ur they give as a 'Kol-Shehu'. How does Rebbi Yanai define 'Kol-Shehu'?

(c)What use does such a small oven have?

8)

(a)In the Mishnah in Keilim, Rebbi Meir gives the same Shi'ur - of four Tefachim for an oven Lechatchilah and for the remains of a large broken one.

(b)The Chachamim however, disagree in the case of a small oven, whose Shi'ur they give as a 'Kol-Shehu', which Rebbi Yanai defines as - a Tefach.

(c)Such a small oven can be used - for little girls to play with.

9)

(a)Why does Rebbi Oshaya Ze'ira then not include it in his list of things that require a Shi'ur Tefach?

(b)In fact, the same answer will also apply to the previous case 'Even ha'Yotzei min ha'Tanur', where Rebbi Yehudah argues with the Tana Kama. What does Rebbi Yehudah say? In which case will he concede to the Shi'ur Tefach by a Tanur?

(c)Both according to the Tana Kama and according to Rebbi Yehudah (in their respective rulings), on what grounds is more than a Tefach not considered attached?

(d)Why does Rebbi Oshaya Ze'ira then decline to include in his list of items of one Tefach ...

1. ... the Misgeres (the ornamental rim on the Aron that was a Tefach in height)?

2. ... the lid of the Aron (which we know by tradition, was a Tefach thick)?

3. ... the beam at the entrance of a Mavoy, which must be a Tefach thick)?

9)

(a)And the reason that Rebbi Oshaya Ze'ira does not include it in his list of things that require a Shi'ur Tefach is - because he does not include cases that are subject to Machlokes (such as here, where Rebbi Meir disagrees).

(b)In fact, the same answer will also apply to the previous case 'Even ha'Yotzei min ha'Tanur', where Rebbi Yehudah disagrees with the Tana Kama - confining the Din of a Tefach to the space between the oven and the wall.

(c)Both according to the Tana Kama and according to Rebbi Yehudah (in their respective rulings), more than a Tefach is not considered attached - because most people tend to cut it off.

(d)Rebbi Oshaya Ze'ira declines to include in his list of items of one Tefach ...

1. ... the Misgeres (the ornamental rim on the Aron that was a Tefach in height) - because he does not list cases that the Torah mentions specifically.

2. ... the lid of the Aron (which we know by tradition, was a Tefach thick) - because he is not concerned with Kodshim (an answer which applies to the previous case too).

3. ... the beam at the entrance of a Mavoy, which must be a Tefach thick) - because he is only concerned with d'Oraysos, not de'Rabbanans.

10)

(a)What distinction does Rav Yitzchak bar Shmuel bar Marsa, citing Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel, draw between a Shilya that emerges within three days of the V'lad and one that emerges after three days?

(b)What are the ramifications of this distinction? What will be the Din if the woman gives birth to the Shilya after three days?

(c)Rav Yitzchak bar Marsa had no answer to Rav Kahana's query from another statement of Rav. What did Rav say regarding the relationship between two V'lados, that stumped him (see Tosfos DH 'At Amrat')?

(d)What distinction did Rav Kahana suggest, that would resolve the discrepancy in Rav?

10)

(a)Rav Yitzchak bar Shmuel bar Marsa, citing Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel, draws a distinction between a Shilya that emerges within three days of the V'lad - in which case we attribute the Shilya to the V'lad, and one that emerges after three days - when we assume that there must have been another V'lad ...

(b)... in which case, assuming the first V'lad was a Zachar, we will suspect that the woman may have given birth to a Nekeivah (which melted after it was born). And even if the first V'lad was a Nekeivah, we will be Machmir in a case where she sights blood on the eighty-first day after the birth to the V'lad and then again eight days later, and consider it the first day of Nidus (rendering her Tamei for seven days) rather than the first Re'iyah of Zivus (which would have rendered her Tamei for only one day).

(c)Rav Yitzchak bar Marsa had no answer to Rav Kahana's query from another statement of Rav however, where he said - that the second twin does not delay at all, but comes out immediately after the first one.

(d)Rav Kahana therefore suggested that - the Din of three days is confined to where the V'lad is a Nefel, but where it was a live V'lad, we do not suspect a second V'lad later.

11)

(a)What did Rav Yitzchak bar Marsa comment when Rav Kahana said that?

(b)For how long afterwards does one attribute the Shilya to the live V'lad that preceded it?

(c)Shmuel was sitting with the Talmidim of Rav and Rav Yehudah, when they saw Rav Yosef b'rei de'Rav Menasheh from Davil coming towards them 'Ba'ali ve'Asi'. What does 'Ba'ali ve'Asi' mean?

(d)What did Shmuel have to say about him?

11)

(a)When Rav Kahana said that, Rav Yitzchak bar Marsa commented - that Rav had in fact, specifically made the same distinction (see Tosfos ha'Rosh).

(b)One attributes the Shilya to the live V'lad that preceded it - even by as much as ten days.

(c)Shmuel was sitting with the Talmidim of Rav and Rav Yehudah, when they saw Rav Yosef b'rei de'Rav Menasheh from Davil coming towards them 'Ba'ali ve'Asi', which means - hurrying towards them.

(d)Shmuel described him as - someone who asks few She'eilos, and who can easily be stymied.

12)

(a)What did Rav Yosef b'rei de'Rav Menasheh from Davil reply when Shmuel asked him what Rav had said about a Shilya?

(b)What did the Talmidim of Rav reply when Shmuel asked them about it?

(c)Why was he subsequently cross with Rav Yehudah?

12)

(a)When Shmuel asked Rav Yosef b'rei de'Rav Menasheh from Davil what Rav had said about a Shilya, he replied - that we only attribute a Shilya to a V'lad that would have lived had it been born in the ninth month (to preclude one that is born with one thigh or a Guf Atum, a Beheimah, Chayah or bird, by all of which we will assume that there was another V'lad, even if the Shilya emerged within three days of the first one.

(b)When Shmuel asked the Talmidim of Rav about it - they confirmed that this was what Rav had said.

(c)And he was subsequently cross with Rav Yehudah - for not telling him about this ruling of Rav?

13)

(a)What did Rebbi reply when Rebbi Yossi ben Shaul asked him about a woman who miscarries ...

1. ... a dove and a Shilya?

2. ... a dove with a Shilya attached to it?

(b)We query Rebbi however, from a Beraisa, which discusses a woman who miscarries a sort of animal, beast or bird together with a Shilya. What does the Tana say about a case where the Shilya ...

1. ... is attached to the V'lad?

2. ... is not attached?

13)

(a)When Rebbi Yossi ben Shaul asked Rebbi about a woman who miscarries ...

1. ... a dove and a Shilya, he replied - that we can only attribute a Shilya to a species that has a Shilya (such as Adam, Beheimah and Chayah), but not to a bird.

2. ... a dove with a Shilya attached to it, he replied - that this is not possible.

(b)We query Rebbi however from a Beraisa which discusses a woman who miscarries a sort of animal, beast or bird together with a Shilya. The Beraisa rules in a case where the Shilya ...

1. ... is attached to the V'lad - that we do not contend with another V'lad.

2. ... is not attached to the V'lad - then we do.

14)

(a)What does the Tana mean when he continues 'Hareini Matil aleihen Chomer Sh'nei V'lados'?

(b)Why is that? What do we suspect happened?

(c)The above interpretation of 'Chomer Sh'nei V'lados' is confined to Rebbi Meir, who considers a Beheimah, Chayah and Of a V'lad. How will we interpret 'Chomer Sh'nei V'lados' according to the Chachamim, who do not?

(d)What Kashya does this Beraisa pose on Rebbi (though it is difficult to understand how one can query a Tana from a Beraisa)?

14)

(a)When the Tana continues 'Hareini Matil aleihen Chomer Sh'nei V'lados', he means - that, assuming the first V'lad to have been a Zachar, we suspect that there was also a Nekeivah, and the woman must observe the Chumros of both (the days of Tum'ah of a Nekeivah, and the days of Taharah of a Zachar [see also Tosfos DH 'Chomer']) ...

(b)... because we suspect - that both the Sh'fir of the Shilya, and the Shilya of the Sh'fir (i.e. the V'lad), melted.

(c)The above interpretation of 'Chomer Sh'nei V'lados' is confined to Rebbi Meir, who considers a Beheimah, Chayah and Of, a V'lad. According to the Chachamim, who do not, 'Chomer Sh'nei V'lados' will mean - that she has to observe the fourteen days of Tum'ah of a Nekeivah, in case a Nekeivah was born together with the Shilya, but no days of Taharah, in case the Shilya belonged to the Beheimah ... .

(d)The Kashya this Beraisa now poses on Rebbi (though it is difficult to understand how one can query a Tana from a Beraisa) is - that he dismissed the possiblility of a Shilya being attached to a V'lad in the shape of a bird, yet the Beraisa specifically states (with regard to the Shilya of a Beheimah, Chayah ve'Of) 'bi'Zeman she'Keshurah Imahen, Ein Chosheshin li'Velad Acher'.

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